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Publication numberUS3335319 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 8, 1967
Filing dateFeb 19, 1965
Priority dateFeb 19, 1965
Publication numberUS 3335319 A, US 3335319A, US-A-3335319, US3335319 A, US3335319A
InventorsWarner Louis A
Original AssigneeWarner Louis A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Control circuit
US 3335319 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 8, 1967 L. A. WARNER 3,335,319

' CONTROL CIRCUIT Filed Feb. 19, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l .2. m V /Z LAMP v HOUSING A '3 v a 4a za 3 3 11 4 I L SOURCE OF POWER 2 5 L. A. WARNER CONTROL CIRCUIT Aug. 8, 1967 Filed Feb. 19, 1965 2 Sheets- Sheet 2 J00 10/ J02 J03 1 4 United States Patent 3,335,319 CONTROL CIRCUIT Louis A. Warner, 5223 N. Natoma Ave., Chicago, Il]. 60656 Filed Feb. 19, 1965, Ser. No. 433,954 5 Claims. (Cl. 315-201) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A control circuit which is particularly applicable in a light dimming arrangement to provide a balanced, variable degree of illumination.

This invention relates to a control circuit and more particularly it relates to a light dimming arrangement for providing progressive degrees of illumination.

In the past, numerous light dimming arrangements have been devised for providing progressive degrees of illumination, however, they all have been generally unsatisfactory, for one reason or another. For example, arrangements having two or more lamps and a switch for simultaneously lighting one or more of the lamps to provide different degrees of illumination have been devised. Arrangements of this type are generally unsatisfactory, however, since the individual lamps are spaced from one another so that in switching only one or the other of the lamps on, an unbalanced lighting, or illumination, effect results. In other cases, 'a lamp having a number of filaments is used, but lamps of this type are relatively expensive and are therefore economically undesirable. Arrangements have also been devised using resistors to limit the current flow through a lamp or lamps, autotransformers to step-down the line voltage and complex circuits for providing an infinite degree of illumination. These latter arrangements have also been generally unsatisfactory for the reason that power is wasted, or they are relatively expensive and/or they are adapted to a particular application or environment.

The present invention is particularly applicable for providing different degrees of illumination, however, it will be apparent from the description which follows that it is equally applicable to control the degree of energization of electrical apparatus other than lamps.

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a control arrangement for controlling the degree of energization of electrical apparatus.

It is another object of this invention to provide a control arrangement for controlling the degree of energization of electrical apparatus wherein control is effected with no waste of power.

It is still another object of this invention to provide a control arrangement for providing different degrees of energization of electrical apparatus which may be easily expanded to provide an infinite number of different degrees of energization.

It is a further object to provide a control arrangement for providing different degrees of illumination, which is relatively inexpensive to manufacture and which is easily adaptable to various applications. In this respect, it is also contemplated that the illumination provided be balanced.

It is a further object to provide a control arrangement for controlling the degree of energization of electrical apparatus having incorporated therein provision for indicating when a short circuit occurs, rendering the appa ratus potentially dangerous.

Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.

The control arrangement according to the principal embodiment of invention comprises two pairs of output terminals, a two gang-four position switch and a pair of rectifiers. These elements are connected in a fashion such that:

(1) in a first switch position, both output terminals are deenergized;

(2) in a second switch position, the apparatus connected to each of the output terminals to connected in series with one another so as to operate at 25% full power;

(3) in a third switch position, the apparatus connected to each of the output terminals is connected in series with an associated rectifier and in parallel across the source of power so that the apparatus connected to each of the output terminals is supplied current on only one alternation of the source of power and therefore operate at 50% full power; and

(4) in a fourth switch position, the apparatus connected to each of the output terminals is connected directly across the source of power so that they operate at full power.

In the hereinafter described application of the invention, a lamp is connected to each of the output terminals, to provide different degrees of illumination, and it may be noted that the lighting effect provided is always balanced, regardless of the degree of illumination, since both lamps are lighted in all cases. It may be further noted that no power waste results, since no current limiting impedances or line voltage step-down devices are used. In other applications of the control arrangement, electrical apparatus having, for example, a pair of heating coils may have one of the heating coils connected to each of the output terminals so that different degrees of heat can be provided.

A safety feature in the form of a warning light is incorporated in the control arrangement and is energized should a short circuit result from the housing of the electrical apparatus to the source of power.

The control arrangement of the principal embodiment of the invention is easily modified to provide still additional degrees of energization by merely expanding the apparatus, or circuitry, secured to the two pairs of output terminals. For example, according to a second embodiment of the invention, a third lamp is secured in parallel with the lamp connected to one of the two output terminals and a switch is provided to connect this third lamp in and out of parallel circuit relationship to provide still another degree of illumination. In a third embodiment, each of the output terminals has two series connected lamps coupled to it, the latter of the two series connected lamps being coupled through a switch which may be operated to include, or disconnect, the lamp from the series circuit to provide still more degrees of illumination. In a fourth embodiment, four lamps are used and two of them are connected to each of the two pairs of output terminals. A switch is included in the coupling between the output terminals and the lamps which is adapted to switch the lamps from a series to a parallel circuit arrangement. With this latter arrangement, an almost infinite number of different degrees of illurnination can be provided. The arrangements disclosed in the latter embodiments can be advantageously used in pole lamps of the type having three or four lamps, as well as in conjunction with other electrical apparatus where, for example, different degrees of heat are desired.

The invention accordingly comprises the features of construction, combination of elements, and arrangement of parts which will be exemplified in the construction hereinafter set forth, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.

For a fuller understanding of the nature and objects of the invention, reference should be had to the following 3 detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a desk lamp or the like which has two lamps and which is illustrated to explain the present invention; I

FIGURE 2 is a wiring diagram of a control circuit exemplary of the present invention, as it is incorporated in the desk lamp of FIG. 1 to provide progressive degrees of illumination;

FIGURE 3 is a partial sectional View of a hot water heater which has two heating coils and which is illustrated to explain the adaptability of the present invention to other electrical apparatus than lamps;

FIGURE 4 is a side plan view of a pole lamp having three lamps;

FIGURE 5 is a wiring diagram of one manner in whlch the control circuit of the present invention can be connected to light the three lamps of the pole lamp of FIG. 4, to provide several degrees of illumination;

FIGURE 6 is a plan view of a pole lamp having four lamps;

FIGURES 7 and 8 are wiring diagrams illustrating how the control circuit of the present invention can be connected to light the four lamps of the pole lamp of FIG. 6, to provide different degrees of illumination; and

FIGURE 9* is a partial sectional view of a hot water heater which has four heating coils and which is illustrated to explain the adaptability of the present invention to other electrical apparatus, to provide different degrees of energization.

Referring now the drawing, in FIG. 1 there is shown a pair of lamps 10 and 12 which are supported on a base 14. The base 14 in addition to supporting the lamps 10 and 12 includes the hereinafter described circuitry and switch for controlling the degree of illumination of these lamps. A knob 16 mounted on the base 14 is connected to the aforesaid switch for operating it.

The lamps 10 and 12 may be adjusted by bending the flexible supports 11 and 13 to any practical spaced relation and, for the purpose of emphasizing one of the advantages of the present invention, are shown to be spaced a considerable distance apart. With the apparatus of the prior art, lamps 1t) and 12 are generally either both lighted simultaneously to illuminate the areas A and B or are individually lighted to light the areas A or B, respectively. It may be noted that when only one or the other of the lamps 10 and 12 is lighted, an unbalanced degree of illumination is provided since the area normally illuminated by the other one of the lamps is dark. With the apparatus of the present invention, different degrees of illumination are provided, however, lamps 10 and 12 are always both lighted, hence the illumination is always balanced. Furthermore, as explained in detail below, the lamps 10 and 12 are lighted to provide different degrees of illumination, without waste of power.

Referring now to FIG. 2 which shows the circuitry for lighting the lamps 10 and 12, a two gang-four position switch 18 having wipers 20a and 20b associated with contacts 21a-24a and 21b-24b, respectively, is connected between the lamps 10 and '12 and the source of power 26 which may be the 110-volt, 60 cycle source normally found in the home or oflice. One side of the source of power 26 is connected by means of a conductor 28 to terminal A of lamp 10 and the other side of the source of power is connected by means of a conductor 30 to terminal D of the lamp 12. Terminals B and C of the lamps 10 and 12, respectively, are connected by means of conductors 32 and 34 to the wipers 20a and 20b, respectively, of the switch 18. Contacts 21a and 21b of switch 18 are both open positions; contacts 22a and 22b are connected to one another by means of a conductor 36; contact 23a is connected to one terminal of a rectifier 38 which has its other terminal connected to conductor 30 by means of a conductor 31; contact 2312 is connected to one terminal of a rectifier 40 which has its other terminal connected to conductor 28 by means of a conductor 29; and contacts 24a and 24b are directly connected to 3'1 and 29 (and hence conductor 30 and 28), respectively, bypassing the rectifiers 38 and 40. The rectifiers 38 and 40 may be of any type capable of handling the current flow in the above circuits.

With the above described arrangement, when wipers 20a and 20b of switch 18 are engaged with contacts 21a and 21b, it is apparent that both lamps 10 and 12 are deenergized. When wipers 20a and 2012 are engaged with contacts 22a and 22b, current will flow from the source of power 26 through conductor 28, through lamp 10, through conductor 32 to wiper 20a and contact 22w, through conductor 36 to contact 22b and wiper 20b, through conductor 34 and lamp 12 and back to the other side of the source of power 26 through conductor 39. Lamps 10 and 12 are therefore both connected in series across the source of power and hence will operate at only 25% full power, to thereby provide one degree of illumination.

A second degree of illumination is provided when switch 18 is operated to engage wipers 20a and 20b with the contacts 23a and 23b, respectively. In this switch position, during one-half cycle of the source of power 26, current flows through conductors 30 and 31, rectifier 38, contact 23a and wiper 20a, conductor 32, lamp 10 and conductor 28 to the opposite side of the source of power. During the other one-half cycle of the source of power 26, the current flows through conductors 28 and 29, rectifier 40, contact 23b and wiper 20b, conductor 34, lamp 12 and conductor 30 to the other side of the source of power. It may be noted that the rectifiers 38 and 40 alternately block current flow to the lamps 10' and 12 during opposite alternations of each cycle of the source of power, hence the lamps 10 and 12 each operate at only 50% full power, thereby providing the second degree of illumination.

In operating the switch 18 to engage wipers 20a and 20b with contacts 24a and 24b, respectively, lamps 10 and 12 are each connected directly across the source of power. In this case, both lamps are operating at full power, hence a third degree of illumination is provided.

It may be noted that in each position of the switch 18, except the off position, both of the lamps 10 and 12 are lighted, even though the intensity or degree of illumination is different in each case. The illumination is therefore always balanced, that is, you never have a condition where only the area A or B is illuminated. It may be further noted that these different degrees of illumination are achieved without the use of power wasting impedances, step-down transformers or the like so that greater efliciency is provided.

One aspect of the invention which is not particularly apparent, but which is a very desirable feature, is the fact that a fixture of the type shown in FIG. 1 can be used as both a reading lamp and as a night light in a bedroom. Normally, as previously indicated, in switching on a lamp or fixture of this type, the lamp 10, for example, is illuminated with full intensity. If it is switched on in a room which is totally dark, the intensity of the illumination affects and has a painful effect on the eyes. With the arrangement of the present invention, using, for example, 40 watt light bulbs, both of the lamps 10 and 12 can be switched on simultaneously and the intensity of the illumination is such that the eyes can adjust almost instantaneously to the degree of illumination. This is primarily due to the fact that lamps 10 and 12 are connected in a series circuit with the source of power in the first switch position and they, therefore, are only at 25% full power. If the switch is operated to the fourth position, the lamps 10 and 12 are each connected directly across the source of power, giving 100% full power and sufficient illumination for lighting the room or for reading.

A low wattage warning lamp 46 can connected by means of conductor 48 means of conductor 49 to the housing of the electrical apparatus to provide a safety feature. With the lamp 46 so connected, a short circuit from the conductor 28 or 30 to the housing will cause current to flow through the lamp 46 when conductor 28 or 30 is positive with respect to the conductors 48 and 50 and the lamp 46 will light to give a visual warning that a short circuit which makes the lamp potentially dangerous has occurred. The lamp 46 can be incorporated into the knob 16, as shown in FIG. 1, so that the entire knob will light up when a short circuit develops. A separate warning lamp can, of course, be provided and incorporated into the unit in a manner which will not detract from its appearance.

In FIG. 3 there is shown a partial sectional view of a hot water heater or the like 50 having two heating coils 51 and 52, for the purpose of illustrating the utility of the control circuit 15 of the present invention to provide different degrees of energization of electrical apparatus other than lamps. In the past, three-phase wiring normally is provided and the heating coils were connected in delta and Y circuits to provide different degrees of heating. With the present invention, the terminals of a pair of heating coils can be connected to the A-B and C-D terminals of the control circuit of FIG. 2, respectively, and by operating the switch 18, they can be energized to different degrees to provide different degrees of heating. Other electrical apparatus can be connected in a similar fashion.

In FIG. 4 there is shown a pole lamp of the well known type having lamps 61-63 secured to a pole 64 which has expandable supports 65 and 66 on its ends for supporting the pole lamp 60 in an upright position, in the well known manner. The control circuit 15 of the present invention is easily adapted to the pole lamp 60 to provide an unusual lighting, or illuminating, effect. Normally, lamps be advantageously to ground and by 61-63 are either independently energized or are progressively energized so that one or more are energized simultaneously to provide the different degrees of illumination. In FIG. 5 there is shown one manner in which the 3 lamps 61-63 of the pole lamp of FIG. 4 may be energized, using the control circuit 15 of the present invention. The lamp 61 is connected directly to the terminals A-B of the control circuit 15 and the lamps 62 and 63 are each connected in parallel with its terminal C-D. With this arrangement, when the switch 18 is operated in the above described manner, the lamps 61-63 are energized simultaneously and different degrees of illumination are provided. A still greater number of degrees of illumination can be easily provided 'by including a switch 70 in the circuit connection 72 so that the lamp 62 can be disconnected from the circuit so that only lamps 61 and 63 are energized. The warning light 46 can also be incor porated in a switch control knob 74 secured to the pole lamp 60 as in the case of the knob 16 of FIG. 1, to give a visual indication that a short circuit has occurred.

In FIG. 6 there is shown a pole lamp 76 which may be of the same type as the pole lamp 60 of FIG. 4, with the exception that the pole lamp 76 has 4 lamps 77-80 secured to a pole 81. In FIGS. 7 and 8 there are illustrated two ways in which the lamps 77-80 can be connected to the control circuit 15 of the present invention to provide different degrees of illumination. In FIG. 7, the lamps 77 and 78 are connected in series across the terminals A-B of the control circuit 15 and the lamps 79 and 80 are connected in series across its terminals C-D. With this arrangement, the operation is the same as in the case of the lamps 10 and 12 of FIG. 1, except for the fact that when switch 18 is operated terminals A-B and C-D of the control circuit are energized to light all of the lamps 77-80 simultaneously, and the three degrees of illumination previously described are likewise provided. Additional degrees of illumination and an entirely different lighting effect can be provided by incorporating a switch 84 having wipers 85 and 86 which are operated simultaneously to short out two of the lamps 78 and 80 so that only lamps 77 and 79 are energized. It is also apparent that the individual lamps 77-80 could each have a switch for individually disconnecting them from circuit relationship so that four more different degrees of illumination, or a total of 8 different degrees of illumination could be provided with the circuitry of FIG. 7.

As in each of the previously described examples, a warning lamp 46 can be incorporated into a switch control knob 88 secured to the pole 81 to give a visual indication that a short circuit has occurred. The switch 84 can be advantageously provided in the form of a toggle switch, as shown in FIG. 6, so that the two switches 18 and 84 would not be confused.

In FIG. 8 there is shown still another arrangement for energizing the lamps 77-80. With the arrangement of FIG. 8, a four gang-two position switch 90 is provided having wipers 91-94. The wipers 91 and 92 are connected to the lamps 77 and 78 in a fashion such that when operated, they function to connect the lamps 77 and 78 in either a series or a parallel circuit relationship with the terminals A-B of the control circuit 15. The wipers 93 and 94 are likewise connected in circuit relationship with the lamps 79 and 80 in a fashion such that when operated they function to connect the lamps 79 and 80 in either a series or a parallel circuit relationship with the terminals C-D of the control circuit 15. With the switch 90 operated to connect the lamps 77 and 78 and the lamps 79 and 80 in series, a circuit substantially the same as the circuit of FIG. 7 results so that in the first switch position of switch 18 lamps 77-80 are all connected in a series circuit and are all energized simultaneously. With the switch 90 in the same position, the switch 18 can be operated to connect the output terminals A-B and C-D in the circuit relations described above to energize the series combination of lamps 77 and 78 and lamps 79 and 80 to provide three different degrees of illumination, as described above. By operating the switch 90 to connect the lamps 77 and 78 in parallel and the lamps 79 and 80 in parallel, three more different degrees of illumination are provided when the switch 18 is operated. The arrangement of FIG. 8 therefore provides at least six different degrees of illumination. Still additional degrees of illumination can be provided merely by providing a switch to control the circuit connections of the two lamps connected to each of the output terminals A-B and C-D, respectively so that, for example, lamps 77 and 78 can be connected in series circuit relationship and lamps 79 and 80 can be connected in a parallel circuit relationship, or vice-versa. In addition, each of the lamps 77-80 could be individually controlled by a switch. From the above description, it is apparent that the control circuit 15 of the present invention can be easily expanded and modified to provide an infinite number of different degrees of illumination, or energization, in a manner which is relatively simple and inexpensive. The control circuitry and the various modifications or expansions thereof makes it particularly adaptable for controlling the degree of energization of the lamps of a pole lamp.

In FIG. 9, there is shown a section of a hot water heater or the like having 4 heating coils 101-104. The output terminals -108 of the heating coils 101- 104 can be connected in the above described circuits shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, in place of the lamps 77-80, and energized in the manner described in connection with the lamps 77-80 to provide a number of different degrees of energization so that different degrees of heat can be provided. For example, when the heating coils 101-104 are connected to the circuit shown in FIG. 8 in place of the lamps 77-80, by operating the switches 18-90 in the appropriate manner at least six different degrees of heating can be provided. It is apparent that other electrical apparatus can be connected to the control circuit of the present invention in the manner shown in any one of the FIGS. 2, 5, 7 and 8 and energized in the manner described, to provide different degrees of energization of the apparatus.

It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preecding description, are efiiciently attained and, since certain changes may be made in the above construction without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention, which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.

Now that the invention has been described, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:

1. A control circuit for providing a balanced, variable output to electrical apparatus connected respectively as a load to a first and second pair of output terminals comprising: a pair of rectifier means; a source of alternating power; switch means coupled between said source of power and said first and second pair of output terminals, said switch means being operative in a first position to connect said first and second pair of output terminals and said source of power in a series circuit, operative in a second position to connect said first and second pair of output terminals, respectively, in a parallel circuit with said source of power and operative in a third position to connect respective ones of said pair of rectifier means in a series circuit with said first and second pair of output terminals and said first and second pair of output terminals and its associated rectifier means in parallel With said source of power.

2. A control circuit, as claimed in claim 1, wherein said pair of rectifier means are connected so as to be conductive on opposite one-half cycles of said source of alternating power.

3. A control circuit, as claimed in claim 1, further including a grounding conductor coupled between the housing of said electrical apparatus and said source of power; and visual indicating means included in said coupling which is energized when a short circuit has developed to give a visual indication that such a condition has occurred.

4. A light dimming arrangement for controlling the degree of energization of lamp means coupled respectively to a first and second pair of output terminals to provide a balanced, variable degree of illumination comprising, in combination: a pair of rectifier means; a source of alternating power; switch means coupled between said source of power and said first and second pair of output terminals, said switch means being operative in a first position to connect said first and second pair of output terminals and said source of power in a series circuit, operative in a second position to connect said first and second pair of output terminals, respectively, in a parallel circuit with said source of power and operative in a third position to connect respective ones of said rectifier means in a series circuit with said first and second pair of output terminals and said first and second pair of output terminals and its associate rectifier means in parallel with said source of power.

5. A light dimming arrangement as claimed in claim 4, wherein said rectifier means are connected in said series circuits with said lamp means to limit current flow through each one of said lamp means to opposite one-half cycles of said source of power.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 769,638 9/1904 Sargent 307-37 1,300,546 4/1919 Armstrong 340255 3,180,999 4/1965 Kuykendall 315201 JOHN W. HUCKERT, Primary Examiner.

D. O. KRAFT, R. SANDLER, Assistant Examiners.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US769638 *Nov 28, 1900Sep 6, 1904Gen ElectricRegulation of electric circuits.
US1300546 *Dec 27, 1915Apr 15, 1919George E ArmstrongGround-detector.
US3180999 *Mar 24, 1961Apr 27, 1965Tung Sol Electric IncCircuit for controlling alternating currents
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3610886 *Jul 15, 1970Oct 5, 1971Gen Motors CorpPower divider circuit for two-unit hotplate
US3708650 *Jan 18, 1971Jan 2, 1973Tronicair Int LtdElectrical heating apparatus
US4032180 *Aug 16, 1974Jun 28, 1977Texas Instruments IncorporatedLocking device for washing machine door
US4511786 *Apr 9, 1982Apr 16, 1985P.J. Industrial Safety Elec. Co. Ltd.Forced air distributor for baseboard heater
US4803379 *Aug 28, 1986Feb 7, 1989Dieter Grasslin FeinwerktechnikCircuit arrangement for power supply for electrical and electronic control or regulating devices
US4820934 *Dec 18, 1987Apr 11, 1989Whirlpool CorporationDispenser control for dishwashers
US4985638 *Mar 31, 1988Jan 15, 1991Brock James RValve control circuit for irrigation system
WO2003017734A1 *Aug 8, 2002Feb 27, 2003Iosif Aleksandrovich RzhevskyWiring scheme for incandescent lamps of a lighting device
Classifications
U.S. Classification315/201, 219/501, 307/37, 315/205, 219/240, 219/241, 307/41, 392/413
International ClassificationH05B39/06, H05B39/00
Cooperative ClassificationH05B39/06
European ClassificationH05B39/06