US 3336640 A
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W. V. CHERY SLIDE FASTENER Aug.l 22, 1967 y y l M .v m H e @WV w S w m A A m m C 2 MW Y B 4 .T11 4 3 QP l mm mi Il d/ .U w w 4 l w w, 2 m .1 .1. Am. m 4 l n Aug.v 22, 1967 w. v. CHL-:RY 3,336,640
SLIDE FASTENER Filed April 19, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. ML75/e l/, @H5/wf Wcw United States Patent O 3,336,640 SLIDE FASTENER Walter V. Chery, Meadville, Pa., assignor to Talon, Inc., l
a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed Apr. 19, 1965, Ser. No. 449,105 12 Claims. (Cl. 24-205.13)
ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE The present invention relates to slide fasteners, and more particularly to a Stringer and the method of making the same for a slide fastener.
It is generally known in the art that a Stringer for a slide fastener can be formed from a continuous filament which is`initially bent to provide a plurality of Substantially parallel U-Shaped scoop elements located in alignment with each other and with each scoop element lying in a plane substantially transverse to the plane of the tape to which the Stringer is to be fastened. The corresponding legs on the saine side of each U-shaped scoop element lie substantially in a comon plane. The U-shaped scoop elements -of the Stringer are interconnected in a uniform repetitions pattern by longitudinal heel portions which extend betwen adjacent scoop elements, and which heel portions extend in a direction substantially parallel to the `plaire of the tape to which the Stringer is to be attached.
A Stringer constructed to provide a plurality of conventional elements, as well as the method of manufacturing the Same, requires a lamentary material having a relatively thin cross section. The use of thin iilamentary m-aterial for a pair of Slide fastener stringers results in a Slide fastener of poor quality, because the elements formed from the filamentary material are flexible and can easily be mismeshed when the Stringers of the slide fastener are in their interengaged condition.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a substantially rigid Stringer for a slide fastener which is formed from a thin, flexible lilamentary material.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel method of forming a substantially -rigid Stringer for a slide fastener from a relatively thin filamentary matel rial.
- A further object of the present invention is to provide 'a novel method of forming a substantially rigid Stringer for -a slide fastener which uses the least amount of filamentary material.
`Still another object of this invention is to provide a slide fastener Stringer which tends to resist bending and torsional forces applied thereto for thepurpose of maintaining the interlocking Scoop members substantially in uniform spaced relationship relative to each other.
Other objects and a fuller understanding of the invention can be had by referring to the following description and claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a partially sectioned side view of a machine y for forming one type of lilamentary slide fastener string- FIG. 2 is a fragmentary view of the periphery of the forming wheel of the machine shown in FIG. 1, illustratling the positioning andforming of the filament thereon;
FIG. 3 is Ia cross section taken along the line 3-3 of FIG. 1 illustrating the means for deforming a portion of the filament on the periphery of the forming wheel;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary View of the filament on the forming wheel after -it has been deformed;
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view of the lamentary material deformed by the forming disc;
FIG. 6 4is a partial cross sectional side view of the filament `on the forming Wheel yafter it has been deformed by the forming disc;
FIG. 7 is another modification of the `deformation of the filament on the periphery of the forming wheel;
FIG. 8 is a side view of the deformed lilamentary material shown in FIG. 7 after it is removed from the forming wheel;
FIG. 9 is a partial cross sectional View `of the deformed ilamentary material taken along the line 9 9 of FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a side View of 4another modification of the deformed lamentary material;
FIG. 1l is a partial cross sectional view of the deformed iilamentary material taken along the line 11-11 of FIG. 10;-
FIG. 12 illustrates two cross sectional conligurations of lamentary material having the same area;
FIG. 13 iS a perspective View of a fragment of slide fastener Stringer of the present invention; and,
FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a fragment of a second embodiment of a slide fastener Stringer of the present invention.
`Referring more particularly to the drawings, it will be seen that filamentfary material can be initially formed for one type of Stringer on a machine which includes a rotating forming wheel 20 driven in the direction R and Whose periphery is provided with two rows of radially projecting teeth, 22 :and 24, preferably formed integrally with forming wheel 20. The rows of teeth 22 and 24 on fonning Wheel 20 are spaced from each other in an axial direction, with an annular groove 26 on the periphery of wheel 20 located between the two rows of teeth, 22 and 24. The teeth in each row are spaced equally from each other -about the circumference with the teeth of one row oliset in relation to the teeth in the other row in the circumferential direction.
A plastic filamentary material 30, having wire-like qualities, is guided to the periphery of the rotating forming wheel 20 and wound into 'a zig-zag configuration thereon 'by a reciprocating slider 32, such that adjacent loops of lamentary material 30 are wound around the offset teeth, 22 and 24, of the two rows on the forming wheel. This construction, best shown in FIG. 2, is cornmonly referred to as a ladder-type of Stringer.
As Shown in FIGS. l and 3, after filamentary material 30 is Wound on the periphery of forming wheel 20, the rotation of wheel 20 in the direction R moves filamentary material 20 past a pair of axially spaced pressure rollers 34 and 36. The peripheral surfaces of rollers 34 and 36 frictionally engage the top surfaces of looped heel portions 38 wound around teeth 22 and 24 to cause rotation of the rollers in the direction S, as shown in FIG. 1. Since the thickness of filamentary material 30 is greater than the projecting height of teeth 22 and 24, rollers 34 and 36 will exert pressure upon lilamentary material 30 at the looped heel portions 38 as well as area 39 of the adjacent transverse portion 42, and to compress and flatten the material in this area into the widened configuration substantially as Shown in FIG. 4. Because the cross Sectional configuration of filamentary material 30 is changed, without a change in the cross sectional area, the filamentary material, in effect, is changed from a circular cross sectional configuration to a rectangular cross sectional configuration, as is better shown in FIG. l2. It is the general intent of the present invention, in its broadest concept, that only the material of the looped heel portions 38 is to be flattened by rollers 34 and 36. In the actual manufacture of the Stringer, however, a small area 39 may be intentionally flattened without any appreciable change in the function.
The next step in the manufacture of the slide fastener Stringer is to move the ladder type filamentary material 30 on wheel 20 past a forming disc 40 which is turnably mounted for rotation in the direction T about an axis parallel to the axis of rotation of forming wheel 20. The forming disc 40 engages the transverse portions 42 of the ladder-shape filamentary material 30 and presses these transverse portions into the annular groove 26 formed between the rows of teeth 22 and 24 on forming wheel 20. Thus, each of the transverse portions 42 are formed into a substantially U-shaped configuration in which the respective legs 44 and 46 of the U-shaped scoop portions 47 become respectively located in the radially directed indentations 48 and 49 formed in the side walls of groove 26, with enlarged head elements S located at the bottom thereof.
Once transverse portions 42 are bent to form the U- shaped scoops 47, the ladder-like filamentary material 30 moves off the periphery of forming wheel 20 and is seated within groove 26 thereof in a manner substantially as is shown in FIG. 6 until setting by heat is completed. The filamentary material can then be removed from the forming wheel 20 and it will have a continuous Stringer configuration substantially similar to that shown in FIG. 13; wherein the U-shaped scoop portions 47 have enlarged head elements 50 at their central portions and the heel portions 38 are flattened into a rectangular cross sectional configuration with the width thereof being substantially less than the height and with the height dimension lying in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of the legs of the U-shaped portions 47.
As shown in FIGS. 7 through 9, the transverse portions 42 can be formed on forming wheel 20 whose peripheral surface has been changed to provide annular recesses 58 spaced outwardly from annular groove 26. Thus, when the heel portions 38 and transverse portions 42 are passed under a single roller 60 having a flat peripheral surface, the outermost ends of heel portions 38 include enlarged portions 62. When filamentary material 30 is passed under forming disc 40 to form the U- Shaped scoop members, the legs thereof will extend upwardly, and when the Stringer is removed from the forming wheel and inverted, the Stringer will appear as shown in FIGS. 8 and 9. In this embodiment the heel portions of the finished slide fastener Stringer are substantially rectangular in cross section with the outer surfaces thereof recessed as at 64 from the normal outer surface of the head elements 50 to form the enlarged portions 62 at the lowermost portions thereof. When the Stringer is sewn to a tape, not shown, the sewing threads will be received within the recessed area 64; and, thus, will be protected from being rubbed upon by the wings of a slider (not shown), when the slider is moved along the tape. In addition, the outer flanges of the slider will ride on enlarged portions 62 of the Stringer, and will be supported thereby such that the flanges of the slider will not Scuff and wear the tape.
Still another embodiment is shown in FIGS. l() and 1l wherein the heel portions 38 are formed to have a substantially rectangular configuration with the innermost surface 70 of each heel portion lying in a plane which is substantially the same plane as the innermost surface of the U-shaped scoop portions 47. Thus, when this type of Stringer is sewn to a tape, the inner Surfaces of the opposed legs will lie flush with the opposed surfaces of the tape to firmly anchor the Stringer thereto.
In each of the embodiments described hereinabove, particular reference was made to a ladder type of Stringer as is illustrated in FIG. 13. Each embodiment is constructed of a substantially round filament with the heel portions thereof deformed and flattened into a substantially rectangular configuration, as shown in FIG. 12. By modifying the heel portions interconnecting adjacent scoops such that the normally round filament is flattened to assume a rectangular shape with the cross sectional area in each instance being the same, and the height of each heel portion substantially parallel to the legs of U-shaped portions 47, the heel portions have a greater resistance to bending loads which tend to change the distance between head elements of adjacent scoops. If the distance between head elements of adjacent scoops is not maintained substantially constant at all times, the two meshing stringers of the finished slide fastener will have (l) a tendency to mismesh when the Slider is moved to the closed position; and (2) once in the closed position, the scoops can be slightly separated to disengage the intermeshed scoops.
Be-cause the resistance to bending loads exerted on the Stringer is directly related to the moment of inertia of the cross sectional area of the filament at any given point, and because the cross sectional areas are equal, the following mathematic relationship is quickly evident:
I 1ectangle ibi I circle 3D2 where b is the height of the rectangular cross section and D is the diameter of the round filament or, expressed as a function of their thicknesses I rectangle II2D2 5 y I circle 12(12 E d2 aPPTOX- where d is the thickness of the rectangular cross section.
Thus, it will be seen that deforming the circular filament at the heel portions in a manner such that the height of the resulting rectangular cross Section is greater than the diameter of the circular filament, or where the thickness of the rectangular cross section is somewhat less than the diameter of the round filament provides a Stringer whose resistance to bending is greatly increased and in which the distance between U-shaped scoop portions is maintained substantially constant at all times resulting in a rigid and infiexible Stringer.
Similarly, it can be shown that when the round filament is changed to a rectangular filament having the same cross sectional area, the resistance to torsion is greatly increased to further provide a substantially more stable Stringer.
While the above description has been made with particular reference to a ladder type of Stringer, it will be seen with reference to FIG. 14 that this invention is also applicable to other filament fasteners such as the coil or coil-ladder type wherein that heel portion 75 of the filament interconnecting adjacent U-shaped scoop elements 47 can be deformed to provide a substantially rigid and infiexible Slide fastener Stringer.
The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention as described hereinabove and as defined in the appended claims.
1. In a Stringer for a slide fastener comprising an elongated continuous filament having a given cross sectional configuration uniformly deformed at regularly spaced intervals to provide a plurality of U- shaped scoop portions located substantially in alignment with each other and with each U-Shaped scoop portion including a head portion lying in a common plane and legs having substantially said given cross sectional configuration disposed on each side thereof; and
a series of heel portions formed integrally of said continuous filament, each heel portion interconnecting the legs of two adjacent scoop portions in a uniform and repetitions pattern with the filament forming each heel portion deformed to have a substantially rectangular cross sectional configuration at any given point therealong, with the height dimension of each heel portion being greater than the width and eX- tending substantially transverse to said common plane of said head portions said width of said heel portions being less than the smallest dimension of said given cross sectional configuration.
whereby said heel portions tend to maintain the legs of adjacent scoops of said Stringer in substantially rigid spaced relation relative to each other.
2. In a Stringer for a slide fastener according to claim 1, wherein the lower portion of each of said legs adjacent their respective heel portions has a substantially rectangular cross-sectional configuration whose width is substantially equal to the width of said heel portion interconnecting legs of adjacent scoop portions.
3. In a Stringer for a slide fastener comprising:
an elongated continuousfilament substantially circular in cross section having a substantially zig-zag configuration to provide a plurality of U-shaped scoop portions with the respective legs having a circular cross sectional configuration disposed on each side of said U-shaped portions located in a common plane;
a series of heel portions formed integrally of said continuous filament for interconnecting the legs of two adjacent U-shaped portions, with said respective heel portions lying in said common plane of the two interconnected legs, each of said heel portions deformed to have a substantially rectangular cross sectional conguration, with the height, which is greater than the width, lying in the common plane of the interconnected legs,
whereby said heel portions tend to maintain the legs of adjacent scoops of said Stringer in substantially rigid spaced relation relative to each other.
4. A stringer for a slide fastener according to claim 3, wherein the lower portions of each of said legs and each of said heel portions interconnecting said legs has a substantially rectangular cross sectional configuration and said upper portions of said legs have a cross sectional configuration substantially the same as said filament.
5. A Stringer for a slide fastener according to claim 4, wherein the width of said rectangular cross sectional configuration of said lower portions of said legs and said heel portions is less than the width of said upper pori tions of said legs.
6. A Stringer yfor a slide fastener according to claim 5 wherein the outer surface of the lowermost portion of each of said legs and each of said heel portions interconnecting two adjacent legs lies in the same plane that contains the outer surface of the upper portion of each of said legs.
7. A Stringer -for a slide fastener according to claim 5, wherein the inner surfaces of the lowermost portion of each of said legs and each of said heel portions interconnecting two adjacent legs lies in the same plane that contains the inner surface of the upper portion of each of said legs.
8. A Stringer for a slide fastener according to claim 7, wherein the lowermost portion of each of said heel portions interconnecting two adjacent legs of said scoop portions are enlarged to a width which is greater than said width of the cross sectional rectangular configuration of said heel portions.
9. A Stringer for a slide fastener according to claim 8, wherein said width of said lowermost portion of each of said heel portions is substantially equal to the width of said filament prior to being deformed whereby the surfaces of said lowermost portions of said legs form a recessed anchorage member for securing said stringer to said tape.
10. In a Stringer for a sli-de fastener comprising an elongated continuous filament substantially circular in cross section uniformly deformed at spaced intervals into a substantially helical coil configuration to provide a plurality of U-shaped scoop portions located substantially in alignment with each other, each U-shaped scoop portion including a pair of legs having a substantially circular cross section and a head portion located intermediate thereof,
a series of heel portions formed integrally of said continuous filament in a repetitions pattern for interconnecting the legs of two adjacent U-shaped portions, said heel portions extending between the leg 0n one side of one U-shaped portion and the leg on the opposite side of the next adjacent U-shaped portion,
each of said heel portions having a substantially rectangular cross sectional configuration, with the width, which is less than the height, lying in a plane substantially parallel to said head portion,
whereby said heel portions tend to maintain the legs of adjacent scoop portions in Substantially space-d relation relative to each other.
11. A Stringer for a slide fastener according to claim 10, wherein the lower portions of each of said legs and each of said heel portions interconnecting said legs has a substantially rectangular cross sectional configuration and said upper portions of said legs have a cross sectional configuration substantially the same as said filament.
12. A Stringer for a Slide fastener according to claim 11, wherein the width of Said rectangular cross sectional configuration of said lower portions of said legs and said heel portions is less than the width of said upper portions of said legs.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,296,880 9/ 1942 Smith. 3,015,868 1/1962 Ruhrmann. 3,063,120 11/ 196.2 Steingrubner. 3,149,3 87 9/ 1964 Ruhrmann. 3,189,964 6/ 1965 Galonska 24 205.16 X
BERNARD A. GELAK, Primary Examiner.