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Publication numberUS3334253 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 1, 1967
Filing dateApr 25, 1966
Priority dateApr 25, 1966
Publication numberUS 3334253 A, US 3334253A, US-A-3334253, US3334253 A, US3334253A
InventorsHill Francis A
Original AssigneeHill Francis A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Magnet traction motors
US 3334253 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 1, 1967 F. A. HILL 3,334,253

MAGNET TRACTION MOTORS Filed April 25, 1966 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN VEN TOR.

Aug. 1, 1967 F. A. H 3,334,253

MAGNET TRACTION MOTORS Filed April 25, 1966 '4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. F! G. I O.

Aug. 1, 1967 F. A. HILL I 3,334,253

' MAGNET TRACTION mo'roas Filed April 25, 1966 4 SheetsSheet 3 64 6 STATO'R INVENTOR.

F. A. HILL Aug. 1, I967 MAGNET TRACTION MOTORS 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed April 25, 1966 {NVENTOR Fkcwzccs A #222 United States A Patent 3,334,253 MAGNET TRACTION MOTORS Francis A. Hill, 420 Palm Circle E., Naples, Fla. 33940 Filed Apr. 25, 1966, Ser. No. 552,362 8 Claims. (Cl. 310-82) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An electric motor with an armature mounted concentrically on at least one internal gear which can roll around inside stationary external gear teeth so that the armature turns in one direction on its center (clockwise) while being pulled around inside a ring of stator magnets in the opposite direction (counterclockwise) by an electric current energizing said stator magnet coils through a rotary brush commutator, said inner gear driving a power output shaft in said one direction (clockwise). The armature may also have energized poles coacting with the stator magnet poles.

This application in a continuation-in-part of my application Ser. No. 386,162, now abandoned and relates to the use of Gerotor gears described and claimed in US. Patent No. Re. 31,216 and rotoid gears described and claimed in US. Patent No. 2,666,336 in combination with traction magnet motors, with added new matter.

Heretofore these gears have been used in hydraulic pumps and motors in which both the inner and outer gear rotate.

When used in traction magnet motors the outer gear teeth are held stationarywhile the inner gear rolls around inside of the outer gear teeth, which are evenly spaced in a circle inside a cylindrical motor shell. These gears have teeth engaging each other in such a way that when the inner gear rolls around inside stationary outer gear teeth the center of the inner gear follows the path of a true circle around the center of the said outer gear teeth (i.e. the center of the casing).

Consequently, when an armature is fastened to the inner gear its center will follow the path of a true circle and will turn at steady angular velocity for any given speed.

One object of my invention is to arrange the magnets so that like poles are adjacent to each other in order to avoid stray magnetic flux fields.

Another feature of my invention is to use relatively small outer gear teeth as compared to the spaces between them in order to provide wide magnetic pole faces for greater flow of magnetic flux.

Another feature of my invention is to use laminated horse shoe shaped magnets with thin sheets of soft iron so as to reduce hysteresis, remanentjmagnestism'and stray flux as much as possible.

Another feature of my invention is to show how the stator magnets can be larger in number than the outer gear teeth and the armature have more poles than the inner gear teeth.

FIG. 1 shows a pair of Gerotors having 4 and teeth with small outer gear teeth.

FIG. 2 shows a pair of Gerotors having large outer gear teeth.

FIG. 3 shows rotoids having 7 and 5 teeth.

FIG. 4 shows the epi system of geometry for the gears in FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 shows the epi system of geometry for the gears in FIG. 2.

FIG. 6 shows the epi system of geometry for the gears in FIG. 3.

FIG. 7 shows the hypo system of geometry for a gear having 3 and 4 teeth.

FIGS. 8 and '9 show gears having non-circular teeth. The tooth profile may be parts of an ellipse, catenary or other curve when used for generation of the teeth of the other gear.

FIG. 10 is a sectional view on line 1010 of FIG. 11 of my magnetic traction motor with a schematic electric circuit superimposed on it.

FIG. 11 is a sectional elevation on line 11--11 in FIG. 10 'showing the horse shoe shaped statormagnet, the wiring for one magnet, the commutator, the universal joint for driving the output power shaft, the floating armature of soft iron with a coil around its central portion for use when the polarity of a stator magnet is reversed and the rotating commutator brush.

FIG. 11A shows the mechanical motion of the fioating armature which drives the output 'power shaft. 7

FIG. 12 is a left-hand view of FIG. 13 showing 4 exciting coils, one each for the armatures 4 toothed gear teeth and one stator magnet with its Square D coil.

FIG. 13 is a partly schematic drawing of a vertical section of FIG. 12 showing the armature mounted between two inner gears on through bolts and one cooperating stator Square D coil.

FIG. 14 shows an end view of one soft iron core armature magnet and its coil.

FIG. 15 is an enlarged view of two adjustable commutator rings and two stator coils wired so that one pulls an armature tooth pole into its stator tooth space while the other stator pole repells the adjacent armature pole out of its concave pole face.

FIGS. 16 and 17 show vector diagrams of the electrical and mechanical forces about an outer gear tooth at full mesh.

The geometry in FIGS. 1 to 9 inclusive is described in the above mentioned patents and also in Kinematics of Gerotors, Rotoids and Gears by Myron P. Hill, the father of applicant.

FIG. 18 shows a cross section of a four sector commutator for FIGS. 12 and 13.

FIG. 19 shows a small toothed inner gear rolling around inside 5 large stationary outer gear teeth.

FIG. 20 shows 10 stator coils and 10 stator concave pole faces with an 8 toothed armature having 8 pole faces rolling around inside stator magnets and mounted on 4 toothed inner gear in FIG. 19.

FIG. 10 shows a cross section of my magnetic traction motor partly on line 10-10 in FIG. 11 and partly schematic. A casing 14 encloses 9 traction magnet 14A evenly spaced around inside it. Each magnet 14A has concave space curves 12 at each end. FIG. 11 shows the horse shoe shape at N and S. The space curves 12 at one end have an opposite polarity from the space curves 12 at the other end. Between each magnet 14A is a pin or outer stationary gear tooth 13. The armature poles have the same shape as the inner gear teeth. The stator concave pole faces just clear the armature poles at the position of full mesh so as never to touch the armature while it rolls around inside the stator magnets. The teeth 13 are rigidly mounted in end walls 15 and 16.

The soft iron armature 18 has gears 17 and 19 bolted to it. 17 and 19 engage the teeth 13 with which they have a generative relation, In FIGS. 11 and 11A seven inner gear teeth engage 9 outer gear teeth 13.

her 25. The members 17, 18 and 19 have no bearings. At least 6 outer gear teeth 13 are always in contact with some part of the inner gear tooth surfaces 17 and 19 in theory. Actually either 3 or 4 outer gear teeth are always in contact with some part of the inner gear tooth surfaces. At full mesh in FIG. 11A there is a rolling drive between the teeth 13A and 13B with the inner gear 17.

A high speed shaft 19B, centered at 22 with its cam centered at 21 will be driven 4 /2 times faster than that of the armature around its own center 21. A fan can be mounted on it to cool the magnetic traction motor.

The output shaft 26 drives the commutator shaft 29 through the gears 27 and 28. 26 and 29 rotate at the same speed. The stationary commutator sectors are connected each to its own Square D coil. Current from line terminal 33 flows through the wire 33A to brush 32, through shaft 29 which is insulated to magnet coils C C and C pulling the armature by induction to the left in- FIG. and then out through wire 35B to the other line terminal 35'.

Two enlarged commutators 36 and 37 in FIG. are like 31 in FIG. 10. Stator magnets 38 and 39 have two separate windings A-A' and BB'. When the double pole double-throw switch 40 connects L to wire 41 the current flows through the brush 42, sector 43 and through the coil from A to A and out through line 44 to terminal L At the same time brush 42 also contacts sector 45 connected to coil B-B' but its direction is reversed so that the current flows from B to B. This reverses the polarity of the magnet 38 from that of 39. Magnet 39 exerts a pull on the left armature tooth 39A while magnet 38 repulses the armature tooth 38A. Coil B-B' may have just enough coils to offset hysteresis or remanent magnetism. Or it may have enough turns to act as an electrical cushion to offset the eccentric throw of the armature. Or it may have enough coils to do all three. Commutator rings 36 and 37 are adjustable. When switch 40 is reversed shaft 26 will rotate in the reverse direction.

When coil 49 surrounds the central portion of the armature 18 one end 50 can be connected to an insulated slip ring 52, brush 53 and wire 54 to terminal 35. The other end 51 is connected to another insulated slip ring 55, brush 56, wire 57 and terminal 33.

When coil 49 is used it should be so wound as to make the armature poles the reverse polarity of the poles of the magnets 14A. This will increase the tractive force per pole area for a given number of ampere turns. The sector 45 connected to the reversed windings BB should be long enough in the circumferential sense to maintain the reverse polarity until the armature tooth 38A is withdrawn from the concave stator pole face.

Less than half the stator magnets are electrically energized at any one time while my traction magnet motor is running. The circumferentially adjacent poles of the stator magnets have the same polarity at each end of the magnets. This is true of the armature poles also. Consequently there are no stray paths for the loss of flux.

In FIG. 12 two 4 toothed inner gears 62 and 64 roll around inside the five teeth 63 carrying the armature members 65 and 66 and coils 67A, 67B, 67C and 67D with them. The soft iron cores 65 and 66 have suflicient clearance 74A between them and the concave pole faces of the magnets 74 so as to have no metallic contact. The steel bolts 68 conduct the magnetic flux to each soft iron armature poles 65 and 66. The stator magnets are mounted on brackets 72 and 73. One end 70 of each coil such as 67A connects with a rotating ring 52A (on shaft 26 in FIG. 11 in place of ring 52) in FIG. 18 at one of its four sectors such as A. Coil 67B is connected to sector B; Coil 67C to sector C; and Coil 67D to sector D. A common wire 71 to the other ends of these coils connects with the other rotating ring 55 (in FIG. 11) to complete the armatures circuit between the terminals 33 and 35.

This same electric circuit can be used with the 7 and 9 toothed gears in FIGS. 10 and 11. It is also possible to combine this type of individual armature pole coils with the reverse polarity of the stator magnets as illustrated in FIG. 15 when magnetic polar repulsion is desired.

FIG. 16 shows the directions of the moments of force about the outer gear tooth 13. With /a of an inch air gap and 3,000 ampere turns the pull on a tooth of a 2 inch diameter inner gear amounts to 200 lbs. inches. With a A of an inch air gap the pull becomes 6,930 lbs. inches in the direction of the arrow 75. The resultant vertical pull around tooth 13 in the direction of the arrow 76A is 6,930 multiplied by the cosine of the 30 angle between the arrows 75 and 76A which is 6,000 lbs. /z inch moment arm=3,000 inch pounds torque. When the stator tooth space clearance over the top of an armature tooth pole is reduced to .005 of an inch this torque becomes over 50,000 lbs. inches. These torques are for poles having one square inch of area. In order to prevent this high torque from wrecking a small motor mechanism the brush 30 in FIG. 10 is shown as having left the commutator sector connected to coil C It contacts sectors connected to coils C C and C FIG. 17 shows the force couples 84 and 85, and 86 and 87 when one stator magnet pulls an armature pole towards itself and the adjacent stator magnet repels an armature away from itself when the electric circuit is like that in FIG. 15.

In a cheaper form of magnet motor, the stator coils can be omitted when the commutator ring in FIG. 18 is used with separate armature coils like those in FIGS. 12 and 13. This cheaper construction can include the use of one long or thick or wide internal gear with one set of matching external gear teeth.

A permanent minimum air gap at full mesh between the armature poles and the stator pole faces prevents magnetic sticking.

In FIG. 19 the 4 toothed inner gear 90 (of the type shown in FIGS. 2 and 5) rolls around inside 5 large circular outer gear teeth mounted on bolts inside the casing 4. The action is the same as that in FIG. 12 except that the gear 90 has small teeth while the gear 62 has large teeth.

In FIG. 20 the gear 90 carries an armature 95 having 8 or twice as many poles as there are teeth in the inner gear 90. The 4 teeth in the gear 90 are generated by the large circular outer gear teeth 91. The 8 convex poles in the armature can have the same generated shape as the teeth in the gear 90 or they can be circular. For ease of manufacture I prefer to have them circular. As the 8 poles are carried around by the gear 90 they will generate 10 concave pole faces in the stator magnets 96. By moving the magnets 96 radially outward several thousandths of an inch magnetic sticking can be prevented as explained above.

Due to the fact that for any given speed the inner gear center 93 always moves at a steady angular velocity about the center 94 of the outer gear teeth any type of inner gears and outer gear circular teeth can be used with any other type such as in FIGS. 3, 6, 7 and 10 or with those in FIGS. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 20 and 21 provided the armature poles generate the concave stator pole faces and provided the same eccentricity or distance between the centers 93 and 94 are maintained throughout the mechanism.

What I claim is:

1. A magnet traction motor comprising a casing, a plurality of horse shoe stator magnets, each with concave poles evenly spaced apart and arranged in a circle inside said casing, a plurality of stationary outer gear teeth arranged in a circle on at least one end member in said casing, a power output shaft in said casing, at least one inner gear driving said power output shaft and having fewer teeth than the number of outer gear teeth so as to roll around inside said outer gear teeth smoothly and evenly at steady angular velocity for any given speed while carrying an armature fastened to it, said armature having fewer poles than the number of poles in said stator magnets, said stator magnet pole faces just clearing with a small air gap the pole faces of said armature, an electric energizing coil surrounding each stator magnet, an electric circuit for energizing said coil comprising a line stator magnet, an electric circuit for energizing said coil comprising a line terminal connected to a slip ring and rotating brush in a commutator, said brush contacting a ring of sectors in said commutator successively, each sector connected to one end of a stator magnet coil, all the other ends of the stator magnet coils being connected together and to another line terminal, an electric current flowing through said circuit to energize successive magnets only while at least one armature pole is being pulled towards at least one stator pole after which said rotating brush disconnects said current from said one stator coil, whereby said electric circuit causes said armature to revolve around its own center in a first direction while being carried around by said inner gear in a circular pathin the opposite direction causing said armature and said inner gear to drive a universal joint member and rotate said power shaft in said first direction.

2. A magnet traction motor according to claim 1 having two insulated slip rings on said power shaft, each ring connected to a stationary brush and to a line terminal, one of said rings having as many sectors as there are positive or negative armature poles, each sector connected to one end of an armature magnet coil so that the armature poles will have the reverse polarity from that of the stator poles, having the other ends of said armature magnet coils connected to the other slip ring, whereby an electric current flowing through each armature coil will increase the numbers of lines of force and increase the power output only while said armature poles are under the influence of the stator poles.

3. A magnet traction motor according to claim I having two insulated slip rings on said power output shaft, each ring connected to a stationary brush and to a line terminal, one of said rings having as many sectors as there are positive or negative poles in said armature, each sector connected to one end of an armature magnet coil so that the armature poles will have the reverse polarity from that of said stator poles, having the other ends of said armature magnet coils connected to the other slip ring, whereby an electric current flowing through each armature coil will increase the numbers of lines of force and increase the power output only while said armature poles are under the influence of said stator poles, having a second commutator ring with the same number of sectors as there are stator magnets, said rotating brush also contacting said latter sectors, each of said latter sectors connected to a second coil around said stator magnets so as to reverse the current and the polarity of said stator magnets only while said armature poles are receding from said stator poles, having all the other ends of said second coils connected to the other line terminal, whereby the electric current flowing through said second coils causes said stator magnets to repel said armature magnets.

4. A magnetic traction motor according to claim 1, in which all the stator magnets with positive poles are provided at one end of said casing and the negative poles at the other end of said casing to reduce stray flux leakage.

5. A magnet traction motor according to claim 1, having two insulated slip rings on said power output shaft, each ring connected to the ends of a coil completely surrounding the body of the armature so as to have all the poles at one end of the armature of opposite polarity from those at the other end, having the stator poles of opposite polarity to those at the ends of said armature and having said stator poles attract said armature poles only while said armature poles are approaching said stator poles.

6. A magnetic traction motor according to claim 1, in which the number of armature magnets and the number of stator magnets are multiples of the number of teeth in the inner gear and the number of teeth in the outer gear respectively.

7. A magnet traction motor according to claim I having a larger number of stator and armature magnets than there are teeth in the outer and inner gears respectively.

8. The combination claimed in claim 1, and having a second inner gear rigidly fastened to the other end of said armature and rolling around inside another set of stationary outer gear teeth mounted in the other end of said casing, so that the armature is'supported and carried by two inner gears while rolling around inside said stator magnets.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,250,947 7/ 1941 Carpenter 31067 2,561,890 7/1951 Stoddard 310 66 2,761,079 8/ 1956 Hedstrom 310-66 MILTON O. HIRSHFIELD, Primary Examiner. I. D. MILLER, Assistant Examiner.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,334,253 August 1, 1967 Francis A. Hill It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below Column 5, lines 7 and 8, strike out "comprising a line stator magnet, and electric circuit for energizing said coil Signed and sealed this 11th day of June 1968.

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD J. BRENNER Edward M. Fletcher, Jr.

Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer

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Classifications
U.S. Classification310/82, 310/66, 310/83
International ClassificationH02K41/00, H02K41/06
Cooperative ClassificationH02K41/06
European ClassificationH02K41/06