US 3337256 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
g- 1967 I P. H. SHROPSHIRE, JR 3,337,256
' CARGO TONGS Filed Aug. 30, 1965 4 Sheefs-Sheet 1 Aug. 22, 1967 P. H. SHROPSHIRE, JR 3,337,256
r CARGO T-ONGS Filed Aug. 50, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet INVENTOR.
Aug. 22, 1967 P. H. SHROPSHIRE, JR 3,337,256
CARGO TONGS FiledAug. 30, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR. F904 6 fifleoPs/l/ee, Je.
Anna/5V5 United States Patent 3,337,256 CARGO TONGS Paul H. Shropshire, Jr., Los Alamitos, Calif., assignor to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Filed Aug. 30, 1965, Ser. No. 483,889 7 Claims. (Cl. 29482) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A cargo tongs is provided having a pair of elongate straight shanks of opposite hand, each shank terminating in a boot-like extension which has a recess on the upper side for receiving cargo net carrying or attaching members. The toe portions of the boot extensions abut when no-load conditions occur during cargo transfer. The shank and boot are made of flat metal for strength and easy accommodation in cargo net webbing, beckets, etc. The recesses have restricted openings to aid in preventing disengagement of carrying members.
The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.
This invention relates to replenishment of ships at sea.
More particularly, this invention relates to cargo tongs for separable engagement with a cargo net for use in replenishment of ships at sea.
One of the most diflicult tasks of a ship is replenishment of stores while at sea. C-onventionally, the supply ship and the receiving ship will move in a substantially parallel course at a common speed and provisions will be conveyed over a high-line between the ships by means of a hook and net. However, minor deviations in the course of either one of the ships, caused by the turbulent flow of water therebetween, will cause the high-line to oscillate between a taut and slack position. As a result, the tension on the hook will fluctuate from a full load to a no load condition. In the latter condition, the pear beckets of the cargo net are liable to be disconnected from the hook, and the net, including cargo, may be lost to the sea.
To overcome this difiiculty, the hooks are provided with keepers which retain the pear beckets within the grasp of the hook. However, it is extremely difiicult and time-consuming to disconnect the pear shaped links of the net from the grasp of the book when it is provided with the'conventional keeper. It is to be emphasized that this operation must be carried out in the shortest possible time for, in time of war, both the supply ship and the receiving ship are extremely vulnerable to attack.
Further, the conventional cargo hookis incapable of being short slung to the netting when the cargo being transported is of the small bulk variety and shortness must be provided to sustain this function. A shortener, a four legged sling suspended by a ring, is hooked into the webbing and the entire load is suspended by a cargo hook slipped into the shortner ring. By this method, the load is suspended below the rig by swivel, cargo hook, shortner and shortner legs. However, although nets are not loaded beyond the 3500 pound limit imposed by burton, housefall, and modified housefall rigs, a considerable margin of safety is lost when shortners are used to hook into the net webbing. Where this occurs, only one strand of nylon supports the load and the safe working load of the net is reduced by more than 50% under these conditions.
Further disadvantages attributable to the use of short-' ners is due to their heavy weight and the fact that they contribute towards crew fatigue. At least four men are required to hook the shortners to the nets and because the ring is positioned toward the center of the load, it is awkward to work in hooking on. Also, a number of shortners are required on each station, at least four and preferably not less than six for continuous transfer. They are also not generally used as intended by the receiving ship; sometimes legs are unhooked from the net requiring men outboard of the load. Most significantly, they reduce the margin of safety in each load transferred.
In the past, attempts were made to find solutions to the shortner shortcomings. For instance, shortners were permanently spliced into the swivel above the cargo hook to reduce load suspension and still engage the pear beckets of the nets. This left too low a suspension for the nets and though it was easier to engage and disengage the hooks, four men were needed for this purpose. As an alternate, the permanently spliced shortners were short hooked into the net webbing. However, four men were still required, and engagement and disengagement of the hooks became more difficult, and often required personnel outboard of the load.
Further, the spliced-in shortners lead to incorrect return of the nets with subsequent losses of the nets, As a further alternate, the method of hooking the four pear beckets directly to the cargo hook was attempted. This gave a short safe load but considerably increased time and difliculties in the hooking and unhooking operation without a reduction in the cube of a net load and four men were still required for the operation.
These disadvantages are substantially overcome by the present invention, hereinafter described, With particular reference to the transfer of cargo between ships at sea, which is the most difiicult use situs. However, it is to be understood that the use of the present invention is not limited to ship to ship cargo transfers, but that the invention has numerous advantages when employed in a use where either or both of the supply and receiving stations are immobile areas.
It is an object of this invention to provide a device for use in the efiicient and safe transfer of cargo from a supply station to a discharge station, said device devoid of the difiiculties of the prior art.
Another object is to provide a device of light construction for separable engagement with the pear beckets of a cargo net in the effective and speedy transfer of cargo from a shipboard supply station to a shipboard receiving station.
A further object is to provide a device for separable engagement with the webbing of a cargo net whenever necessity requires short suspension.
Otherobjects and many attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same become better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein FIG. 1 is a side view of the device of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a view taken on line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view showing the device traversing a highline under a full-load condition;
FIG. 4 is a view showing the device traversing a highline during an interval when a no-load condition is experienced;
FIG. 5 is a view of the device showing its characteristic when it has come to rest at the receiving station.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, a pair of tongs 11 are supported in a pivotal fashion by a pin -12 and shackle 13. The shackle has a pair of legs 14 and 15 extending in a parallel spaced relationship defining a space therebetween into which the tongs are fitted. A pin 12 passes perpendicu- 3 larly through each of the legs of the shackle and a hole 17 in each of the upper arms of the tongs.
The tongs 11 consist of two identical hook elements 18 and 19 having an upper portion or shank 20 terminating in a toe portion 21 with a curved portion 22 therebetween subtending an arc of more than 180. The extremital end or toe portion 21 of the hook, adjacent the curved portion 22 thereof, faces the shank or arm 20 of the hook and forms an opening therewith to the curved portion 22 of the hook for beckets or straps of a cargo net.
The shank or arm 20 of the hook may also be provided with a becket deflector 24, which will form a more restricted opening with the toe portion 21 of the hook. With this modification, the straps or beckets of the net, which lie in the curved portion of the hook, will be prevented from riding up the shank 20 of the arm.
In operation, as shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, the tongs 11 are adapted to vertically grasp a cargo net 26 by its pear beckets 27 and to transport them in a horizontal fashion from one vessel to another by means of a high line 28.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, it is the nature of the tongs, due to their center of gravity and structural characteristics, to close to an abutting position under a no-load condition. In this manner, the curved portion 22 of one of the hooks adjacent the toe 21 thereof abuts the curved portion 22 of the other hook adjacent the toe 21 thereof in a fashion generally resembling a pair of ice tongs.
A no-load condition, under which the tongs close, is generally the condition that takes place when the high-line oscillates between a taut and a slack position as the ships move along on substantially parallel courses at approximately the same speed.
When a full loaded condition prevails, the tongs will open, as shown in FIG. 3, to a natural angle determined by the bulk and weight of the suspended load and the length of the suspension straps.
Further, when the tongs are set down on the top of the load, as shown in FIG. 5, the legs thereof will open naturally to their full spread allowing free access to the pear beckets of the net.
The attendant advantages of the tongs include their attachment to designed points of the nets giving a greater margin of safety. In this manner, they give a sufiiciently short suspension to the load in order to readily clear the decks or bulwarks of any ship. Due to their structure, they facilitate separable engagement of the load and speed this operation. In fact, fewer men are required to connect and disconnect the tongs from the net and personnel are not required outboard or inboard of loads for these operations which is a significant safety feature.
Obviously, many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
1. A coupling device adapted to facilitate hooking and unhooking operations particularly in relation to cargo nets while increasing safety and reducing load loss comprising:
a pair of oppositely disposed substantially identical hook members mounted upon a common pivot;
said hook members each having a hook end, a pivot end and an elongate substantially fiat and straight shank interconnecting said hook and pivot ends;
said shanks forming an acute angle at said pivot ends when in the no-load condition;
said hook ends extending inwardly from said shanks at the base thereof and disposed substantially transverse to the longitudinal centerline thereof; said hook ends abutting at a common point in the periphery thereof when in the closed position; and
said hook ends having an inwardly curved attachment receiving recess subtending an arc of more than 180 at the outer extremities thereof;
whereby disengegement of the coupling device especially under intermittent no-load conditions is substantially prevented.
2. The coupling device of claim 1 wherein said hook ends further include a toe at the extremital end of the curved recess thereof.
3. The coupling device of claim 2 wherein said hook ends further include means opposite said toe for restricting the hook end recess opening so as to further curtail the possible disengagement of the hook ends.
4. The coupling device of claim 3 wherein said shanks may be pivoted open to angles exceeding therebetween thereby enabling the device to engage a plurality of spaced cargo net attachment means from a prone position on a netted cargo.
5. The coupling device of claim 4 wherein said shanks and said hook ends are substantially rectangular in cross section so as to be readily insertable through cargo net attachment means such as pear-shaped beckets.
6. The coupling device of claim 5 wherein the opening thereof defined by said toe and said restricting means is disposed substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal centerline of said shank.
7. The coupling device of claim 6 wherein each of said hook end recesses is adapted to receive at least two cargo net beckets.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 646,813 4/1900 Edholm 24232 X 1,016,260 2/1912 Fuchs 294-78 X 1,494,289 5/1924 Round M 24-2305 FOREIGN PATENTS 709,372 8/1941 Germany.
404,875 1/1934 Great Britain.
GERALD M. FORLENZA, Primary Examiner.
HUGO O. SCHULZ, Examiner.
G. F. ABRAHAM, Assistant Examiner.