US 333750 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 (No Model.)
L. HANSEN' 33 A. SMITH. APPARATUS FOR DISTILLING WOOD.
No. 333,730. Patented Jan. 3, 1333.
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(NoModel.) 2'sheets-sheet2- L. HANSEN 8v A. SMITH.
APPARATUS POR DISTILLING WOOD.
No. 333,750. Patented Jan. 5, 1886.
/vn vfe u ford' f UNITED STATES N PATENT OFFICE'.
LUDVIG HANSEN AND ANDREW SMITH, OF WILMINGTON, N. C.V
APPARATUS FOR DISTILLING WOOD.
SPECIFICATION forming part. of Letters Patent No.7333,750, dated January 5,1886.
Application filed October l0, 1855.
`To all whom it may concern:
' sote, of which the following is a specification.
Our invention relates to an apparatus for the dry distillation of wood for abstracting the spirits, pyroligneous acid, 85o., but more especially the creosotecontained therein, to be utilized for the preservation of timber, and for other purposes.
The object of the invention is to provide improvements in the construction of a retortfurnace for the manufacture of creosote from wood, whereby the retort may be more rapidly heated for promoting the process, and more rapidly cooled than heretofore when it is desired to remove the old charge in order to substitute aV new one.
The improvements will be hereinafter fully described, and specifically pointed out in the claims, reference being had to the accompanying two sheets of drawings, in which- Figure 1 represents a front or end view of the apparatus, the end cover of the retort being removed and parts broken out to show the construction. Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section of the same, taken on the line .c a; of Fig. l. Fig. 3 is a partial-horizontal section taken on the line y y of Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 4 is a front or end View of the furnace with the door or end cover closed. Fig. 5 is a detail showing the manner of tightening the retort-cover.
A is the masonry or brick furnace holding the retort. B is the retort, being an iron cylinder supported in the end walls of the furnace A.
Heretofore we have supported the ends of the retort directly upon and in contact with the end walls of the furnace, (sixteen inches thick,) but have found that (owing to the fact of the brick retaining its heat so much longer than the iron) that portion of the retort which is in direct contact with the brick wall will Serial No. 179,479. (No model.)
iron. To prevent this,we cover the end walls of the furnace with iron plates or frames C, resting the ends of the retort in closely-fittingl openings in the said frames G, and leaving an air-space clear laround the entire retort, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
The retort is preferably made verylomg` say twenty-five or twenty-six feet-and adapted to hold conveniently six cords of wood. For rapidly heating a retort of this size, the furnace A is made double, being divided centrally by a crosspartition, a, in two exactly similar parts, A A2, this partition, where in contact with the retort B', being made as thin as it judiciously can be to not prolong the; cooling of the retort.
The two parts A A2 of the furnace being alike, the description of one will apply to the other. arch, a', provided at its inner ends with fluef openings a2, the fuel being inserted throughthe yfire-place door as in the outer end wall, af being the grate, and c5 the ash-pit. The side walls of the furnace run up vertically, and then are joined by an arch above the retort B, leaving a space, b, all around the retort.
In order to circulate the heat and gases of combustion, so as to heat all parts of the retortV rapidly and uniformly, the space b is divided at proper intervals by partitions placed The fire-place is covered with a brick,l V
alternately below and above the retort and high or deep enough to surround, respectively, the lower and upper semicircle of the latter. The lower said partitions, b', are preferably made of thin molded slabs of fire-clay, and the upper partitions, b2, of iron plates. The space between the arch a and the retort prevents the flame from inipinging upon the latter, which would have the effect to overi heat and burn some parts of the same, thereby acting also unevenly upon the wood in the retort, and the end flues, a2, being at the side instead of in the middle ofthe arch, and at the inner end thereof, (see the broken-out part of Fig. 1,) the heated gases will strike the side walls first and expand in the space b before striking the retort. They will then pass, as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 2, to the upper part of the space b; then forward and down along the first partition, b2, to the lower lower partition, b', and again to the upper IOO part of the `space; then down again along the second upper partition, b2, to the lower part of the space b, and finally up to the upper part of the spaceand out through the stack b3, thus successively rising and diving around all parts of the retort as many times as may be desired, and determined by the number of partitions used. It will be seen that for every time the gases move downward they become reheated, in a measure, by contact or proximity to the heated arch a, thus replacing the heat `just previously imparted by them to the upper part of the retor D are the doors or end covers of the retort, each Onebeing hinged to the frame C in the usual manner; and inorder to relieve the I weight on the hinges the door is provided underneath with a roller, d, pivoted between two lugs, which roller works upon a curved rail, d', which. at its outer end is provided with a stop, cl2, to limit the movement of the door when itis sufficiently open.v The doorhas on the inside a cylindrical pan .or inward projlcction fitting Within the retort, and of the same or alittle greater depth than the thickness of the frame G at its point of contact with the retort'. 'A e 'Inv order to keep the doors air-tight against theretort ends,they are provided with latches c', whose inner, ends lare pivoted tothe door, While the outer ends are madewedge-shaped, as shown in Figs.l 4 and 5, and adapted, when the door is closed, to engage keepers or hooks d o, which arer either cast upon ,or attached to the frame G. Y VThe said keepers are beveled on the inside, asfshown in Fig. 5, in order4 that theA wedge-latch c, when hammered down or depressed in thekeeper, will also force the door tighter against the retort end.
The retort is provided with an` interior railtrack, E, onto which are brought from an outer track trucksF, loaded with wood, and constructedinsuch a manner, as shown in Fig. l, as to ,keep the wood frorn direct Contact with the retort. The outer and 'inner tracks are connected by loose rail-pieces e, vremovable, toallow ofopening and closing the doors.v
Theprodu'cts of the dry distillation of the wood `pass off through the pipe f toY a condenser' in the usual manner. The Wood hav'- i'ng been thoroughlycharred and thev desired products abstractedftherefrom, the fires are put out and the furnacecooled, so as to enable Vthe taking out of thecharcoal and. puttingin av new charge of wood. In orderto hastenthiseooling, (which heretofore has occupied about` thirty-six hours,) and thus to save considerable time, we have provided the following means: At each end ofthe furnace,
near the corners of the space b, are arranged Ventilating-doors vG, and at the inner end of the said spacethrough the side wall of the l furnace ,are openings g, through which connection is' vmade by pipes h with the fan blower H. ,In coolingthefurnace the doors G are rstf opened, while the door a3 and thel ash-pit a5 are closed, and after the first strong draft caused by the intluX of the air through the doors G hassubsided, the doors G are closed and the fan-blower started, thus forcing the coldair through the fire-lues in the' direction of the arrows in the same path as the gases of combustion passed before to heat the retort. By these means a comparatively very rapid cooling of the furnace is effected and a great deal of time saved. v
Having thus'described our invention, what we claim as new in aretort-furnace for treating wood, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, lsi l. 'A furnace, A/, having fire-place pro-. vided with arch a andy iiues ofI at opposite sides through the inner end of saidarch, and a retort or cylinder, B, set in the said furnace; abovev said` arch and surrounded by anairrspace, b, in combination with transverse par? titiovns b b2, dividing alternately the lower and.-
the upper half of the said'space b, forL circulat' ing the heat round the said retort, in the manner hereinbefore set forth.
A2. The combination of the double' furnace, l
3. The combination of the double furnace 1A, provided .with the arches a and fines a2,
with the retort B and the airspace 1;,'su rroundi ing the said retort and divided by alternate IOO transverse partitions b b2, and having venl tilating endldoors, G. l v 4. The combination of the double furnace', A, provided with the arches a and fflues a2,
with the'retort B, having end doors, D,'pro
vided with latches c, and the airspace b, sur! rounding thesaid retort and divided by alter-- natetransverse partitions b b, and having Ventilating end doors, G. i 5.' lhe combination, with a retort-furnace, A B, having openings g leading to its fides,
of a fan or blower, H, connected to said open! ings to force a current of air through said dues for the rapid cooling of the retort.
6. The combination of the retort double furnace A, having around its retort air spaces or flues b, provided with Ventilating end doors, G, with the fan-blower H, connected to forcel a current of air through the said flues at op? posite sides of the partition a, dividing the. said furnace.
In testimony that we claim the foregoing as. our invention we have signed our names, in the presence of two witnesses, of September, 1885.
.,T. T. 1 MeIvoR, v R.. G. HEIDE.
this 28th day,
LUDviG HANSEN. f