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Publication numberUS3337465 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 22, 1967
Filing dateMar 4, 1965
Priority dateMar 4, 1965
Also published asDE1503765A1
Publication numberUS 3337465 A, US 3337465A, US-A-3337465, US3337465 A, US3337465A
InventorsJay Lancz Albert, Louis Bechtold Charles, Lyle Schulerud Albert
Original AssigneeColgate Palmolive Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Scouring pad and composition therefor
US 3337465 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 3,337,465 SCOURING PAD AND COMPOSITION THEREFOR Albert Jay Lancz, Highland Park, Albert Lyle Schulerud, Nutley, and Charles Louis Bechtold, Metuchen, N.J., assiguors to Colgate-Palmolive Company, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware No Drawing. Filed Mar. 4, 1965, Ser. No. 437,315 16 Claims. (Cl. 252-91) This invention relates to a novel soap impregnating agent for scouring pads and the like for use in connection with the cleansing or scouring of kitchen utensils and like household uses.

It has been found in practice that commercially available metal wool scouring pads which contain a soap or detergent composition are not entirely satisfactory.

Many soaps and other cleansing compounds have been proposed for incorporation in metal wool scouring pads to improve their usefulness but despite certain improvements obtained, other desirable properties were unobtainable. These cleansing compounds provided undesirable results and many did not provide effective and economical cleansing operations and some were detrimental to the treated surface of the articles being cleaned.

The present invention tends to overcome these disadvantages and to markedly improve scouring pads, in particular those made from metal wool, and has as its main objects to provide an impregnating agent which clings to the surfaces of the fibers, inhibits corrosion and staining of the pad or carrier in use and provides surface active properties, such as foaming, lathering, etc. without being rapidly dissolved.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a soap composition which does not have to be dried by application of external heat after being applied to scouring pads.

It is a further object of the present invention to inhibit rusting of steel wool pads during storage.

It is a further advantage ofthe present invention that the scouring pad containing the soap composition remains substantially elastic and pliable when used during the washing and scrubbing operations.

The above and other features and advantages of this invention may be more readily understood from the fol-- lowing description in which preferred examples have been disclosed by which the invention may be carried into effect.

It has been found during certain tests to determine the effectiveness of detergent and soap impregnating compounds in connection with steel wool pads for use in cleansing purposes, that a soap made in accordance with this invention may advantageously be used to replace the soap compositions presently employed in commercial steel Wool pads and to fulfill all the needs and requirements of the practice. While reference hereinafter is primarily made to steel Wool pads, it is to be understood that any other metal or plastic fiber may be substituted therefor.

The soap impregnating agent for this purpose may be composed of the following ingredients within the following ranges:

Percent by wt.

Water 25-50 Sodium nitrite 1-3 Alkali metal carbonate 3-10 Polyglycol 0-6 Potassium high lauric acid soap (anhydrous soap and unsaponifiables) 10-45 Alkali metal high lauric acid oil soap (anhydrous soap and unsaponifiables) 0.5-22.5 Alkali metal tallow soap (anhydrous soap and unsaponifiables) 5-45 Foam builder 0-6 3,337,465 Patented Aug. 22, 1967 More preferably the above ingredients are employed in the following ranges:

Percent by wt.

In carrying out the present invention, it is important that the components of the soap composition be employed at the amounts set forth herein in order to obtain the desired results.

Water is employed at 25-50% by weight of the soap composition to provide a soap which may be applied to the scouring pad ribbon by any conventional means, e.g. dipping, spraying, etc. and which sets upon cooling.

Sodium nitrite when employed at 1-3% by weight of the soap composition acts in combination with the other components to provide improved rust resistant properties in steel wool scouring pads. While sodium nitrite has been used in the past for such purposes, the soap composition of the present invention provides significantlysuperior rust inhibiting properties.

The alkali metal carbonate employed in the present invention at 3-10% by weight of the soap composition is selected from the group consisting of sodium or potassium carbonate. It creates a desired fluidity in the soap composition to provide maximum distribution of soap throughout entire cross section of the scouring pad. Furthermore, the alkali metal carbonate and particularly the sodium carbonate provide improved setting of the soap composition after application on the scouring pads due to its high Water of crystallization.

The polyglycols, when employed in an amount less than 6% by weight of the soap composition, act as humectants to prevent the soap composition from drying out in storage with resultant high losses due to dusting. Typical of the humectants which may be employed are polyethylene glycol, sorbitol, manitol, glycerine and the like. Glycerine is the preferred humectant for use in the present invention.

The potassium high lauric acid soap employed in the present invention at 10-45% by weight of the soap composition may be made from a high lauric acid oil such as commercial coconut oil, palm kernel and babassu nut oil which has been saponified to provide the potassium soap. It is preferred to employ coconut oil soaps having lower moisture contents. Where commercially available potassium coconut oil soaps are employed, it may be necessary to reduce the moisture level of the soap composition after preparation in order to provide a water content of 25-50% by weight.

The alkali metal high lauric acid soap of the present invention is selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium soaps and employed at O.5-22.5% by weight of the soap composition. It may be obtained from a high lauric acid source such a commercial coconut oil, palm kernal oil and babassu nut oil or from the fatty acids of such oils which are saponified or neutralized to provide the alkali metal soap.

The alkali metal tallow soap of the present invention is selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium soaps and employed at 5-45 by weight of the soap composition. It is prepared by saponification of commerically available tallow or neutralization of fatty acids derived from tallow or other sources that give predominantly palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. It is essential that unsaturated oleic acid which is a normal component of many sodium tallow soaps be at a level of less than 18% by weight of the total soap composition. It has been found that levels of oleic acid in excess of 18% of the total soap composition cause noticeable foam deterioration.

In preparing the sodium salts of the high lauric acid source and the tallow or equivalent fatty acids, it has been found desirable to prepare the two soaps simultaneously in accordance with common soap making techniques employing the convenitonal kettle boiling process.

The foam builder employed in the present invention at less than 6% by weight of the soap composition may be a saturated fatty alcohol having a chain length of C to C In amounts greater than 6% by weight, it has been found that the foam builders frequently create handling problems and provide the soap composition with an undesirable physical appearance. While the lower chain length, e.g., C to C fatty alcohols provide acceptable results from the standpoint of foam characteristics, they may be less desirable for some uses due to their odor which may be objectionable. Where the higher chain length e.g. C to C fatty alcohols are employed, it has been found preferable to use such fatty alcohols in combination to obtain optimum foaming effect. Typical of the fatty alcohols that may be employed in the present invention are octanol, decanol, tetradecanol, hexadecanol, octadecanol, dodecanol alcohols and the like. Of these fatty alcohols, the dodecanol is preferred in carrying out the present invention. Where the C to C saturated fatty alcohols have been employed, particularly satisfactory results have been obtained with mixtures of C C and C alcohols. It has also been found that the foam builders unexpectedly extend the use life of the scouring pads as compared to equivalent pads wherein no foam builder is added to the soap.

It also was found in carrying out the present invention that in order to further reduce the rusting where steel wool is used in the scouring pad, that the chloride and sulfate ion concentration in the soap composition of the present invention must be less than 1% by weight of the total composition and preferably less than 0.2% by weight. Such ions are commonly a carry-over in salts formed in conventional soap making processes and exist in many commercial soap sources.

While, as hereinbefore stated, the soap compositions of the present invention may be applied to scouring pads by any common application means, it has been found that the soap composition is particularly suitable for use in a process utilizing a spray application. Heretofore, soap compositions of the prior art, due to their physical characteristics have been unsuitable for spray application on scouring pads. Such soaps, when spray application was attempted, generally provided pads having extremely poor appearance, uneven soap distribution and in addition thereto, the spraying resulted in high soap losses in the manufacturing operations.

A particularly satisfactory product may be prepared with the present soap composition or other suitable sprayable detergent which may be soap or synthetic detergent using a method wherein a flat ribbon of suitable scouring pad wool or fibers having a thickness and width sumcient to provide finished scouring pads of desired shape is sprayed with a detergent composition on at least one side. The detergent is supplied through a spray nozzle and pump connected to a suitable source of supply. The ribbon then has placed upon it, at spaced intervals, metered quantities of a detergent core in a semi-solid, plastic, paste-like form which is capable of maintaining its position and shape as a discrete body. The detergent may be the same detergent used in spraying or any other compatible detergent. The frequency of discharge of the semi-solid core composition and the linear speed of the ribbon are so correlated as to provide discrete bodies of the core composition on the ribbon. The ribbon may then be cut by cutting means at equally spaced intervals to provide each cut strip of ribbon with a unitary discrete body of soap. In the alternative, if desired, the ribbon may be divided into desired lengths by tearing or cutting before applying the core. The cut ribbon is rolled into a cylinder with the discrete body of detergent in the center and compressed to form -a finished scouring pad. As used herein the term cut refers to the cutting or tearing of steel Wool or other ribbons to divide the ribbon into proper length.

In carrying out a preferred embodiment of the present invention, steel wool is the scouring pad fiber employed. It has been found that the type steel wool employed may be varied considerably depending upon the abrasiveness and texture desired in the finishing scouring pad. Preferably, commercial steel wools having the grade in the order of about 1 to 00 are employed. It is preferred to employ long fibered steel wool capable of giving the finished pads desired elasticity and spring while at the same time reducing the number of short ends which can abrade the users hands.

In carrying out the spraying step in the method of the present invention, any spray system capable of handling soap may be employed. It is desired to provide the finished ribbon with a uniform soap coating which is free from visual droplets or beads.

When steel wool ribbon is employed, it is preferred to use a soap composition as the detergent to be applied Typically, spray nozzles having orifice diameters of about 0.0050.025 inch Will provide satisfactory results with most soap compositions. The soap composition to be sprayed is maintained at a temperature above which the soap is fluid and may be atomized and below which the atomized soap dries too rapidly to permit satisfactory adhesion to the steel wool ribbon. At extremely high temperatures, the moisture in the soap flashes off instantaneously thereby partially drying the soap and reducing it adhesive properties. Typically, soap compositions at temperatures in the order of about l10210 F. will provide satisfactory results. Preferably, soap compositions having temperatures in the order of about -l60 F. are employed. The soap composition is sprayed onto the steel wool ribbon in an amount of about 3-7 grams of soap solids per 6 gram of steel wool ribbon. While the soap may be sprayed onto either or both sides of the fiattened steel wool ribbon, it is preferred in carrying out the present invention that the soap be sprayed onto one side of the steel wool ribbon.

The detergent employed in the core of the present invention may be any detergent composition which is compatible with the sprayed detergent composition employed and which can be extruded as a semi-solid, plastic, pastelike mass capable of substantially maintaining its position and shape as a discrete body after extrusion. It is preferred when soap is employed that about 0-3 grams of soap solids are employed per 6 grams of steel wool ribbon.

The steel wool pads are formed from steel wool ribbons having a length of approximately 18 inches and weighing about 6 grams. The ribbon may be cut or torn before or after the soap core is applied by use of conventional steel wool tearing or cutting equipment. The soap core is placed upon the steel wool and preferably located so that after formation of the pad the core is in the proximate center of the finished pad. The cut or torn steel wool ribbon, preferably with the soap core on the soap-free side of the ribbon, is then rolled in the cylindrical form by conventional steel wool pad rolling equipment and then pressed in conventional steel Wool pad presses to form the finished pad.

While the method of the present invention has been described with reference to the placing of a core portion on the ribbon, it has been found that it is possible with some scouring pad products to omit the core and yet obtain desirable results.

The soap composition may be prepared by the following examples.

Example I A solution was prepared by dissolving 7 pounds of sodium carbonate and 2% pounds of sodium nitrite in 26.9 pounds of water and the solution heated to 140 F. in a crutcher. 32.1 pounds of molten 70% solids kettle soap containing 80% sodium tallow soap and 20% sodium coconut soap was addedto the solution with agitation. 10.5 pounds of 50%v potassium hydroxide solution and 20.5 pounds of coconut oil were simultaneously added to the previously prepared mixture with continuous agitation While maintaining the temperature of the mixture at 170 F. 3 pounds ofdodecanol was added to the mixture and agitation continued for an additional 90 minutes while the temperature was maintained at 170 F. to complete saponification. The resultant soap mixture was then ready for application to scouring pads. In carrying out the present example, steel wool strips were dipped in the fluid soap mixture at 150:10 F. and fed through the nip between two rolls to express the excess soap solution. The soap impregnated steel wool'was then cut and rolled to desired size and compressed. The finished scouring pads were dry and provided a creamy, long lasting lather when used.

Example 11 A solution was prepared by dissolving 7 /2 pounds of sodium carbonate and 2% pounds of sodium nitrite in 26.9 pounds of water and the solution heated to 140 F. in a crutcher. 25 pounds of molten, 70% solids kettle soap containing 80% sodium tallow soap and 20% sodium soap was added to the solution with agitation. 12.8 pounds of 50% potassium hydroxide solution and 25.1 pounds of coconut oil were simultaneously added to the previously prepared mixture with continuous agitation while maintaining the temperature of the mixture at 170 F. 3 pounds of dodecanol was added to the mixture and agitation continued for an additional 90 minutes while the temperature was maintained at 170 F. to complete saponification. The resultant soap mixture was then ready for application to scouring pads. In carrying out the present example steel wool strips were dipped in the fluid soap mixture at 150:10" F. and fed through the nip between two rolls to express the excess soap solution. The soap impregnated steel wool was then cut and rolled to desired size and compressed. The scouring pads provided a creamy, long lasting lather.

Example III A solution was prepared by dissolving 7.2 pounds of sodium carbonate, 2.4 pounds of sodium nitrite and 3.3 pounds of sodium hydroxide in 32.56 pounds of water. 13.2 pounds of commercial stearic acid containing 50% palmitic and 35% stearic acid. 2.0 pounds oleic acid and 3.7 pounds of coconut oil acids were melted and added with agitation to the solution at a temperature of 150 F. The mixture was agitated until uniformly soapy in appearance and the temperature began to drop indicating completion of the reaction. 21.6 pounds of coconut oil was added to the reaction mixture with agitation. The temperature was then adjusted to between 170-190 F. After the coconut oil was blended in the reaction mixture, 10.8 pounds of a 50% potassium hydroxide solution was added to the mixture and agitation continued for 1 hour while maintaining the temperature between 170-190 F. After the 1 hour of agitation, 3 pounds of dodecanol, perfume and color were added to the mixture and agitated until uniformly distributed. In carrying out the present example, steel wool was sprayed with the fluid soap mixture at 150; -10 F. The soap impregnated steel wool was then cut and rolled to desired size and compressed to form pads.

Example IV A solution was prepared by dissolving 7.2 pounds of sodium carbonate, 2.4 pounds of sodium nitrite and 3.3

pounds of sodium hydroxide in 32.56 pounds of water. 13.2 pounds of commercial stearic acid containing 50% palmitic and 35% stearic acid, 2.0 pounds oleic acid and 3.7 pounds of coconut oil acids were melted and added with agitation to the solution at a temperature of F. The mixture was agitated until uniformly soapy in appearance and the temperature began to drop indicating completion of the reaction. 21.6 pounds of coconut oil was added to the reaction mixture with agitation. The temperat-ure was then adjusted to between -190 F. After the coconut oil was blended in. the reaction mixture, 10.8 pounds of a 50% potassium hydroxide solution was added to the mixture and agitation continued for 1 hour while maintaining the temperature between 170- F. After the 1 hour of agitation, 3 pounds of dodecanol, perfume and color were added to the mixture and agitated until uniformly distributed. In carrying out the present example, steel wool was sprayed with fluid soap mixture at 150:10" F. The soap was sprayed on at a rate of 4 grams of soap per 18 inches of ribbon weighing 6 grams. One gram of soap in a semi-solid, plastic, paste-like form was then extruded onto the ribbon being conveyed passed an extrusion nozzle at 18 inch intervals. The ribbon was then cut at 18 inch intervals so as to provide each 18 inch length of ribbon with a semi-solid, plastic, paste-like soap core on one end. The soap impregnated steel wool was then cut and rolled to desired size and compressed to form pads.

Example V A solution was prepared by dissolving 7.0 pounds of sodium carbonate, 2.5 pounds of sodium nitrite and 18.4 pounds of a 50% potassium hydroxide solution in 31.3 pounds of water. 22.4 pounds of fatty acids derived from the hydrogenation of still bottoms of coconut oil distillation (containing 35 palmitic and 59% stearic acid) and 18.4 pounds of commercial coconut oil were melted and added with agitation to the solution at a temperature of 160 F. The mixture was agitated until uniformly soapy in appearance and the temperature began to drop indicating completion of the reaction. Perfume and color were added to the mixture and agitated until uniformly distributed. In carrying out the present example, steel wool was sprayed with the fluid soap mixture at 150:10" F. The soap was sprayed on at a rate of 4 grams of soap per 18 inches of ribbon weighing 6 grams. One gram of soap in a semi-solid, plastic, paste-like form was then extruded onto the ribbon being conveyed passed an extrusion nozzle at 18 inch intervals. The ribbon was then cut at 18 inch intervals so as to provide each 18 inch length of ribbon with a semi-solid, plastic, paste-like soap core on one end. The soap impregnated steel wool was then cut and rolled to desired size and compressed to form pads. The scouring pads when used provided a creamy, long-lasting lather.

The soap composition spray in Examples 3, 4 and 5 were sprayed at a pressure of 400 p.s.i.g. by means of a single fluid airless spray nozzle having an orifice of 0.02 inch in diameter. While a single fluid nozzle Was employed in carrying out Examples 3, 4 and 5, it is to be understood that any conventional spray equipment can be employed.

While the present invention has been described by means of specfic examples, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereto, reference being had to the appended claims for a definition of the scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. As a new composition of matter, a soap impregnating agent for scouring pads which consists essentially of about 25-50% by weight of water, about 1-3% by weight of sodium nitrite, about 3-10% by weight of alkali metal carbonate selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium carbonate, about 0-6% by weight of polyglycol humectant, about 10-45% by weight of potassium high lauric acid oil soap, about 0.522.5% by weight of alkali metal high lauric acid oil soap selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium soaps, about 45% by weight of sodium tallow soap.

2. A composition as defined in claim 1 wherein the soap impregnating agent for scouring pads consists essentially of about 30-45% by weight of water, about 1.52.5% by weight of sodium nitrite, about 5-8% by weight of alkali metal carbonate selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium carbonate, about 24% by weight of polyglycol humectant, about 20-30% by weight of potassium high lauric acid soap, about 1.512.5% by weight of alkali metal high lauric acid soap selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium soaps, about 15-25% by weight of alkali metal tallow soap selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium soaps, and about 24% of the foam builder.

3. The composition of claim 2 wherein the alkali metal high lauric acid soap and the alkali metal tallow soap are sodium soaps.

4. The composition of claim 2 wherein the alkali metal high lauric acid soap and the alkali metal tallow soap are potassium soaps.

5. The composition of claim 2 wherein the alkali metal high lauric acid soap is a sodium soap and the alkali metal tallow soap is a potassium soap.

6. The composition of claim 2 wherein the alkali metal high lauric acid soap is a potassium soap and the alkali metal tallow soap is a sodium soap.

7. The composition of claim 2 wherein the foam builder is dodecanol.

8. A composition as defined in claim 2 wherein the alkali carbonate is sodium carbonate and the humectant is glycerin.

9. A composition as defined in claim 8 wherein the amount of potassium high lauric acid soap is about 21.5% to 42.5% the tallow soap is a potassium tallow soap and the fatty alcohol is dodecanol.

10. A composition as defined in claim 8 wherein the fatty alcohol comprises a mixture of at least two alcohols having -a chain length of C to C 11. A method for making a steel wool scouring pad which comprises spraying at a temperature of 110 F. to 210 F. steel WOOl ribbon having a first side and a second side with 3 to 7 grams of the solids derived from a composition as defined in claim 10 for each six grams of ribbon weight, to coat at least one side of said ribbon, extruding a semi-solid, plastic, paste-like unitary charge of detergent onto one of said sides of said ribbon at spaced intervals to provide up to about three grams thereof for each six grams of ribbon Weight, cutting said ribbon into sections to provide a ribbon section having a unitary charge of detergent on each section and located so that it is proximate to the center of the pad when finished, rolling said sections into cylinders having said unitary charge in the center thereof and compressing said cylinders into steel wool scouring pads of desired shape.

12. A method as defined in claim 11 wherein the steel wool ribbon is provided on the first side with four to six grams of solids per six grams of ribbon Weight and the ribbon is cut into about 18 inch lengths.

13. A method as defined in claim 7 wherein a portion of said first side serves as an exterior wall of said cylinders.

14. A method for making a steel wool scouring pad which comprises spraying at a temperature of F. to 210 F. steel wool ribbon having a first side and second side with 3 to 7 grams of the solids derived from a composition as defined in claim 10 for each six grams of ribbon weight, to coat at least one side of said ribbon, cutting said ribbon into sections of about 18 inches in length per section, extruding a semi-solid, plastic, pastelike unitary charge of detergent onto one of said sides of said cut ribbon sections to provide each section with said unitary charge proximate the center thereof, rolling said sections into cylinders having said unitary charge in the center thereof and compressing said cylinders into steel wool scouring pads of desired shape.

15. A scouring pad comprising a ribbon of steel wool rolled about a detergent composition to provide up to about three grams of said detergent for each six grams of steel wool, said pad having at least its exterior surface impregnated with about three to seven grams of the solids derived from a composition as defined in claim 10, for each six grams of pad Weight.

16. A composition as defined in claim 1 wherein therein there is present 0-6% by weight of a C C fatty alcohol foam builder.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,475,663 11/1923 Tseng 252-422 2,125,099 7/1938 Brooks 15506 2,344,671 3/1944 'Bertsch 252123 2,733,211 1/1956 Maxcy et al. 252-91 3,094,735 6/ 19 63 Hanlon 15506 3,175,331 3/1965 Klein 15506 LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner.

W. E. SCHULZ, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1475663 *Apr 6, 1921Nov 27, 1923Tseng JicknamManufacture of soap
US2125099 *Apr 9, 1937Jul 26, 1938S O S CompanyCleansing article
US2344671 *Sep 3, 1938Mar 21, 1944American Hyalsol CorpHigher molecular alcohols
US2733211 *Dec 30, 1949Jan 31, 1956 Impregnated scouring pad
US3094735 *Aug 9, 1961Jun 25, 1963Hanlon Patrick GCleaning device and method of making same
US3175331 *Jul 13, 1964Mar 30, 1965Union Carbide CorpCleaning and scouring pad
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4175051 *Jan 26, 1978Nov 20, 1979Kao Soap Co., Ltd.Scouring pad containing phosphoric acid ester-fatty acid soap mixtures
US4190549 *Nov 16, 1978Feb 26, 1980Kao Soap Co., Ltd.Soap for scouring pad
US4247971 *Jul 16, 1979Feb 3, 1981Kao Soap Co., Ltd.Process for sticking chemical to fibrous article
US4272393 *Dec 27, 1979Jun 9, 1981Gerhard GergelyGas generating cleaning article
US4613446 *Mar 13, 1985Sep 23, 1986Pennzoil CompanyGelled detergent composition and cleaning pads containing same
US4759865 *Nov 6, 1986Jul 26, 1988Colgate-Palmolive CompanyPasty acid detergent composition
US4935158 *Oct 30, 1986Jun 19, 1990Aszman Harry WSolid detergent cleaning composition, reusable cleaning pad containing same and method of manufacture
US5507968 *Dec 14, 1994Apr 16, 1996Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyCleansing articles with controlled detergent release and method for their manufacture
Classifications
U.S. Classification15/104.93, 510/481, 510/505, 510/437, 510/435, 510/108, 510/509
International ClassificationA47L13/02, A47L17/00, C11D17/04, A47L17/08, A47L13/06
Cooperative ClassificationC11D17/049, A47L17/08, A47L13/06
European ClassificationC11D17/04F, A47L13/06, A47L17/08