US 3340888 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept 12, '1967 R, E. FARISON CHEMICAL FEEDER Original Filed Aug.
INVENTOR. ROBERT E. FARISON Sept. l2, `1967 R. E. FARISON y3,340,888
CHEMICAL FEEDER Original Filed Aug. l, 1962- 5 SheeS--heetgzd fw /f M4 af -Y 'l INVENTOR f 9 79 64 ROBERT FARISON .5 if; m w
Ariz/fwn Sept. 12, 1967 OriginalV Filed Aug. l 1962 R. E. FARISON CHEMICAL FEEDER 3 Sheets-Sheet :a
` ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,340,888 CHEMICAL FEEDER Robert E. Farison, Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor, by mesne assignments, to W. R. Grace & Co., New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York Original application Aug. 1, 1962, Ser. No. 214,055, now Patent No. 3,200,835, dated Aug. 17, 1965. Divided and this application July 21, 1965, Ser. No. 482,975 4 Claims. (Cl. 137-268) This is a division of my copending application Ser. No. 214,055 filed Aug. 1, 1962, and now Patent 3,200,835, issued Aug. 17, 1965.
The present invention relates to chemical feeders and is particularly directed to an apparatus for dissolving a granular or flake washing compound and feeding the compound to a dishwasher or other form of cleaning apparatus.
At the present time, it is the practice in connection with large commercial dishwashers of the type that are found in restaurants, for example, to utilize washing compounds in either a granular or fiake form. Before the chemical compound can be used in the dishwashing machine, it must be dissolved and fed as a concentrated solution to the dishwasher sump or the like. The granular or flake dishwashing compound is supplied to the user in a large container, such as a drum. The user is then required the transfer the compound from the shipment container to another smaller container in which the material is dissolved in water and then either pumped or fed by gravity to the dishwashing apparatus. This transfer of detergent from the shipping container to the dissolving container is bothersome since it not only requires eXtra labor, but also the compound is often spilled with attendant mess and loss.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel chemical feeder which is effective to dissolve a granular or flake compound in the shipping container and to feed the compound directly from that container to the point of use in the dishwashing machine or the like.
One of the principal advantages of this feeder is that it eliminates entirely the need for transferring granular material from one container to another.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a dispenser which is effective to maintain the same balance of dishwashing ingredients in the solution fed to the dishwashing machine as are present in the original granular or fiake product.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a feeder which is effective to feed from a container all of the material in the container so that no loss occurs because of unused material remaining in the bottom of the drum or other container.
More particularly, one preferred form of feeding device embodying the principles of the present invention includes a head assembly mounted in a threaded opening in the cover of a watertight shipping container, such as -a drum, can or the like. The head includes a tubular nozzle which is effective to form a high velocity jet stream of water which impinges upon the bed of material and creates a high rate of surface agitation. The feeder head also includes an outlet opening surrounding the tubular nozzle and of substantially greater cross sectional area.
The high velocity water stream causes the chemical bed to dissolve rapidly so that a concentrated solution of material is formed in the container. Since the container is watertight, pressure is built up in the container which causes this solution to be forced from the container and through suitable conduits to its point of use. As was indicated above, the nozzle orifice is small in relationship to the size of the discharge conduit; consequently the pressure built up in the container is limited to the magnitude necessary to feed the solution to the dishwasher machine. For example, the pressure in a container may be of the order of 2. p.s.i.
If the washing compound is heterogeneous mixture of solids, these solids dissolve in the same proportion as their proportion in the original compound. Thus, at all times the same proportion of ingredients is fed to the dishwasher as were originally mixed in the washing compound.
The present feeder head is constructed so that it may be threadably engaged in the shipping container lid Without'disengaging the connections of the feeder head to the iiuid conduits joining the head to the washer and water supply. Thus, one of the advantages of the present feeder construction is that it can be quickly and readily connected to andv disconnected from a shipping container without the use of -any special tools.
Still another advantage of the present feeder is that it permits the shipping container to be placed on the lioor or other out of the way position, thereby eliminating the need for having a large container mounted on top of the dishwasher where the container tends to interfere With the operation of the equipment.
Another advantage of the present feeder is that it is of simple construction and is trouble-free in operation.
A slightly modified form of feeder is contemplated for use with larger drums of material or with containers in which it is not feasible to provide va fluid-tight seal. In a modified type feeder, a feeder head is threadably mounted in an opening in the shipping container lid in the same manner as was explained previously. In the modified form of feeder, however, the rigid depending nozzle is replaced by an elongated fiexible tube which carries a weighted nozzle member at its free end. This nozzle member normally rests on the bed of material as the bed of material dissolves. This modified nozzle is effective to provide a high agitation of the bed surface to the full depth of the container. As in the first described embodiment, an annular discharge conduit is provided surrounding the connection to the flexible tube. This discharge conduit is substantially larger than the outlet orifice or orifices in the nozzle member. y
In the modified form of apparatus, no fluid pressure is built up in the container. Rather, the solvent is withdrawn from the container by a siphoning action. This siphoning action is produced in the feeder head by means of a nozzle through which a portion of the inlet water is diverted to form a jet stream. The discharge conduit from the drum terminates in a common chamber with the jet stream so that the jet stream is effective to produce a subatmospheric pressure at the terimnus of the discharge conduit, whereby a concentrated solution of washing compound is forced from the shipping container into the discharge line. This solution is then brought into contact with the jet stream and is fed to the dishwashing machine.
These .and other objects and advantages of the present invention will be more readily apparent from a considera. tion of the following detailed description of the drawings illustrating a preferred embodiment of the invention.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a front elevational view showing a dishi washing machine connected to a chemical feeding device constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a vertical cross sectional view through a shipping container fitted with a feeding head of the present invention.
FIGURE 3 is a front elevational view of a preferred form of feeding head.
FIGURE 4 is across sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 5 is a cross sectional view taken along line 5-5 of FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 6 is an elevational View of a shipping drum provided with a modified form of feeder, the drum being partially broken away to show the construction and operation of the dispenser.
FIGURE 7 is a vertical cross sectional view through the modied form of feeder head shown in FIGURE 6.
FIGURE l shows a conventional commercial dishwasher 10 provided with a chemical feeder 11 constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention. It is to be understood that the details of construction of the dishwasher per se constitute no part of the present invention and that the present feeder can be utilized with many different types of dishwashing equipment. However, as is shown in FIGURE l, one typical form of dishwasher with which the present detergent feeder can be used includes a table 12 for supporting racks 13 carrying a plurality of dishes 14. The space above table 12 constitutes a washing chamber 15, while the cabinet of the dishwasher includes a lower wall 16 and side walls 17 defining a water reservoir 19 beneath the table.
During normal operation of the dishwasher, the reservoir 19 is filled with a mixture of hot water and washing compound to the top of overflow 18. A suitable pump (not shown) has an inlet connected to the reservoir below the level of the liquid. This pump is effective to pump the wash solution under pressure to spray nozzles 20 and 21. These nozzles spray the solution onto the soiled dishes 14 held in racks 13. The solution draining from the dishes is returned to the reservoir from which it is recycled over the dishes.
The concentration of wash solution is automatically maintained at a pre-selected level by means of a control system indicated generally at 22 and including the present feeder. More particularly, control system 22 includes an electrode or sensor 23 effective to produce an electrical current which is correlated with the strength of the wash solution. This electrical head or sensor is connected through suitable electrical leads in cable 24 to a control head indicated at 25. This control head receives power from transformer 26 through leads in cable 27. Control head is in turn effective to apply an electrical signal through leads in cable 28 to a solenoid valve 30 causing that valve to open whenever the concentration of wash solution in reservoir 19 drops below the desired level.
Solenoid valve 30 is connected in a hot water inlet line 31. This line includes a manually operated on-off valve 32 and a drain plug 33. The outlet side of solenoid valve 30 is connected through a short nipple 34 to a T connector 35. The lower outlet of the T member is connected to a plugged nipple 36; consequently fluid cannot llow downwardly through T 35, rather fluid must ilow upwardly through nipple 37 and Siphon breaker 38 to inlet line 40 of feeding head 11.
Head assembly 11, as is shown in FIGURE 2, is threadably mounted in an opening 41 formed in cover 42 of shipping container 43. As is shown in FIGURE 2, the shipping container is in the form of a generally cylindrical metal can 44. While the exact capacity of this container is not critical, one preferred size for use with a head of the type shown in FIGURE 2 is of five or six gallon capacity. One form of can 44 includes a beaded upper edge 45 which receives a downwardly turned scaling ange 46 formed on the periphery of lid 42 so that a substantially lluid tight seal is contained between these members. Alternatively, can 44 can have a lid permanently secured in place as by means of welding or the like.
Essentially, the construction of head assembly 11 is such that uid enters the head from inlet line 40. The entering fluid is directed downwardly through nozzle tube 47 where a high velocity jet stream is formed which impinges upon the surface of the solid chemical washing compound bed 48. Thus, a relatively strong solution of washing compound is formed. This concentrated solution is forced by the fluid pressure developed within container 43 through an outlet opening 50 to line 51. As is shown in FIGURE l, outlet line 51 is connected through at T 52 and nipple 53 and elbow 54 to a depending discharge tube 55. The outlet end of this tube is disposed a distance beneath the surface of the compound solution within reservoir 19,
In operation, whenever the electric sensor 23 detects that the strength of the solution in reservoir 19 has dropped below a selected level, an electrical signal is applied from head 25 to solenoid valve 30. This valve thus opens so that water is fed under pressure to the feeding head 11. The concentrated washing solution formed in container 43 is fed from the container through outlet line 51 to the reservoir 19. As soon as the concentration level in the reservoir reaches the proper level, solenoid valve 30 is closed to `stop the feeding action of washing compound from shipping container 43 to the reservoir.
The details of construction of feed head 11 are best shown in FIGURES 3, 4 and 5. As is there shown, the feeding head 11 comprises a threaded plug member 56 preferably formed of a suitable corrosion resistant plastic such as polyethylene, nylon or the like. This plug is adapted to threadably engage a threaded ring member 57 which is welded or otherwise secured to the undersurface of cover 42 of shipping container 43. It is to be understood that in actual use shipping contains 43 is filled at the plant with a granular or flake chemical washing compound. After the container is filled, cover 42 is snapped over bead 45 to form a uid tight seal with can 44. When the container is shipped a suitable cap or plug member is threaded into ring 57 to provide a closure for the lid.
Plug 56 of the feeding assembly includes an outwardly extending radial flange 58 formed on the upper portion of the plug. A groove, or depression 60, is formed in the plug interiorly of flange 58. A plurality of radial abutments 61 extend inwardly from the inner face of ange 58 toward the center of the plug. Plug 56 further includes a web section 62 which connects an outer peripheral threaded skirt portion 63 with a central annular boss portion 64 having a threaded opening 65. A swivel support member 66 threadably engages boss section 64 and extends upwardly from the plug. This swivel section 66 includes a lower shoulder 67 which abuts an O-ring 68 disposed between shoulder 67 and opposing shoulder 70 formed on annular body section 64. This O-ring provides a fluid tight seal between plug member 56 and swivel support member 66.
A swivel tube 69 extends upwardly through and is rotatably journalled within a central bore formed in support member 66. Tube 69 includes a radially extending flange 79 formed along its lower edge. This flange abuts the lower end of support member 66 and prevents upward withdrawal of tube 69 through the support member.
The upper end of tube 69 is disposed within a downwardly facing circular bore 77 formed in swivel body member 78. Tube 68 is press iit within bore 77 or is rigidly secured to that member in any suitable member.
An O-ring 80 is compressed between the upper end of tube 69 and the opposite lower wall of body member 78 to insure -a iluid tight seal between these members.
Body member 78 is of generally cylindrical shape and includes a transverse radial inlet port 81 and a transverse radial outlet port 50. These ports are preferably threaded to receive fittings 83 and 84 respectively connected to inlet line 40 and outlet line 51.
Inlet port 81 communicates with a vertical bore 82 formed in a transverse wall 71 of body member 78. A jet tube 47 is press t or otherwise rigidly secured in bore 82. This tube passes downwardly through the central bore of tube 69 and extends below plug 56. The
lower end of tube 47 is threaded to receive a jet nozzle member 85. Member 85 includes a small orifice 86 for forming a high velocity jet and a knurled head portion 87 by means of which the member 85 can be grasped as it is threaded into the end of the jet tube.
Orifice 86 is of a relatively small size, eg., IAG inch so that a jet stream of sufficiently high velocity is formed to dissolve rapidly the solid chemical bed 48.
The orifice 86 is also sized relative to the line pressure, and the outlet line so that the rate at which water is allowed to enter container 43 is restricted to limit pressure build up in the container. More particularly the orifice is sized s-o that no appreciable excess pressure is built up over that required to expel the concentrated solution from container 43 to its point of use.
Outlet port 50 communicates with an enlarged Vertical bore 88. This bore in turn opens into the bore of tube 69. Thus, an outlet passageway is provided from container through the bore in tube 69, vertical bore 88 and outlet port 50 to line 51. Vertical bore 88 is also connected to a small bore 90 surrounded by a seat 91 of pressure relief assembly 92. This pressure relief assembly includes a weighted cap or head member 93 fitted with a depending center pin or stem 94. The lower end of this stem is provided with a radial flange 95 spaced from the lower end ofthe enlarged upper section of the stem. An O-ring 97 surrounds the pin above ange 95 and normally seats against annular seat 91. The cap 93 thus normally rests upon seat 91 and a fluid tight seal is formed by O-ring 97. Under normal operation this pin prevents an escape of the fluid through bore 90. The cap is loosely held in place by bolts 98. These bolts pass inwardly through enlarged bores formed in a peripheral skirt 100. of the cap member and threadably engage suitable openings in body 78. The bores formed in the skirt are diametrically opposed to one another and are substantially larger than bolts 98 so that the top can tilt and an appreciable amount of play is provided which permits O-ring 97 to Ibecome disengaged from seat 91. If the pressure within the container should exceed a predetermined amount, for example 2 p.s.i., the ycap is lifted and O-ring 97 is shifted from its seat allowing fluid to escape through bore 90 to relieve the excess pressure in the container. It will readily be appreciated that the pressure at which the relief valve opens is determined by the relationship between the weight of cap 93 to the cross sectional area of bore 90.
In addition to these elements, feeder assembly 11 includes two arms 101 and 102. These arms are threadably joined to swivel support member 66 and extend outwardly from that member beyond the periphery of cap 56. Each of the swivel arms carries a depending bolt 103 and 104 extending downwardly into the annular recess 60 formed in cap 56.
After the feeding assembly 11 has been installed, body 78 is rigidly positioned because it is connected to inlet lines 40 and 51. However, swivel support 66 is rotatable relative to the body. This swivel support can be turned by means of arms 101 and 102. These arms also are effective to turn plug member 56 since the depending bolts 103 and 104 are shifted into engagement with abutments 61. Thus, the plug can be tightened down into fluid tight engagement with the lead 42 without the necessity of disconnecting either line 40 or line 51.
In operation, when solenoid valve 30 is open and hot water enters inlet port 81 from line 40, the water liows downwardly through tubing 47 and a high velocity stream flows outwardly from orifice 86. This stream effectively agitates the liquid in contact with the surface of the solid chemical bed 147 causing the solids in that bed to go into solution. Even if the washing compound comprises a heterogeneous mixture of solids, the solid phase dissolves evenly so that the total material dissolved is in proportion to its proportion in the original compoundThis occurs because the liquid-solid interface adjusts itself automatically so that a greater area of the less soluble components is exposed to the liquid phase, whereby the solution rate is in proper proportion for each ingredient of the compound. Moreover, any included liquid ingredients, such as wetting agents which often have limited solu bility are also released in their true proportion.
The liquid solution accumulates within container 44` and produces a low pressure head, limited by the small size of nozzle 86 relative to the size of effluent conduct 51. This pressure, however, is sufficient to force the concentrated solution upwardly through tube 69 and outwardly through bore 88 and port 50. This solution is then forced by pressure through line 51, fittings 52 and 54 and discharge conduit 55 communicating with the reservoir 19. Feeding of solution from container 44 can be continued in this manner until all of the solid material is removed from the container.
A modified form of chemical feeder is shown in FIG- URES 6 and 7. As there shown, a modified chemical feeder 110 is mounted on the lid 111 of a container 112. The modified form of feeder 110 is particularly adapted for use with containers in which it is impractical to provide a fluid tight seal between a lid and container wall. This modified form of feeder is also intended for use with larger containers, such as by way of example 55-gallon drums which the jet from a fixed nozzle is not strong enough to effectively agitate the surface of the material bed for the full depth of the d-rum.
The modified form of feeder includes a plug element 113 adapted to be threaded into a collar 114 permanently mounted upon lid 111. Plug element 113 supports a nipple section 115. This nipple section threadably carries a T-shaped body member 116. Body 116 includes a Vertical bore 117 and a connecting horizontal bore 118. A second short connecting nipple 120 is threaded into the upper end of body 116 and carries a T-shaped fitting 121 having one port connected to an inlet line 122. It is to be understood at this point that feeder 110 is connected to a dishwashing machine and a control circuit in the same manner as feeder 11. In the modified embodiment in FIGURE 6, inlet line 122 corresponds to inlet line 40 while an outlet line 123 is provided corresponding to line 51 of the previous embodiment.
T member 121 includes a straight through bore 119 which communicates with the bore 124 through a nozzle member 125. Nozzle member 125 has a threaded section` 126 which threadably engages T member 121 and eductor member 127. The nozzle further includes a taperedconical jet discharge section 128 effective to discharge a high velocity stream into the mixing chamber 130 of eductor member 127. Chamber 130 converges slightly toward a center cylindrical section 131. The walls of the eductor then diverge in the direction of a threaded discharge opening 133 which threadably receives discharge pipe 123.
Eductor member 127 further includes a threaded transverse opening 134 in which is fitted plug 135. Plug 135 contains a central bore connected to tubing 136. This tubing is also fitted over a second plug 137 in threaded` engagement with transverse port 118 of member 116. Plug member 137 is provided with a bore 138 which interconnects tube 136 with port 118.
A plug 140 threadably engages the upper end of nipple section 121. This plug in turn threadably supports a depending tube 142. Tube 142 extends downwardly through bore 117 of T member 116 and through nipple 115 to a point below lid 111. The lower end of tube 142 carries a flexible tube 143 which is held in place by means of a compression ring 144. Flexible tube 143 is of sufficient length to extend to the bottom of drum 112, permitting the nozzle member 145 to rest on the bottom of drum 112 when it is empty. The free end of tube 143 carries a nozzle member 145. One preferred form of nozzle is a spherical metal ball having a plurality of discharge apertures formed therein. The nozzle member 145 is weighted, that is, heavier than the ilexible tube 143 so that it tends to rest upon the surface of the material bed 147.
As is shown in FIGURE 6, the weight of the ball is effective to cause the ball to drop to a position adjacent to the surface 146 of the material bed 147 within the container. The high velocity jet streams of water emitted from the ball impinge upon the surface 146 of bed 147 and cause the material to be dissolved.
In this modified embodiment, the concentrated solution of washing compound is not forced from the drum by means of fluid pressure built up within the container; rather the solution is drawn from the container by a siphon action. Specifically, a portion of the inlet water entering through the tube 122 flows straight through bore 119 and nipple 125 and through the conical disl charge nozzle 128. The liquid is discharged as a high velocity stream into chamber 130. Flow of liquid through this chamber and through restricted area 131 results in a subatmospheric pressure or vacuum This vacuum thus causes solution to be drawn from container 112, the solution flows upwardly through nipple 115, it being understood that the annular discharge space or port in this nipple surrounding depending tube 142 is considerably larger than the cross sectional area of tube 143. The discharge space defined by the nipple 115 is also greater than the cross sectional area of the discharge apertures in the nozzle member 145. Concentrate flows from vertical bore 117 through transverse bore 118 in body member 116. The concentrated liquid then flows through plug 137, tube 136 and the bore formed in plug 135 into the inlet chamber 130 of the eductor. There the concentrated liquid is mixed with the water stream discharged from nozzle 128. It is this mixed stream that is discharged from the eductor into discharge line 123.
The modified `form of feeding device is particularly advantageous with use for large containers. In the first place, the modified form does not require that the container be pressure tight. Rather, the concentrated solution is drawn off by vacuum or Siphon action. In the second place, in the modified form of apparatus the weighted nozzle head 145 inherently tends to rest upon the surface of the material bed 147, thus the fluid streams projected by the nozzle impinge upon the surface of the bed with sufficient force to insure an effective dissolving action.
It is to be understood that the modified form of nozzle is effective to cause a heterogeneous solution to dissolve so that its components remain in constant proportion in the same manner as in the first described embodiment. Also, the modified nozzle can be used to completely empty a container in the same manner as the first embodiment.
From the above disclosure of the general principles of the present invention and the above description of a preferred embodiment, those skilled in the art will readily appreciate the many modifications by which the invention is susceptible. Therefore, I wish to be limited only by the scope of the following claims.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. Apparatus for feeding a soluble chemical, said apparatus comprising a shipping container having a body and a lid, said lid having an opening formed therein, a feeding head mounted within the opening of said lid, a fluid inlet conduit connected to said feeding head, a
ileXible tube in communication with said inlet conduit, a weighted nozzle member mounted upon the end of said flexible tube and depending into said container, said head including a discharge port of substantially greater cross sectional area than said flexible tube, and conduit means interconnected to said discharge port.
2. Apparatus for feeding a soluble chemical, said apparatus comprising a shipping container having a body and a lid, said lid having an opening formed therein, a feeding head mounted within the opening of said lid, a fluid inlet conduit connected to said 'feeding head, a ilexible tube in communication with said inlet conduit, a weighted nozzle member mounted upon the end of said flexible tube and depending into said container, said head including a discharge port of substantially greater cross sectional area than said nozzle, and conduit means interconnected to said discharge port, and siphon means mounted upon said head in communication with the outlet port thereof, whereby liquid is siphoned from said container.
3. Apparatus for feeding a soluble chemical compound, said apparatus comprising an inlet conduit, a shipping container having a threaded lid formed thereon, a ilexible tube in fluid communication with said inlet conduit, an apertured nozzle member mounted at the end of said flexible tube, the flexible tube being sufliciently long to permit the nozzle to rest on the bottom of the container, means weighting said tube whereby said nozzle depends into said container and rests on the surface of said compound, said apparatus including a discharge port, and conduit means interconnected to said discharge port.
4. Apparatus for feeding a soluble chemical compound, said apparatus comprising an inlet conduit, a shipping container having a threaded lid formed thereon, a ilexible tube in iluid communication with said inlet conduit, an apertured nozzle member mounted at the end of said llexible tube, the flexible tube being sufliciently long to permit the nozzle to rest on the bottom of the container, means weighting said tube whereby said nozzle depends into said container and rests on the surface of said com pound, said apparatus including a discharge port, and conduit means interconnected to said discharge port, said apparatus further comprising means for diverting a portion of fluid from said inlet conduit and nozzle means forming a high velocity jet, said discharge conduit communicating with said high velocity jet whereby material is siphoned from said container.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,681,362 8/1928 Pike 23-272.8 1,930,500 10/1933 Archibald 23-272.7 -2,061.500 11/1936 Brewer 23-272.7 X 2,067,328 1/1937 Lux 23-2727 2,501,047 3/1950 Gustafsson et al 222-193 2,750,229 6/ 1956 Cammann 233-229 2,857,202 10/1958 Snyder 23-272.7 2,982,971 5/1961 Garaway 4-172 3,060,956 10/1962 Menzie 137-2055 3,074,078 l/ 1963 Varian.
M. CARY NELSON, Primary Examiner,
H. T. KLINKSIEK, Examiner,