US 3337776 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 22, 19$? ELM| BIOMEDICAL APPARATUS FOR GENERATING CONTROLLABLE MAGNETIC FIELDS Filed June 8, 1964 INVENTOR Enea almi.
Hgenf United States Patent 3,337,776 BIOMEDICAL APPARATUS FOR GENERATING CONTROLLABLE MAGNETIC FIELDS Enea Elmi, Guidoni, Via Lima 35, Rome, Italy Filed June 8, 1964, Ser. No. 373,456 Claims priority, application Italy, June 10, 1963, 12,040/63 5 Claims. (Cl. 317-123) This invention relates to an apparatus for the generation of a variable and/or continuous magnetic field, particularly for biomedical applications.
Long ago it was found that the magnetic fields influence the organisms. So for example Kolin noted that in the blood flowing in a living being subjected to a magnetic field an electromotive force generated and Wermeinen found that under the same Kolins experimental conditions there also occurred an increase of ionization. Wermeinen himself investigated and demonstrated that physical chemical alterations occurred in several other body fluids.
Some further researches effected by Japanese researchers, have shown the influence of magnetic fields on the sedimentation speed of red corpuscles or on the vitality of bacterium cultures, whilst in the USA. it has been shown that the action of magnetic fields favorably affects life by delaying the ageing processes, the desoxyribonucleic acid and white corpuscles.
Prof. Erminio Bossi has established that there exists a relation between the meterological instability and the cardiopathies and that among the parameters characterizing said instability electrical and magnetic parameters have a particular significance.
Studies in radio-biology, due to Callegari, have led to the theoretical principle of the bioelectrical hypophysis dystoniae. His experiences have confirmed that, accord ing to the physical-neurological space-dynamic theory of Prof. Tedeschini, there exists a bioelectrical correlation between the hypophysis gland and endocrine glands (epiphysis, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, suprarenal glands, gonads) and between hypophysis gland and other glands such as the liver, the duodenal gland, pancreas, spleen, lymph-gland, appendix, tonsils.
Such dystoniae seem to give rise to different types of humoral dyscrasiae (i.e. an alteration of the biochemical equilibrium), caused by an overlapping of bioelectrical actions between the prehypophysis and the post-hypophysis and due to blood electrification.
However, not only is there a'direct bioelectrical correlation between the hypophysis gland and mixed secretion endocrine glands, but these correlations may be modified according the enunciation made by Prof. Callegari since the aforesaid gland behaves, as has been also experimentally demonstrated by some of the above-cited authors, not only like an induction interceptor, but, according to the aforesaid Callegaris theories, one may establish a different behavior between the parts of the hypophysis i.e. of cathodic type in the pars anterior, of anodic type in the pars posterior and a mixed type in the pars media.
The existence of the aforementioned correlations, the evidence that alterations of the same may have therapeutical applications, since the function of the hypophysis is a physio-biochemical regulation of the entire organism, have led the applicant to a series of experimental tests tending to prove the existence'of a therapeutical action of the magnetic field, this above all with regard to the bioelectrical modifications introduced thereby.
From the experiences had, evidence has been provided that the subjects react and that these reactions are a function of the intensity of the generated magnetic field and the direction of the same. It has been found also that Callegaris enunciation on the bioelectrical functions of the three parts of the hypophysis gland, prominently anodic function in the pars posterior and mixed function in the pars media, is related to the magnetic fields generated around the subject, that is to say, with the subject near a north pole of the field there occur prominently glandular reactions, with an inverted field there occur prominently nervous reactions, and with a field invariable in direction there occur a non-linear and complex combination of both. Depending on the field, increases of the analytical values of the metabolism in relation to a thyroid hyperactivity of sedative nature and decrease of metabolism values and reactions on the spastic syndromes, have been observed i.e. experimentally, reactions on the hypoactivity and spastic syndromes have been ascertained. Consequently, the possibility to influence the biochemical and biophysical behavior of the organic crasis by means of magnetic fields allows, in the light of experiences had, to modify certain pathological patterns.
It is the main object of this invention to provide an apparatus adapted to generate variable and controllable magnetic fields and equipped with means for diffusing said magnetic fields in a desired manner on the human body.
It is still another not less important object of this invention to provide an apparatus for the generation of magnetic fields continuous and variable in direction and with an intensity suitable for therapeutical purposes.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a simple and rational apparatus of the described type.
Another object of this invention is to provide an apparatus for the generation of magnetic fields to be used for therapeutical purposes not influencing the subject through secondary stimuli.
These and still other objects are attained by the apparatus according to this invention, which is characterized in that it comprises a source of alternating electromotive force, with variable amplitude and/or frequency under the action of control means, at least one rectifier for said electromotive force, at least one solenoid for the generation of a magnetic field, coupled with means for the con centration of said field and constituted preferably of a ferromagnetic and/ or paramagnetic core immersed in said solenoid and preferably joined to a distributed permeance disperser, the apparatus also comprising means adapted to cause the operation of the half wave of full wave rectifier and means for the exclusion thereof, measuring and signaling means and means for inverting the circulation sense of the current inside the solenoids being further provided.
The source of alternating electromotive force with vari able amplitude is advantageously constituted of a trans former having its primary connected to the network, with the interposition of a switch and preferably of a fuse and the secondary with multiple taps leading to the fixed contacts of a multi-position change-over switch. The rectifier is suitably constituted of rectifying diodes, preferably with blocking-layer, connected to a Graetzs bridge circuit, the DC. output vertices being connected to taps for the connection of the field solenoids, the input vertices of said bridge being connected to two corresponding and fixed contacts of a two-way and two-position switch the moving contacts of which are respectively connected to the initial section of the secondary and the moving contact of the change-over switch with more amplitude selection ways, the second set of contacts of the afore-mentioned two-way and two-position switch being connected to the field solenoid taps.
The means adapted to cause the operation of the aforesaid bridge rectifier with the second or with both branches are advantageously constituted of a switch, capable of short-circuiting, if desired one side of the aforementioned bridge.
Further characteristics and advantages of the invention will become more apparent and manifest from the detailed description of a preferred but non-limiting embodiment of the apparatus according to this invention, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings,.in which:
FIG. 1 is a wiring diagram, with all essential components of the apparatus, to the diagrammatically represented taps a solenoid for the generation of a magnetic field with related diffuser being connected;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic section of a parabolic type diffuser;
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic representation of two diffusers having the solenoids in parallel;
FIG. 4 is a representation of a diffuser similar to that shown in FIG. 3.
With reference to the drawing FIG. 1 shows a transformer 1 having the primary 2 adapted for connection to an alternating current distribution network, and having a switch 3 and a fuse 4 connected in series.
One end terminal of the secondary 5 of the aforesaid transformer has in series an ammeter 6 and is connected to a moving contact 7a of a change-over switch 7 with 2-ways and 2-positions. The secondary shows further intermediate taps or end terminals leading to contacts, generally indicated with 8a, of a one-way and multi-position switch 8 the slider 8b of which leads to the moving contact 7b of the second way of the change-over switch 7. Most evidently, between the end terminal of the secondary and the slider there is a potential difference as a function of the slider position.
The described switch 8 may be considered as a means for varying the output voltage of the transformer and the connection points thereof with the change over switch 7 may be considered as variable voltage supplying terminals.
Between the end terminal of the secondary winding and one of the taps there is placed a pilot or signalling lamp 9 indicating whether of the apparatus is switched in.
The upper pair of fixed contacts 7c of the change-over switch 7 is connected to the taps 10 via a pole-reverser 11, the outlet terminals of which coincide with the taps 10. These taps are connected also to the outputs 12a and 12b of a Graetzs rectifier bridge 12 and in parallel with said contacts is a signalling lamp 13.
The contacts 76 may be considered as conductor means, which provide a direct connection with the inlet terminals of the pole reverser.
The other pair 7d of the fixed contacts of the change over switch 7 is connected to the inputs 12c and 12d of the rectifier bridge and has in parallel a signalling lamp 14. It is manifest that with the change-over switch 7 in the position as represented in FIG. 1, the rectifier bridge is excluded or shut off and that the alternating electromotive force the amplitude of which is a function of the position of the slider 8b, is applied to the solenoid through the taps 10. With the change-over switch 7 in the other position the rectifier is inserted in the circuit and a pulsating and unidirection electromotive force reaches the taps 10 such as to present on the one or the other tap whose polarity can be reversed by means of the reverser 11.
Between the output 12b and the input 12d of the rectifying bridge there is placed a switch 15, adapted to shortcircuit the diode of the rectifier bridge which is connected to said two points; by shortcircuiting said bridge side one of the diodes is put in series andthe other two in parallel thus obtaining that unidirectional impulses with intervals of a semi-period reach the taps, the second alternation being shortcircuited by the diodes in parallel.
In the taps 10' there are inserted the terminals of a solenoid 16, having housed in its inside a laminated core 17 to the one end of which is fastened a magnetic plate memher 18, carrying distributed over its surface ferromagnetic quills and extending transverse to the axis of said solenoid.
Evidently, the magnetic field generated by the solenoid, and which is alternating or pulsating depending upon the position of the change-over switch 7 and switch 15 and the amplitude of which is a function of the position of the slider 8b, localizes inside the core due to its low reluctance and returns thereto after having been diffused in the space by the ferromagnetic quills fitted in the plate member 18.
In FIG. 2, illustrating a second difluser type, there is shown a solenoid 20- wound around a laminated core 21 to which a parabolic reflector 22 is fastened. At the pole piece of the aforementioned core, inside the parabolic reflector there is fastened a member 23 consisting of ferromagnetic material.
In FIGS. 3 and 4, wherein diffusers with more members are illustrated, there are shown respectively the diffusers 31 and 32 and 41 and 42, joined to the cores 33 and 34 and 43 and 44, on which the solenoids 35 and 36 and 45 and 46 are wound. It is clear that by operating two diffusers it is possible, depending upon their connections, to have opposite magnetic polarity.
The operation of the apparatus is as follows: The apparatus is connected to the alternating current network, then, depending on the subject to be treated, the change over switch 7 is actuated in order to select an alternating or unidirectional current supply for the solenoid 16. It is possible also to select a supply with impulses spaced by an alternation or with contiguous impulses (full wave rectification). Then, still depending on the subject, the
reverser 11 is actuated in order to create a field with one or the opposite direction and also the switch 8 is actuated to set the intensity of the field itself, a relative measure whereof is given by the ammeter 6. The distance between the subject and the apparatus depends on the clinical requirements.
The described apparatus the operation of which as to generation of a continuous and/ or variable magnetic field is simple and fully accomplishes the experimental and therapeutical purposes for which it is devised.
So for example the rheumatic syndrome exemplified as pictured in the chronic articular rheumatism of ischialgiae of rheumatic character and arthropathic syndrome of arthrosis type have reacted to the exposure of the subject to a north polarized magnetic field in the -85 of cases after a series of exposures of 30 minutes each distributed over the time. The following observations have been made in the use of the apparatus:
During the first 3 or 4 exposures there is generally an analgesic effect followed up in further exposures by the return of pains with a certain recrudescence which yields after the tenth application.
Correspondingly thereto an increase of the pressure index is noted within limits contained in a ten units.
Older subjects require a larger number of exposures. It is to be noted that besides humans other animal organisms are affected by the action of magnetic fields for the generation of which the above-described apparatus has proven fully responsive.
The invention as devised is subjected to several changes and modifications all falling within its scope.
So for example, instead of having a stepwise voltage variation it is possible to have a continuous variation thereof by placing between the network and the trans former an auto-transformer of the variable voltage type, or a rheostat could be inserted for the same purpose; furthermore, instead of connecting the apparatus to the network the assembly could be connected to a variable frequency electromotive source and leveling circuits could be provided, preferably of the impedance and capacity type, which are inserted when the apparatus is switched over for the direct current supply for the solenoids.
The levelling circuits may be advantageously transitorized and may include also 1r networks.
In addition to the above modifications, still further changes may be provided in connection with the generator-diifusor means of the magnetic field: for example, in the case of more generator-diffusor means, opposite pole pieces could be joined by ferromagnetic bars in such a way as to reduce the reluctance and dispersion, the presence of an adequate air gap remaining unchanged, into which to place the subject, and furthermore, the aforesaid bar and/0r bars could be replaced fully or partly by magnetized bars so that the magnetic field generated by the solenoids or solenoid sums up to the permanent magnet field.
The solenoid cores connected in parallel or in series may be provided with yokes connecting heteronymous poles of diiferent polarity and made at least in part of magnetized material.
The member 23 of ferromagnetic material instead of a conical shape may have a profile following an exponential curve.
Furthermore all details could be replaced with technically equivalent elements and Whatever dimensions and materials and shapes could be used depending upon requirements.
1. A biomedical apparatus for the treatment of a subject with controllable low frequency magnetic fields, including an electric circuit with means for varying the voltage operating said circuit, solenoid means for creating the magnetic field, pole reverser means for varying the polarity of the current supplied to the solenoid, rectifier means connectable with said pole reverser means, and wherein the improvement comprises, a solenoid having an elongated laminated core With a free end, a plate member secured on the free end of said core and extending transverse thereto, and a plurality of quills of ferromagnetic material distributed over, projecting from and fixed on that surface of the plate member which is opposite to said core.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1, comprising further switch means for disconnecting said rectifier from said circuit, signalling means for signalling the flow of current in at least one portion of said circuit and current measuring means for measuring the current flowing through said circuit.
3. A biomedical apparatus for the treatment of a subject with controllable low frequency magnetic fields, including an electric circuit with means for varying the voltage operating said circuit, solenoid means for creating the magnetic field, pole reverser means for varying the polarity of the current supplied to the solenoid, rectifier means connectable with said pole reverser means and wherein the improvement comprises, a solenoid having an elongated laminated core with a free end, a tapered elongated member having a pointed end, said tapered member being connected with its end opposite to the pointed end to said free end of said core member and extending coaxial with said core, a curved shield member extending transverse to said core and said tapered member and secured on said free end of said core member, said shield member having a concave surface facing the direction from said free end of the core member towards said pointed end of the tapered member.
4. An apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the tapering profile of said tapered elongated member has the shape of an exponential curve.
5. An apparatus according to claim 3, comprising further switch means for disconnecting said rectifier from said circuit, signalling means for signalling the flow of current through at least one portion of said circuit and current measuring means for measuring the current flowing through said circuit.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,073,201 3/1937 Esan l28-l.3 2,393,466 1/1946 Greenfield 335-201 X 2,979,655 4/1961 De Forest 335297 X 3,197,678 7/1965 Primas 335209 OTHER REFERENCES Magnetic Circuits and Transformers, M.I.T., Principles of Electrical Engineering Series, 1943, TK 2551 M 37 (pp. 43,107, 131, 240, and 511).
MILTON O. HIRSHFIELD, Primary Examiner.
J. A. SILVERMAN, Assistant Examiner.