US 3334816 A
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1957 VVSHUZO MIZUNO 3,334,816
APPARATUS FOR FROJECTINC' AN IMAGE ON A JET OF WATER Filed Nov. 30, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fi. i
IN VE N TOR.
1967 SHUZO MIZUNO 3,334,816
APPARATUS FOR PROJECTING AN IMAGE ON A JET OF WATER Filed Nov. 30, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VE N TOR.
United States Patent 3,334,816 APPARATUS FOR PROIECTING AN IMAGE ON A JET OF WATER Shnzo Mizuno, Tokyo, Japan, assignor to Kurita Industrial Co., Ltd, Osaka-shi, Japan, a corporation of Japan Filed Nov. 30, 1%4, Ser. No. 414,782 Claims priority, application Japan, Dec. 5, 1963, 38/65,056; Dec. 12, 1963, 38/66,387 1 Claim. (Cl. 239-18) The present invention relates to a new and useful apparatus for projecting on a jet of water which is intended to project images on a water screen formed by jets of water. The previous types of apparatus for projecting on a jet of water mainly consisted of water-jetting nozzles arranged in rows or nozzles with a long slot and were designed to project images on a water screen formed by jets of water while introducing air into said jets of water.
With such an apparatus, however, it was necessary to use large volumes of jetted water in order to obtain a uniform water screen.
Even this process was accompanied with considerable difiiculties in producing a stable water screen. For instance, it had the undesirable disadvantage that the upper part of the water screen thus produced was deformed into a fan shape. Another device for projecting on a jet of water was also proposed which was designed to cast images on a water screen produced in a flat form. All these previous devices were arranged to reflect images on a water screen from the same side as that of the spectator. Consequently it was necessary for the production of a clear image to obtain a completely white turbid water screen. An attempt was made to attain this object by introducing air or smoke into the water.
In this case, however, it was extremely diflicult to project on the water screen thus made white turbid and also to observe reflected images from the same side of projecting. Also even when said white turbidity was produced either by introducing air into the water or by atomizing water into fine droplets in the air the resultant water screen was translucent, so that it was actually very diificult to obtaina substantially opaque water screen.
For this reason, the disadvantage of the previous apparatuses was that when images were reflected on the water screen most of the light penetrated through the screen, producing indistinct images as viewed from the side of the projecting light source.
The object of the present invention is to provide an apparatus for projecting on a water screen which is characterized by forming said water screen by vibrating the jetting nozzles in a linear direction for the purpose of eliminating the aforementioned defects and projecting distinct images on the water screen thus produced.
Consequently the projecting apparatus of the present invention requires only small amounts of water and eliminates the necessity of introducing air into the water in order to make the water screen white. This apparatus is also capable of producing a stable water screen and projecting images with good efiect. Moreover, in this case, even the sum of power requirements for compressing the water and vibrating the jetting nozzles is far less than was used in the previous devices for producing the water screen.
Furthermore, the modified type of apparatus of the present invention consists of jetting nozzles fitted upright to a rotor and is designed to project images on the water screen formed by jetting water while being rotated. Thus this modified apparatus produces a cylindrical water screen by the revolution of jetting nozzles and projects images on said water screen. Consequently it eliminates such necessity as occurring in the previous apparatuses of providing a series of nozzles in order to form a continuous water screen or of introducing air into the water so as to obtain a white water screen.
Also another modification of the apparatus of the present invention has jetting nozzles provided to produce a white turbid water screen in the air and a projector installed opposite to the spectator with the water screen to be formed lying between them.
Consequently in the projecting apparatus of the present invention, when the images reflected on said water screen are observed from the side opposite to the projecting light source considerably clear pictures are obtained. In this case only small amounts of water are required and there is no need to make the water screen white turbid, and yet very distinct images can be produced.
The apparatus of the present invention will be more clearly understood from an operating pattern illustrated in the attached diagrams. It should be noted, however, that the present invention is not limited to the description hereinafter given, and that it is operable in proper modification, insofar as they do not depart from the basic concept. In the diagrams the same parts bear the same notations.
The attached diagram represents only an illustration of the form in which the apparatus of the present invention is operated.
FIG. 1 is a lateral view of an apparatus for projecting on a jet of water, as claimed by the present invention. FIG. 2 is a front view of the jetted water screen produced by said apparatus. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating one modification of said apparatus. FIG. 4 is also a schematic diagram showing another modification thereof. In the diagram section 1 is a motor pump immersed in the water, section 2 a water pipe, section 3 water jetting nozzles, section 4 a flexible pipe, section 5 an eccentric cam, section 6 a water screen and section 7 a projector. In FIGS. 1 and 2 showing a form in which the apparatus of the present invention is operated the water-immersed motor pump 1 is positioned below the water level LL, and connected with a water pipe 2 having water jetting nozzles 3 through a flexible pipe 4. As illustrated in FIG. 2, the jetting nozzles are arranged in a row above the water pipe 2. One end of said water pipe is fitted with an eccentric cam rotating by an ade quate driving system (not shown). The aforementioned water pipe, namely, jetting nozzles vibrate in a linear direction by the rotation of said eccentric cam. Thus, when the water-immersed pump 1 is driven while rotating the eccentric cam 5, the jetting nozzles 3 spout water while vibrating in a linear direction, and produce a white water screen 6 above the water level. Next when an image is projected on said water screen 6 by the projector 7 a clear picture is obtained. Where, in the foregoing case, the jetting nozzles are placed in one or more rows and made to spout Water while vibrating in an almost linear direction, the water jetted from said nozzles forms a wide screen due to their vibration. The water spouted from each nozzle actually moves in a zigzag direction, as viewed instantly. However, when said water jet is seen under continuous rays of as bright light as broad daylight it is visualized as if it were a water screen 6. Moreover, since the water jetted from the nozzles is splashed upward by the vibration of said nozzles, the screen thus formed is a completely white and solid one, thereby enabling images to be projected elfectively.
Also for the purpose of the present invention, the jetting nozzles may all be vibrated in parallel directions at the same time, but may be moved separately. For avoidance of turbulences in the water screen 6 due to impingements therein, it is preferable to shake said nozzles in a practically linear direction, although some deviations might be allowed. However, where projection is simply used for the illuminating eflFect beautiful results are sometimes obtained by projecting on the water screen 6 somewhat diverted from the direction of the rows. The same effect can also be given by arranging the jetting nozzles in several rows to form said water screen in several layers.
Next, projection on the water screen 6 produced by the vibrating jetting nozzles 3 is carried out by an ordinary means water screen 6 formed by the vibrating nozzles has a slightly uneven surface, it is preferable in this case to use a lens with a large focal depth.
While projection may be made from the side of the spectator, it can also be performed from the opposite side with full clearness.
On the other hand, an intermittent light as emitted from the movie projector can also be cast by properly selecting the vibrating frequency of the jetting nozzles and the time of light exposure.
However, where some motive patterns have to be presented on the water screen, or where projection is carried out merely as a means of illumination, said intermittent light gives varied results.
In other words, when the period of the nozzle vibration is synchronized with that of light exposure only several streaks of water tracks are observed on the water screen and the object of projecting images cannot be attained.
Also the spouting of Water from the jetting nozzles may be varied in any directions, namely, upward, downward or lateral directions. To provide a more level surface on the water screen 6 for improvement of the effect of projection, compressed air may be passed over the surface of said screen to attain this purpose.
Of course, water may be jetted with air contained therein in order to whiten the water screen. The aforementioned jetting nozzles may be set up independently in rows, but it is advisable to fit them in rows to one or more water pipes. Also it is possible simply to bore holes in the water pipe itself to serve as nozzles.
The apparatus of the present invention will be more clearly understood with reference to the examples which follow. It should be noted, however, that the present invention is not limited to these examples.
Sixty 1.5 mm. dia. nozzles were fitted in a row on'the water pipe at intervals of 30 cm. Said pipe was vibrated at a frequency of 36 cycle/second with an amplitude of 3 mm., and a white water screen about 2 m. wide and about 2 m. high was obtained. When slides were projected on said screen using a magic lantern apparatus clear pictures were produced.
As compared with the case where a water screen was formed by jetting water through ducts bored in the water pipe which had the same width as the diameter of the nozzles used in this example, the water volume jetted in said example amounted to only one-thirtieth and the power requirement was considerably reduced.
Next in FIG. 3 illustrating one modification of the apparatus of the present invention, the water-immersed motor pump 1 lies below the water level LL. The water pipe 2 is rotatably connected with the discharge side of said motor pump, and also with a rotating ring 8. On this ring are set up jetting nozzles 3. Water is jetted by the driving of the water-immersed motor pump 1. 1n the case of FIG. 3 a pulley 9 is secured to the water pipe 2. Said pulley is operated through an outside driving mechanism and a belt 11. When water is spouted from the jetting nozzles 3 while the ring is rotated through the pulley 9 by the driving mechanism 10, a white cylindn'- cal water screen is obtained above the rotating ring 8. When images are cast on said water screen by the projector 7 distinct pictures are obtained.
The foregoing mechanism consists in setting up jetting nozzles 3 on a rotor such as said rotating ring 8 or a rotating disc, and jetting water while turning said rotor. In this case it is desirable to provide jetting nozzles at equal intervals on the same periphery. Said rotor is not limited to a flat type, but may be a solid one. Also such as a magic lantern apparatus. Since the one or more jetting nozzles connected with the water pipe 2 may be revolved. The space between the nozzles and the rotating velocity of the rotor are adjusted in such a manner that a uniform water screen 6 is formed by the nozzle revolution and that the jetted water is atomized to form a white screen. Only if a uniform water screen can be obtained by rotation and the direction of the nozzle arrangement and said rotation may be varied in any way, namely, upward, downward, vertical or horizontal directions respectively. However, to form a cylindrical water screen 6 rising up from the Water level LL, it is advisable to set up nozzles with a sufficient inward inclination to produce a horizontal component of force substantially corresponding to the radial component of the centrifugal force caused by rotation. To prevent the falling water from disturbing the water screen, it will be sufficient to provide a more inclination for the nozzles so as to let the water fall inside said cylinder. The water screen to attain the object of projection need not be a completely cylindrical form, but may be, for example, a columnal type with a parabolic cross section.
Thus when images are projected on the water screen 6 formed by spouting water while revolving the jetting nozzles 3 pictures are obtained on said screen. Some turbulence occurs on the surface of the water screen due to the revolution of the nozzles and moreover said surface is curved, so that it is preferable to use a lens with a large focal depth in projection. When compressed air is let to pass over the water screen its surface becomes substantially level with resultant increases in the clearness of images projected thereon. Projection is carried out by an ordinary means such as a magic lantern apparatus. However, when the entire surface of the cylindrical water screen is used in projection an adequate number of slide projections are required. When projection is made with an intermittent light as emitted from the movie projector the period of the nozzle revolution and light exposure should be properly selected so as to avoid the synchronization of both periods.
Also it is not always necessary to produce a single water screen 6 by the revolution of the jetting nozzles. When said screen is formed in plurality beautiful eifects are sometimes increased. While the introduction of air is not essentially required in jetting water from the nozzles it is, of course, not objectionable to apply air. The nozzles are revolved as fitted to the rotor. However, they may be substituted by jetting holes (not shown) directly bored in the rotor itself.
Another modification illustrated in FIG. 4 resembles that shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. This diagram represents the case where the spectator 12 faces the water screen from the opposite side of the slide projector 7. When images on the screen had to be observed from the side of said projector 7 using any of the previous apparatuses it was necessary to introduce air into the water or to make the water white turbid by shaking considerable quantities thereof at a high speed. However, with the apparatus of the present invention pictures observed from the opposite side of the projector are much clearer, so that it is not necessary either to make the water screen 6 white turbid or to use large amounts of water.
Example 1 Another example of the apparatus of the present invention will be described hereinafter. Thirty-six jetting nozzles were set up on a rotating ring with a diameter of cm. When said ring was rotated at a rate of 375 rotations per second a white cylindrical water screen was obtained. When slides were projected on said screen using a magic lantern apparatus clear-cut pictures were produced. While considerable quantities of water were required to obtain a uniform water screen by fitting a series of jetting nozzles on the periphery of a circle of the same size as the aforementioned rotating ring, the process of this example required. only about one-fortieth of the water in producing a uniform water screen.
Furthermore the total power requirements for both the compression of water and the rotation of the ring as used in this example were far less than when the previous devices were used.
Example 2 A modification of the apparatus of the present invention as illustrated in FIG. 4 consists of 1.6 mm. jetting nozzles set up in a row at intervals of 20* mm. on the Water pipe. When water was spouted from said jetting nozzles without introducing air into the water, a water screen about 3 meters high and about 2 meters was obtained. When slides were projected on the water screen thus formed by a magic lantern apparatus and observed from the opposite side to said projector clear images were recognized.
When seen from the side of said projector the images were not distinct. Next, where the jetting nozzles arranged in a row were vibrated with an amplitude of 20 mm. and a frequency of 20 cycles per second the water screen became uniform and the pictures were more distinct.
Having described the specification, -I claim:
An apparatus for forming a water jet screen on which an image is to be projected, comprising an elongated substantially horizontally extending straight linear water pipe conduit,
a row of nozzles spaced along said conduit in the direction of its length and directed in a vertically upward direction,
conduit reciprocating means for movingly vibrating said nozzles in the direction of said row, said reciproeating means com ing means theref prising an eccentric cam and a drivand motor driven pump means connected to said conduit and having a pressurized delivery capacity sufficient to spray the water a substantial distance above the conduit to form the said water jet screen.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS FOREIGN PATENTS France. Italy.
M. HENSON WOOD, JR., Primary Examiner. V. C. WILKS, Assistant Examiner.