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Publication numberUS3337387 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 22, 1967
Filing dateJul 7, 1966
Priority dateMar 4, 1965
Also published asDE1560683A1, DE1560683B2, DE1560683C3, DE1560695A1, DE1560695B2, DE1560695C3
Publication numberUS 3337387 A, US 3337387A, US-A-3337387, US3337387 A, US3337387A
InventorsCharles D Owen
Original AssigneeBeacon Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stitched and needled non-woven fabric
US 3337387 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 22, 1967 c. o. OWEN 3,337,387

STITCHED AND NEEDLE?) NON-WOVEN FABRIC Filed July 7, 1966 2 Sheets-5heet l CHARLES b. OWEN BYW MqWym/wZ ATTORNEYS INVENTOR.

Aug. 22, 1967 c. D. OWEN 3,337,387

STITCHED AND NEEDLED NON-WOVEN FABRIC Filed July 7, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 1} INVENTOR. CHARLES 13. Gwen PJBYM M ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,337,387 STITCHED AND NEEDLED NON-WOVEN FABRIC Charles D. Owen, Biltmore, N.C., assiguor to Beacon Manufacturing Company, a corporation of Delaware Filed July 7, 1966, Ser. No. 563,485 The portion of the term of the patent subsequent to July 12, 1983, has been disclaimed 3 Claims. (Cl. 16150) This is a continuation-in-part of my prior application, Ser. No. 437,195, filed Mar. 4, 1965, now US. Patent No. 3,260,640, issued July 12, 1966.

This invention relates generally to a stitched and needled non-woven fabric that has substantial stability and strength in both the lengthwise and widthwise directions and which is particularly adapted for use in the formation of household blankets and the like, the lengthwise and widthwise strength and stability being obtained by a combination of stitching and needling.

As set forth in the above-identified prior application, it has been the usual practice to form a non-woven blanket fabric by needling upper and lower layers of non-woven fibers to opposite sides of a loosely woven or knitted scrim. While this woven or knitted scrim provides stability and strength to the blanket fabric in both lengthwise and widthwise directions, the use of a woven or knitted scrim has many disadvantages. For example, the woven scrim has a tendency to make the blanket fabric stiff or boardy so that it does not have the desired draping qualities and does not have the soft hand that is normally desired in a blanket.

Further, when the upper and lower layers of nonwoven fibers are needled to the woven or knitted scrim, the woven or knitted structure of the scrim inherently opposes the interlacing of the fibers therethrough and, therefore, the desired entanglement of the fibers between the upper and lower layers and through the reinforcing layer or'scrim is not obtained. The resulting product produces a blanket in which the upper and lower facing layers of non-woven fibers can be easily stripped from the knitted or woven scrim andthereby fails to provide the desired strength and stability in the composite fabric necessary for use as blankets or the like. If additional needling is utilized to increase the strength of the fabric, it produces the undesirable characteristics of hardness and boardiness.

In an attempt to overcome some of these objections, others have utilized lengthwise extending warp yarns as a supporting layer to replace the woven scrim between the upper and lower layers of non-woven fibers. In this type of blanket fabric, the warp threads are intended to provide lengthwise strength and stability and the fibers of the facing layers are needled to hold them in position on opposite sides of the warp threads. However, the warp threads are not adequately united and entangled with the fibers of the facing layers and the fibers of the facing layers are not adequately united and entangled with each other and, therefore, the warp yarns may be easily pulled from between the layers of facing fibers and the layers of facing fibers may be easily pulled from the warp yarns so that the fabric does not provide the desired strength and stability.

The above problems and disadvantages were overcome in my prior above-mentioned application by utilizing a stitched non-woven carrier or supporting layer, in which the fibers of the carrier are oriented in generally the widthwise direction and spaced-apart rows of stitches are oriented in generally the lengthwise direction for providing strength and stability in both the lengthwise and widthwise directions.

With the use of this stitched non-woven carrier or supporting layer, outer facing layers of non-woven fibers may be more easily needled thereto inasmuch as the non- Woven characteristics of the supporting material inherently enhances the fiber entanglement and the needling operation to produce a composite non-woven fabric in which the outer facing layers may not be easily stripped therefrom and which will produce all the characteristics desirable in a non-woven blanket fabric.

By this invention, it has been discovered that the rows of stitch loops utilized in the carrier or supporting layer of the non-woven fabric of my prior application may be formed from the fibers of the non-woven batt utilized for the carrier without the use of separate stitching yarns wherein the rows of stitch loops define groups of the fibers of the batt having portions thereof gathered together into stitch loops and portions thereof individually rooted in the batt.

In utilizing the fibers of the non-woven carrier for forming the stitch loops, it has been found that no loss in strength in the composite fabric occurs and that a substantial savings is obtained in the elimination of the necessity for the use of separate stitching yarns. The resulting carrier stitched according to this invention with out the use of separate stitching yarns retains the advantages discussed above in connection with my prior application in the enhancing of the needling operation utilized to combine the upper and lower facing layers of non-woven fibers with the stitched carrier annd to provide a non-woven fabric having suflicient stability and strength in both the lengthwise and the widthwise directions for use as blankets or the like. Further advantages of this in-' vention are found in the elimination of beaming or threading in the stitching equipment.

Some of the details of the invention having been stated, other details will appear as the description proceeds, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which FIGURE 1 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of the non-woven fabric of this invention illustrating the manner in. which the upper and lower facing layers of non-woven fibers are sandwiched on opposite sides of the intermediate carrier or supporting layer;

FIGURE 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of one side of the carrier or supporting layer of the fabric of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 3 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of the other side of the carrier or supporting layer of the fabric of FIGURE 1;

FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view of the carrier or supporting layer taken along the line 44 of FIGURE 2;

FIGURE 5 is a schematic top plan view of the apparatus utilized for forming the stitched carrier or supporting layer of this invention;

FIGURE 6 is a schematic side elevational view of the apparatus of FIGURE 5;

FIGURE 7 is an enlarged fragmentary side sectional view of the stitching apparatus taken from the dotted portion 7 in FIGURE 6;

FIGURE 8 is a schematic top plan viewof the apparatus utilized for sandwiching the carrier or supporting layer between outer facing layers and for needling this composite fabric together; and

FIGURE 9 is a schematic side elevational view of the apparatus of FIGURE 8.

Referring now to the drawings, there is shown in FIGURE 1 the stitched and needled non-woven fabric of this invention, broadly indicated by the reference numeral 10. This non-woven fabric 10 is particularly adaptable for use in the formation of blankets and the like and is characterized by having substantial stability 3 and strength in both the lengthwise and widthwise directions.

The fabric comprises a carrier or supporting layer, generally indicated by the reference numeral 11, and upper and lower facing layers of non-woven fibers, generally indicated by the reference numerals 12 and 13, positioned on opposite sides of the carrier 11 and united therewith in a manner to be hereinafter described.

The carrier 11, as shown in FIGURES 1-4, comprises a self-sustaining batt of non-woven fibers extending generally in the widthwise direction of the carrier 11 and the fabric 10 to provide strength and stability to the carrier 11 and to the fabric 10 in the widthwise direction. Suitable apparatus for forming the batt of fibers 15 will be discussed hereinafter.

The carrier 11 further includes elongated spaced-apart rows of stitch loops 21 penetrating the carrier and extending in generally the lengthwise direction of the carrier 11 and the fabric 10 for providing strength and stability to the carrier and the fabric in the lengthwise direction and for interlocking the fibers 15. It has been found that the desired strength and stability may be obtained when the rows 20 of stitches 21 are spaced approximately of an inch apart and approximately 7 /2 to 10 stitch loops per inch are used.

The rows 20 of stitch loops 21 are formed from the fibers 15 of the carrier 11 without the use of separate stitching yarns and define groups of the fibers 15 having portions thereof gathered together into stitch loops and portions thereof individually rooted in the carrier 11, as may be seen in FIGURE 4. Suitable means for forming the rows 20 of stitch loops 21 from the fibers 15 of the carrier 11 will be discussed hereinafter.

For providing additional strength and stability to the non-woven fabric 10 in the widthwise direction, the fibers of the upper and lower facing layers 12 and 13 are preferably disposed in generally the widthwise direction of the fabric 10. These upper and lower facing layers 12 and 13 are needled to unite the fibers thereof with each other and to unite the upper and lower facing layers 12 and 13 with the carrier 11 to provide strength and stability to the fabric 10. Suitable means for needling the upper and lower layers of non-woven fibers to the carrier will be discussed hereinafter.

The resulting non-woven fabric 10, described above, may include outer napped surfaces, generally indicated at 25 in FIGURE 1, and/ or any other surface treatment which may be desired without disturbing or destroying the stability and strength of the non-woven fabric.

The fibers utilized for making up the carrier and/or outer facing layers may be any suitable natural or synthetic fibers including viscose or acrylic or other textile fibers or blends thereof with wool, nylon and polypropylene. These fibers, utilized in forming the carrier 11 and the stitch loops 21, may be of any staple length from about 1 /2 inches to 3 inches.

By elimination of the necessity for separate stitching yarn, uniformity in the types of fibers utilized in the carrier may be more readily obtained and any type of fibers which is suitable for use in the carrier or supporting layer may be used to form the rows of stitch loops therein. By the elimination of the use of a separate stitching yarn in the carrier, it has been found that a savings of 3.47 cents per yard on a carrier weight of 2% ounces per square yard may be obtained in the fabric of this invention.

For forming the stitched and needled non-woven fabric of this invention 10, reference may be had to FIGURES 5-8 for a schematic showing of suitable apparatus. For economical reasons, it is preferred that the fabric and carrier be formed in continuous operations as illustrated in these figures.

Referring to FIGURES 5, 6 and 7, there is shown schematicaly suitable apparatus for forming the stitched carrier or supporting layer 11. As shown therein, a conventional opening and feeding device, broadly indicated at 31, feeds the bulk fibers 15 in staple form to a card, Garnett, or other suitable fiber opening device, broadly indicated at 32, to form a batt of fibers 15 extending generally lengthwise of the batt. The batt of fibers 15 from the card 32 is fed to a cross-lapping device 33.

The cross-lapping device 33 operates back and forth across a conveyor 36 to deposit the batt of fibers 15 thereon. The cross-lapping device 33 is preferably operated at a sufficient speed, relative to the speed of the conveyor 36, so that the fibers 15 are deposited onto the conveyor 36 to form another batt of suitable weight, preferably from about 1 /2 to 3 ounces per square yard, having the fibers 15 extending generally widthwise thereof to provide strength and stability in the fabric in the width wise direction.

The cross-lapped batt of fibers 15 is conveyed from the cross-lapping device 33 to another conveyor 37 which moves the batt of fibers into a stitch forming mechanism, illustrated schematically at 40, to form the lengthwise extending rows 20 of stitches 21 therein and to interlock the fibers 15 and to provide lengthwise strength and sta' bility to the carrier 11 and the fabric 10.

The stitch forming mechanism 40 may be of the type having side by side stitching needles 41 with a bob or hook 42 thereon and which are adapted to pass through the batt in a forward stroke of the needles, as shown in FIGURE 7, and to return through the batt on rearward stroke of the needles gathering fibers 15 of the batt within the bob or hook 42 during the rearward stroke thereof and to make a stitching stroke during the rearward stroke for forming the stitch loops 21 on the batt of fibers from the fibers 15 without the use of separate stitching yarns, as dis-cussed above.

The stitched batt or carrier 11 is then led from the stitch forming mechanisms 40 by a conveyor 33 to a suitable winding apparatus, generally indicated at 45, for winding the carrier in a roll.

Referring now to FIGURES 8 and 9 there is shown the suitable apparatus for sandwiching the carrier or supporting layer between outer facing layers of non-woven fibers and for needling this composite fabric together. As shown therein, another conventional opening and feeding device, broadly indicated at 50, feeds bulk fibers in staple form to a card, Garnett, or other suitable fiber opening device, broadly indicated at 51, to form a batt of fibers extending generally lengthwise of the batt. The batt of fibers from the card 5'1 is fed to a cross-lapping device 52.

The cross-lapping device 52 operates back and forth across a conveyor 53 to deposit the batt of fibers thereon and is preferably operated at a sufficient speed, relative to the speed of the conveyor 53, so that the fibers are deposited onto the conveyor 53 to form another batt having the fibers extending widthwise thereof to provide additional strength and stability in the fabric 10 in the widthwise direction. This batt of fibers is utilized as the lower facing layer 13.

As the lower facing layer 13 is fed forwardly on the conveyor 53, the previously formed stitched carrier 11 is fed from a roll into superposed position on the lower facing layer 13 and is fed forwardly by the conveyor 53 in the superposed condition.

Simultaneously, another conventional opening and feeding device, broadly indicated at 60, feeds bulk fibers in staple form to a card, Garnett, or suitable fiber opening device, broadly indicated at 61, to form a batt of fibers extending generally lengthwise of the batt. The batt of fibers from the card 61 is fed to a cross-lapping device 62 which operates back and forth across the conveyor 53, forwardly of the cross-lapping device 52 and the supply of stitched carrier material 11, to deposit the batt of fibers in superposed position on top of the stitched carrier 11 and the lower facing layer 13 to form an upper facing layer 12 having the fibers thereof extending generally widthwise of the fabric to provide additional strength and stability in the widthwise direction.

The sandwiched layers or composite non-woven fabric including the stitched carrier 11 and the upper and lower facing layers 12 and 13 are then conveyed through a conventional needling apparatus, shown schematically at 65.

The needling apparatus 65 may include needle boards 66 and 67 disposed on opposite sides of the composite fabric 10 and containing a plurality of bobbed needles which penetrate the non-woven fabric 10 from each side thereof to cause the fibers of the upper and lower facing layers 12 and 13 to be coherently united and entangled with each other and with the fibers of the intermediate stitched carrier 11 in a well known manner. It has been found that approximately 812 punches per square inch will suitably unite and entangle the fibers of all three layers 11, 12 and 13, yet prevent hardness and boardiness of the stitched and needled fabric 10 to render the same suitable for use as blankets or the like.

From the needling mechanism 65 the stitched and needled fabric 10 may be wound on suitable apparatus, generally indicated at 70. The non-woven fabric 10 may now be napped and/ or provided with other surface treatments as may be desired.

Thus it may be seen, that by this invention, a completely non-woven fabric is provided which has been stabilized and strengthened in both the lengthwise and widthwise directions by a combination of stitching and needling and wherein the cost of such fabric is substantially reduced by the elimination of the necessity of separate stitching yarns through the use of the fibers of the supporting layer or carrier to form the stitch loops there- In the drawings and specification there has been set forth a preferred embodiment of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being defined in the claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a non-woven fabric having substantial stability and strength in both the lengthwise and widthwise directions, adaptable for use in the formation of blankets and the like, said fabric including a supporting layer of non-woven fibers extending generally in the widthwise direction and outer facing layers of non-woven fibers posi tioned on opposite sides of said supporting layer and being needled thereto for uniting the fibers of the individual layers with each other and for uniting the layers together; the improvement of said supporting layer only containing and being held together by spaced apart rows of interconnected chain loops formed exclusively from the fibers of said non-woven supporting layer without any of the usual additional stitching yarns, said chain loops being formed on only one face of said supporting layer and the fibers of each of said loops extending from said face into the thickness of said supporting layer and being anchored therein.

2. A non-woven fabric, as set forth in claim 1, in which said fibers of said upper and lower facing layers extend in generally the widthwise direction of said fabric for providing additional strength and stability to said fabric in the widthwise direction.

3. A non-woven fabric, as set forth in claim 1, in which said upper and lower facing layers of non-woven fibers include napped surfaces thereon.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 742,700 10/1903 Mausaner 161-154 X 1,314,565 9/1919 Billington 2872.2 2,978,786 4/ 196-1 Turner 28-722 3,090,100 5/ 1963 Smith 16180 X 3,112,552 12/1963 Smith 161-80 X 3,260,640 7/1966 Owen 161--50 JACOB H. STEINBERG, Primary Examiner.

ALEXANDER WYMAN, Examiner.

W. A. POWELL, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US742700 *Dec 22, 1902Oct 27, 1903American Interlaced Horse Collar CompanyInterlooped fabric.
US1314565 *Apr 9, 1917Sep 2, 1919By Mesnk Assignmentsbillington
US2978786 *Jun 13, 1958Apr 11, 1961Crompton & Knowles CorpProcess for making non-woven fabric
US3090100 *May 26, 1960May 21, 1963Chatham Mfg CompanyMethod of needle punching fibers to make needled fabrics or the like
US3112552 *Jul 3, 1962Dec 3, 1963Chatham Mfg CompanyNeedled fabric structure
US3260640 *Mar 4, 1965Jul 12, 1966Beacon Mfg CoStitched and needled non-woven fabric
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3377821 *Oct 14, 1966Apr 16, 1968Elitex Zavody TextilnihoApparatus for reinforcing fibrous material
US3600910 *Dec 16, 1969Aug 24, 1971Halbmond Leppiche VebFluffy textile web
US3967472 *Dec 10, 1973Jul 6, 1976Arno Edgar WildemanStitch bonded fabrics
US4183985 *Jan 5, 1978Jan 15, 1980National Distillers And Chemical CorporationProcess of producing a nonwoven needled napped fabric having superior resistance to pilling and shedding
US4197100 *Apr 24, 1978Apr 8, 1980Hausheer Hans PFiltering member for filters
US6735835 *Aug 3, 2001May 18, 2004Kong Foo WongMethod and apparatus for manufacturing non-woven fabrics
US7047607 *May 27, 2003May 23, 2006WattexProcess for manufacturing a band-shaped non-woven product with increased tensile strength
US7174612 *Jun 9, 2004Feb 13, 2007Cerex Advanced Fabrics, Inc.Nonwoven fabrics containing yarns with varying filament characteristics
US20020059707 *Sep 28, 2001May 23, 2002Monika FehrerMethod and apparatus for strengthening a textile web
US20020124367 *Aug 3, 2001Sep 12, 2002Wong Kong FooMethod and apparatus for manufacturing non-woven fabrics
US20040014388 *May 27, 2003Jan 22, 2004WattexProcess for manufacturing a band-shaped non-woven product with increased tensile strength
US20040221436 *Jun 9, 2004Nov 11, 2004Ortega Albert E.Nonwoven fabrics containing yarns with varying filament characteristics
US20070270071 *May 18, 2006Nov 22, 2007Greer J TravisNonwoven fabric towel
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/91, 28/107, 156/148, 428/102
International ClassificationD04H1/48, D04H1/45
Cooperative ClassificationD04H1/45, D04H1/48
European ClassificationD04H1/48, D04H1/45