US 3336990 A
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Aug. 22', 1967 w D. WARNER ETAL 3,336,990
ROTATING AND CIRCULATING WHIPSTOCK APPARATUS Filed June 10, 1965 2 SheetsSheer 1 WILLIAM D. WARNER NATHANIEL E CAMPBELL INVENTOR.
1967 w. D. VWARNER ETAL 3,336,990
ROTATING AND CIRCULATING WHIPSTOCK APPARATUS Filed June 10, 1965 2 Sheets-Shem E:
WiLLIAM D. WARNER NATHANIEL E. CAM FS BELL INVENT PEG. 5
United States Patent Office 3,336,990 ROTATING AND CIRCULATING WHIPSTOCK APPARATUS William D. Warner and Nathaniel E. Campbell, Oklahoma City, Okla, assignors to Acme Tool, Inc., Oklahoma City, Okla, a corporation of Kansas Filed June 10, 1965, Ser. No. 462,956 6 Claims. (Cl. 175-82) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A tubular sub comprising cooperative splined telescoping members having a central and an auxiliary drilling fluid passageway is interposed between the depending end of a drill string and the drill bit and positioned within the confines of a whipstock having a longitudinally extending drilling fluid passageway in its depending end portion. A frangible plug, interrupting the central fluid passageway, initially directs the drilling fluid through the auxiliary passageway. The frangible plug is ruptured and the auxiliary passageway closed when the sub members are in telescoped position.
The present invention relates to oil well drilling and more particularly to a rotating and circulating whipstock.
The whipstock is, in principle, a long inverted substantially wedge-shaped section of steel which is concave on one side to guide a whipstock bottom drilling assembly in an angular direction with respect to the axis of the original borehole and guide the bit into a predetermined course as a new hole is drilled. At the upper end of the whipstock there is a ring or collar having an inside diameter smaller than the outside diameter of the drill bit positioned below the ring. This permits positive removal of the whipstock when the drilling string is lifted out of the hole. The whipstock further includes a non-tapered concave section between the ring and wedgeshaped section which nests the tubular members interposed between the ring and drill bit.
When lowering a conventional type whipstock into a borehole for deflection drilling, there are often encountered formation cave-ins or bridges which tend to obstruct or stop downward movement and orientation of the whipstock. The lowermost end portion of the whipstock extends a substantial distance beyond the lowermost end of the mud outlet passage of the drill bit. Thus, while it is possible to circulate mud continuously through the drilling string and out of the drill bit during the lowering process the benefits of such circulation in preparing a path and opening for the whipstock and drilling string have little or no effect on obstructions encountered by the whipstock itself.
It is, therefore, the principal object of this invention to provide a means for rotating a whipstock with the drill string and providing circulation from the drill string through the depending end portion of the whipstock.
A similarly important object is to provide means for interrupting the fluid circulation from the drill string through the whipstock so that subsequent fluid circulation is through the drill string and drill bit.
Another object is to provide an improved tool and whipstock combination for securing the whipstock to a drill pipe string while it is being lowered into the hole in a manner that swinging movements and the possibility of the whipstock becoming dislocated after being positioned in the borehole will be avoided.
Still another object is to provide a whipstock locking and releasing apparatus which will hold the whipstock in a rigid position with respect to the drill pipe string and which will retain the whipstock in its initial set 3,336,990 Patented Aug. 22, 1967 orientation during the first downward movements of the drill string through the whipstock collar portion and which additionally includes means for simultaneously altering the mud flow circulation path from one passing through the whipstock to one passing through and out the drill bit. Thus, once the whipstock is set in one position it will remain in substantially such position while deflection drilling may progress with normal mud circulation.
Still another object is to provide a combination whip stock and tool which may be operated from the surface of the borehole for releasing the whipstock from the end of the drill pipe for rotation of the latter independently of the whipstock string once it has been lowered into the desired position in the borehole and for removing the whipstock with the drilling string after the deflection drilling operation has terminated.
These and other objects of this invention are attained by providing an improved whipstock having longitudinal mud circulation channels passing through the lower end portion of the whipstock. The cooperating tool for use with the whipstock includes cooperating splined telescoping members having central and auxiliary mud passageways and means for changing the mud circulation from one path outwardly of the tool through the auxiliary passageways to the central passageway.
Other objects will be apparent from the following description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying two sheets of drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is an elevational View of the invention in position to be lowered into a borehole;
FIGURE 2 is a right side elevational view of FIG. 1;
FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary vertical cross-sectional view taken substantially along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIGURE 4 is a horizontal cross-sectional view, to an enlarged scale, taken substantially along the line 4-4 of FIG. 3;
FIGURE 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the tool or circulating sub taken substantially along the line 5-5 of FIG. 1; and
FIGURES 6, 7, 8 and 9 are horizontal cross-sectional views taken substantially along the respective lines 66, 7-7, 8-8 and 9--9 of FIG. 5.
Like characters of reference designate like parts in those figures of the drawings in which they occur.
In the drawings:
The reference numeral 10 indicates a whipstock connected with a drill string 12 in position to be lowered into a borehole, not shown. The whipstock 10 includes a ring or collar portion 14 at its upper end and .21 depending inverted wedge-shaped end portion 16 having a back or outer wall surface 15 and a concave inclined surface 18 connected to the ring 14 by a concave longitudinal straight section 20 which nests a drill bit 26, connecting tubular members, and a cooperating tool or circulating sub 25. The bore of the ring portion 14 is internally splined, as at 21, for cooperatively receiving a splined section formed on the depending end of the drill string 12 so that the whipstock 10 may be rotated with the drill string 12. The tubular members comprise a conventional knuckle joint 22 which is connected to the depending end of the drill string 12 below the splines 21. The circulating sub 25 connects the knuckle joint 22 to the drill bit 26.
Referring more particularly to FIGS. 5 to 9, inclusive, the circulating sub 25 includes a body portion 27, a drive sleeve 28, a mandrel 30, lock ring 32 and a lock nut 34. The body portion 27 is tubular having internal threads 36 at its depending end for connection with the drill bit 26. The body 27 has an inner bore 38 diametrically step diameter reduced adjacent its lower end, but above the threads 36, to form a downwardly converging seat 40,
a smaller bore 42, and a diametrically reduced neck portion or bore 44. The depending end portion of the bore 44 is threaded for receiving a frangible disk or plug 50 for the purposes presently explained.
As shown in FIGS. 5 and 9, a pair of fluid passagebores or ports 52 are formed through the wall of the body to extend angularly downward and outward adjacent the depending internal threads 36. As shown in FIG. 9, the spacing between the bores 52 is preferably substantially 120 so that tubing and fittings connected thereto, as hereinafter explained, do not contact the whipstock and interfere with the placement of the drilling components with respect to the whipstock. The bores 52 are internally threaded for receiving fittings 54 and connecting a pair of tubes 56 to the body 27 for communication with the bores 96 thereof for the purposes more fully explained hereinbelow.
The upper end portion of the body 27 is internally threaded as at 53, for cooperatingly receiving the drive sleeve 28. Intermediate its ends the inner wall of the drive sleeve 28 is provided with splines 60. The mandrel 30 is centrally bored, as at 62, and includes a head portion 64 defined by an annular shoulder 65. The head portion is internally threaded as at 66 for connection with the depending end of the knuckle joint 22.
The diametrically reduced depending end portion of the mandrel 36 is externally splined, as at 68, for slidably engaging the drive sleeve splines 60 in telescoping relation. The mandrel splines 68 terminate short of the depending end of the mandrel which is externally threaded, :as at 70, for threadedly receiving the lock nut 34. The lock ring 32 is interposed between the upper end surface of the lock nut 34 and the depending ends of the splines 60 and68. An external beveled seat 72 is formed on the lock nut 34 for cooperative seating engagement with the seat 40 and defines a depending reduced portion 74 on the lock nut which enters the body bore 42. The depending end portion of the lock nut is further diametrically reduced and angularly cut off, as at 75, to form a knife 76 adapted to enter the body neck portion 44 and contact and rupture the frangible disk 50 as explained hereinbelow.
Sealing rings, such as O-rings 78, surround the lock nut between its uppermost end and seat 72 while other similar sealing rings 80, surrounding the lock nut reduced portion 74, seal with the walls of the body bore 42 for the purposes which will presently be apparent.
Adjacent its connection with the body 27 the drive sleeve 28 is provided with a plurality of inwardly extending circumferentially spaced-apart shear pins 82 which project inwardly of the drive sleeve wall and are cooperatingly received by bores or sockets formed in alternate ones of the mandrel splines 68 to maintain the mandrel 30 in extended position with respect to the drive sleeve and frangible disk 50 while going in the hole and seating the whipstock. The drive sleeve 28 is further provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced-apart lock members comprising set screws 34 threadedly engaged with the wall of the drive sleeve and plugs 86 normally slidably engaging the outermost surface of respective alternate ones of the mandrel splines 68. A spring 88, interposed between the set screw 84- and plug 86, urges the latter into engagement with a socket or recess 90 formed in the respective alternate ones of the splines 68 in spaced relation with respect to the mandrel shoulder 65 for the purposes presently explained.
Referring now more particularly to FIG. 3, the depending end portion of the whipstock concave surface 18 is provided with mud passage channel means comprising a pair of spaced-apart longitudinally extending grooves 92, closed by coextensive caps or covers 94, which extend upwardly from the depending end of the whipstock and intersect, respectively, diagonal bores 96 in the body of the whipstock. The depending end portions of the tubes 56 are secured in the respective diagonal bores 96 for communication with the fluid passage grooves 92. The depending ends of the respective diagonal bores 96, on the back or outer side 15 of the whipstock, are sealed by plugs 28. Thus, a fluid path or course is provided from the drill string 12 through the knuckle joint 22 and the bore of the mandrel 3t) outwardly through the auxiliary body bores 52, tubes 56 and the whipstock passages 92.
Operation In operation the whipstock 10 is connected to the drill string 12 and secured thereto by a shear pin 100. The knuckle joint 22, circulating sub 25 and drill bit 26, are assembled, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with the tubes 56 connected to the whipstock as disclosed hereinabove.
The entire assembly is lowered into the hole and oriented to a desired position. During such orientation fluid may be circulated from the drill string through the bore of the mandrel and downward through the whipstock passages 92 by means of the tubes 56. After the whipstock has been properly seated or positioned, the drill string is lowered with respect to the whipstock to shear the pin 100 which directs the drill bit 26 outwardly of the whipstock along the concave surface 18. As the drill bit 26 is rotated by the drill string 12 the bit encounters the borehole wall, not shown. The weight of the drill string moves the mandrel 30 downwardly in the body 27 in a telescoping action shearing the drive sleeve shear pins 82 so that the lock nut seat 72 seats on the body seat 40 to close the lateral passages 52 while simultaneously the knife 76, entering the body bore 44, ruptures the frangible plug 50 and opens a path of fluid communication from the bore of the mandrel through the fluid courses, not shown, in the bit 26. In this telescoping position of the mandrel 30, with respect to the body 27, the lock plugs 86 are forced by the springs 88 into engagement with the mandrel spline recesses 90, which holds the mandrel in its telescoped position. The seal rings 78 and thus seal off the auxiliary fluid path through the ports 52.
The above action destroys the tubes 56 which are forced out of the way or drilled up by the rotating action of the bit 26. After a desired deflection penetration has been made in the borehole wall the drill string 12 is lifted until the splined portion thereof and knuckle joint again contacts the internally splined collar 14 of the whipstock so that the latter is removed from the borehole with the drill string.
Obviously the invention is susceptible to some change or alteration without defeating its practicability, and We therefore do not wish to be confined to the preferred embodiment shown in the drawings and described herein, further than we are limited by the scope of the appended claims.
1. A deflection drilling apparatus including a drill bit connected with the depending end portion of a drilling string having a passage for fluid drilling substance, comprising: a whipstock longitudinally arranged exteriorly of said drill bit and the depending end portion of said drilling string, said whipstock having an upper collar portion surrounding a portion of and releasably connected with said drilling string, said whipstock having channel means defining a fluid drilling substance path formed in its lower end portion passing down said whipstock to open out of the lower end thereof; a circulating sub including a body and a mandrel telescopingly received by the body interposed between said drill bit and said drilling string, said circulating sub having a central fluid drilling substance passageway and having a port through its wall in communication with said central passageway; a seat formed on said mandrel for closing said port; a frangible plug closing the central passageway of said circulating sub; tubing means connecting the port in said circulating sub with the channel means in said whipstock; and a knife formed on said mandrel for rupturing said frangible plug to open the central close the port.
2. A rotating and circulating whipstock apparatus adapted to be connected with the depending end portion of a drilling string having a drill bit and having a drilling mud passageway, comprising: a whipstock having a collar surrounding a portion of and releasably connected with said drilling string, said whipstock having channel means defining a drilling mud passageway formed in its end portion opposite said collar, said channel means passing longitudinally of said whipstock and opening out of the end thereof opposite said collar; a circulating sub interposed between and connecting said drilling string to said drill bit, said circulating sub including a tubular body, said body having a seat formed on its inner wall defining a neck portion of reduced diameter and having a port through its wall intersecting said seat, tubing means connecting the port with the end of the channel means opposite its open end, a frangible plug closing said neck portion, a centrally bored mandrel telescopingly received by said body; means for changing the path of drilling mud entering said mandrel from one outwardly of said body through said port to one through the neck of said body including a lock out connected with the end of said mandrel within said body, said lock nut having a beveled seat sealing with the seat on said body and closing said port, said beveled seat defining a knife on the end of said lock nut opposite said mandrel, said knife adapted for entering the neck of said body and rupturing said frangible plug; and means connecting said mandrel to said body.
3. Structure as specified in claim 2 in which the last mentioned means further includes a drive sleeve connected with said body around said mandrel; cooperating splines formed on the inner periphery of said drive sleeve and outer periphery of said mandrel; a shear pin extending through the wall of said drive sleeve and into one said mandrel spline for holding said mandrel in extended relation with respect to said body, one of said mandrel splines having a socket formed in its outer surface spaced outwardly of said drive sleeve when said mandrel is in extended position; and a lock member carried by the wall of said sleeve including a plug normally urged into said socket when said mandrel is telescoped into said body.
4. A deflection drilling apparatus including a whipstock releasably connected with the depending end portion of a drill string and including a drill bit, said whipstock having mud passage channel means extending longitudinally of its lower end portion and opening out of the lowermost end thereof, a circulating sub connecting said drill bit to said drill string, said circulating sub including a vertically disposed tubular body having a diametrically reduced bore in its lower end portion forming a neck and defining a seat above the neck, a frangible plug normally closing the neck, the wall of said body having a port intersecting said seat and forming an auxiliary mud passageway, tubing means connecting the port to the channel means in said whipstock, a centrally bored mandrel slidably received by said body in telescoping relapassageway and tion, a lock nut secured to the end of said mandrel within said body, said lock nut having a reduced lower end portion forming a frangible plug rupturing knife and forming a beveled seat for contacting the seat in said body and closing the port, a drive sleeve connected with the upper end of said body around said mandrel, cooperating splines formed on the inner surface of said drive sleeve and the outer surface of said mandrel, and means holding said mandrel in a selected position with respect to said body.
5. Structure as specified in claim 4 in which alternate ones of the splines on said mandrel have inwardly extending lower sockets formed in their outermost surface within said drive sleeve and upper sockets formed in their outermost surface in spaced relation above said drive sleeve when said mandrel is extended with respect to said body; shear pins extending through the wall of said drive sleeve into the lower sockets for holding said mandrel extended with respect to said body; and locking members including a spring and locking plug carried by the wall of said drive sleeve, said spring forcing said locking plug into said upper socket for holding said mandrel in a telescoped position.
6. A fluid circulating tool for a whipstock, said whipstock having longitudinally extending fluid passage channels in its depending end portion, comprising: a centrally bored body having threaded end portions adapted to be connected at one end to a drill bit, a drive sleeve coaxially connected to the other end portion of said body, said drive sleeve having splines formed on its internal bore, said body having a seat formed in its depending end portion defining a diametrically reduced bore, said body having a port through its wall intersecting said seat; a mandrel having a depending splined end portion telescopingly received by said drive sleeve and said body; a frangible plug normally closing the reduced bore of said body; a lock member secured to the depending end of said mandrel, said lock member having a reduced lower end portion forming a beveled seat for contacting the seat in said body and closing said port and forming a sharpened end portion adapted to enter the reduced bore in said body and rupture said plug; a frangible plug normally closing the reduced bore of said body; means maintaining said mandrel in selected telescoping positions with respect to said body; and tubing means connecting said body port with the fluid passage channels in said whipstock for communication therebetween.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 244,042 7/1881 Farrar- 166-224 2,196,517 4/1940 Bolton 82 X 2,626,177 1/1953 Maxwell et a1. 166-226 X 2,770,444 11/ 1956 Neal 175-83 X 2,965,182 12/1960 Galeener 175-82 3,174,549 3/1965 Anderson 166117.5
CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner. I. A. CALVERT, Assistant Examiner.