|Publication number||US3344564 A|
|Publication date||Oct 3, 1967|
|Filing date||Mar 12, 1965|
|Priority date||Mar 12, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3344564 A, US 3344564A, US-A-3344564, US3344564 A, US3344564A|
|Inventors||Siegal Burton L|
|Original Assignee||Kenron Awning And Window Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (22), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 3, 1967 B. 1.. SIEGAL I 3,344,564
I CANOPY STRUCTURE WITH STRESSED BOWED PANELS Filed March 12, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
fizzrozz Ldjie ga l 12y 9 20M; r ATITO'RNEYfS Oct. 3, 1967 B. SIEGAL 3,344,564
CANOPY STRUCTURE WITH STRESSED BOWED PANELS Filed March 12, 1965 5 Sheets5heet 3 1 :5. 4 f .zg'fi INVEN TOR.
.Bzzroze L dzegal I 12y 41 ATTORNEYS Oct. 3, 1967 B. SIEGAL 3,344,584
CANOPY STRUCTURE WITH STRESSED BOWED PANELS Filed March 12, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 -INVENTOR. fizzrozzl.fize gal BY kw 4 ATTORNEYS Oct. 3, 1967 B. SIEGAL 3,344,554
CANOPY STRUCTURE WITH STRESSED BOWED PANELS Filed March 12, 1965 5 Sheets-Sheet s fizzz l'ozz .Jz'egal [19 w ATTORNEYS I N VEN TOR.
United States Patent 3,344,564 CANOPY STRUCTURE WITH STRESSED BOWED PANELS Burton L. Siegal, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Kenron Awning and Window Corporation, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Filed Mar. 12, 1965, Ser. No. 439,342 13 Claims. (CI. 52-11) ABSTRACT (IF THE DISCLOSURE A canopy structure having parallel rafters supported at their ends in vertically spaced relation with the ground. The rafters have upwardly and inwardly inclined top flanges, forming mountings for tension straps having ends conforming to the inclined plain surfaces of the flanges. Panels are mounted on one of the flanges in an unstressed condition and then are bowed downwardly into engagement with the other flange. The mounting means for the panels on the flanges also mounts the tension straps to the flanges. The panels are preferably made from Fiberglas and may be corrugated with the corrugations of the panels extending transversely of the canopy to drain rain water to gutters extending along certain of the rafters.
This invention relates to canopy structures and more particularly relates to an improved form of canopy structure for doorways, patios and the like.
A principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel and improved form of canopy structure arranged with a view toward ease in assembly, freedom from water leakage and utmost efliciency and simplicity in construction.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel canopy structure in which the roof of the canopy is made from bowed panels under stress, and in which the rafters supporting the canopy panels are maintained in spaced relation with respect to each other by tension strips maintained under tension by the stored up energy of the panels as they tend to return to a flat condition.
A further object of the invention is to provide a new and improved canopy in which the roof of the canopy is formed from bowed panels supported on rafters extending along opposite edges of the panels, and in which the rafters are in the general form of H-beams and the upper flanges of the beams form mountings for the canopy panels.
Another object of the invention is to provide a canopy having bowed roofing panels maintained under stress in a bowed condition by the supporting rafters for the panels, in which the supporting rafters are formed to provide drain channels in the spaces between the bowed roofing panels.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an improved form of canopy panel supporting structure in the general form of H-beams, in which the panels are secured to the upper flanges of the beams in a bowed stressed condition and are maintained bowed by tension straps maintaining the H-beams in fixed spaced relation with respect to each other.
.Still another object of the invention is to provide a new form of canopy in which the roof panels of the canopy are formed from a corrugated plastic material and are bowed upwardly from their opposite edges and the corrugations thereof extend transversely of the panels and are maintained in a stressed bowed condition by tension straps extending thereacross.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel form of canopy and support therefor in which a hanging rail forms a mounting for the canopy to the wall of the ice building and has a rain trough extending therealong to prevent windblown rain from being blown under the canopy, in which the supporting rafters for the canopy panels are mounted in advance of the rain trough on the hanging rail, and form mountings for adjacent edges of the panels and maintain the panels in bowed relation to drain toward the rafters, by tension straps connected be tween the rafters, and in which the rafters form rain troughs to drain water along the canopy to the outer end thereof.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved form of support for the forward end of a canopy readily adaptable for various angles of inclination of the canopy.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a simple and novel support .post for canopy structures and the like together with adapter means therefor, adapting the post to the canopy rafters supported thereby.
These and other objects of the invention will appear from time to time as the following specification proceeds and with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a view in side elevation of a canopy constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention, with certain parts broken away;
FIGURE 2 is a fragmentary end View of the canopy shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a partial fragmentary detail transverse sectional view of the canopy taken substantially along line II[III of FIGURE 2 with certain parts broken away;
FIGURE 4 is a partial fragmentary detail sectional view taken through one of the end support rafters for the canopy panel, and showing a support for the canopy panel thereon;
FIGURE 5 is a partial fragmentary detail side elevational view of the canopy, showing the hanging rail and canopy extending therefrom;
FIGURE 6 is a view somewhat similar to FIGURE 5 with the hanging rail supporting the rear end of the canopy on a wall of the building in section, and showing a canopy panel in section extending longitudinally of the canopy, in order to show certain details of the mounting of the canopy on the hanging rail, not shown in FIG- URE 5;
FIGURE 7 is a fragmentary detail view illustrating a support post for the canopy, supporting a canopy rafter in spaced relation with respect to the ground;
FIGURE 8 is a sectional view taken substantially along line VIII-VIII of FIGURE 7;
FIGURE 9 is a plan view of a cap for the support post;
FIGURE 10 is a plan view of an adapter for the cap;
FIGURE 11 is a view in side elevation of the adapter shown in FIGURE 10, with certain parts broken away and in section;
FIGURE 12 is a diagrammatic side view showing the adapter adapting the cap for a more steeply sloping canopy that the canopy shown in FIGURES 1 and 2; and
FIGURE 13 is a view like FIGURE 12, showing the adapter adapting the cap to a flatter angle of canopy than the canopy shown in FIGURES 1 and 2;
In the one embodiment of the invention illustrated in the drawings, I have shown in FIGURE 1 a rigid canopy structure 10 mounted on a wall of a building on a hanging rail 11 extending along the wall and preferably over a doorway. The front end of the canopy structure is suported in spaced relation with respect to the ground on posts 12, 12 suitably mounted on a foundation on the ground and having supporting engagement with end rafters 13 and intermediate rafters 15, forming supports for roof or canopy panels 16, herein shown as b'owed and as being corrugated with the corrugations thereof running transversely of the canopy to flow the water to gutters or troughs 17, 17 extending along the intermediate beams or rafters 15, 15, and to the flow of water over deflectors 18, 18 extending laterally of the end beams or rafters 13 beyond the sides of the canopy.
The canopy panels may be made from a glass fiber material known to the trade as Fiberglas, a rigid vinyl, other plastic materials of various forms, or from aluminum or metal, and may be flat or corrugated and where corrugated, are bowed against the corrugations of the panels with the corrugations of the panels with the corrugations extending transversely, to carry off rain, as clearly shown in FIGURES 1 and 2.
The hanging rail 11 is shown in FIGURES and 6 as being in the general form of a plate 19 extending along the wall of the building at a suitable elevation, and secured thereto as by screws 20, 20. The plate 19 has a lower forwardly extending rain gutter formed integrally therewith and extending therealong to carry rain to the side of the hanging rail. The rain gutter 21 has an upright forward wall 23 terminating into a support ledge 24 extending forwardly therefrom and forming a support for the rafters 13 and 15, 15. The ledge may extend at the angle of slope of the canopy. The wall 23 of the rain gutter 21 also has an upright deflector lip 25 forming an upward continuation of the wall 23, and extending upwardly of the ledge 24. The hanging rail 11 has an upwardly extending outwardly inclined upper end portion 26, which with the wall of the building forms a caulking channel. The outwardly inclined upper end portion 26 terminates into a flashing in the form of a forwardly extending and downwardly inclined deflector plate 27 extending over the crests of the panels 16 and preventing the entrance of rain between the inner or rear ends of the panels and the hanging rail 11.
Each outer or side rafter 13 is shown in FIGURE 4 as being in the general form of an H-beam having a bottom flange or leg 29 having a web 30 extending upwardly therefrom and having an inwardly extending upwardly inclined top flange '31 extending inwardly of the web 30 and inclined at the angle of the bow of the panel 16 and forming an inward continuation of the outer flange or rain deflector 18. The inclined flange 31 forms a support for one edge of the panel 16. A rib 32 extends upwardly of the flange 31 adjacent the web 30 and forms a stop for the canopy panel 16.
The web 30 of the H-beam has a ledge or flange 33 extending inwardly therefrom adjacent the upper end portion thereof and beneath the flange 31. The ledge 33 extends over the ledge 24 and is supported thereon. The flange 33 rests on the horizontal leg of a load distributing angle 35 supported on the ledge 24. The vertical leg of the load distributing angle 35 engages the underside of the flange 31, along the inside of a head 36, extending along the upper end portion of said flange and forms a load distributing support therefor. A nut and bolt 37 is provided to secure the flange 33 and load distributing angle 35 to the ledge 24.
Each intermediate rafter 15 is shown in FIGURE 3 as being generally in the form of a modified H-beam having a bottom flange or leg 39, a web 40 extending upwardly therefrom and terminating at its upper end in the bottom of the rain gutter 17, shown as being formed integrally therewith. The rain gutter 17 has opposite parallel sidewalls 41 terminating into outwardly extending upwardly inclined flanges 42 inclined at the angles of the canopy panels 16 and forming supports therefor. Ribs 43 extend upwardly of the flanges 42 adjacent the upright walls 41 of the rain gutter 17 and forms stops for the panels 16. The rafter 15 is cut away at its rear end to the bottom of the rain gutter 17, as indicated by reference character 44*. The cut away portion of the web 40 of the rafter 15 exposes the bottom of the gutter 17,
which forms a support extending over a load distributing channel 44 supported on the ledge 24. A nut and bolt 45 is provided to secure the rafter 15 and load distributing channel 44 to the ledge 24. The load distributing channel 44 like the load distributing angle 35, has parallel spaced vertical legs 46, 46 having supporting engagement with the undersurfaces of the flanges 42, 42 inwardly of beads 47, 47 extending therealong (FIGURE 3).
Tension members 48, 48 are connected across the rafters 13, 15, 15 and 13, at spaced intervals along said rafters for the length thereof, to maintain the rafters in spaced relation with respect to each other and to maintain the canopy panels 16 stressed in their bowed form. The tension members may be flat or tubular straps, and each tension strap 48 has downwardly inclined opposite end portions 49. One end portion 49 rests on a flange 42 while the opposite end portion 49 rests on an opposite flange 42 of the next adjacent rafter 15, or on a flange 31 of a side rafter 13, where the tension straps are connected between the rafters 13 and 15. The tension straps also may be continuous straps extending for the width of the canopy. The tension straps 48, 48 connected between the rafters 15, 15 and 15 and 13 are given the same numbers and the connecting means for the tension straps to the rafters and mounting means for the panels to the rafters will be given the same numbers where the parts are the same.
The tension straps 48, 48 thus space the rafters 13, 15, 15 and 13 apart and are maintained under tension by the stored up energy of the bowed panels, tending to bring the panels back to their flat unstressed form. As shown in FIGURE 3, a cap strip 50 extends along the top side and edge of the panel 16, abutting the crests of the panel and is secured thereto as by nuts and bolts 51 extending through said cap strip, the valley of the panel, the downwardly turned end portion 49 of the tension strap 48 and the flange 42, to secure the panel to said flange. Screws 53, shown as being sheet metal screws extend through the flanges 42 intermediate the nuts and bolts 51 and through the crests of the panel 16, and are threaded in the cap strip 50 between the tension straps. The tension straps 48, 48 and nuts and bolts 51 and sheet metal screws 53 are alternately arranged along the panel, to rigidly secure the panel to the flange 42, for the entire length of the rafter.
Where the panel is secured to one flange 42, it is initially in its unstressed condition. The opposite end of the panel 16 is then moved downwardly to the opposite inclined supporting flange 42 or 31, depending upon the rafter to which the panel is connected. A cap strip 50 extends along the opposite side and edge of the panel, and the panel in its bowed form is secured to the opposite flange by nuts and bolts 51 extending through the cap strip, the valleys of the panel, the tension straps 48 and the inclined flange of the rafter. The stored up energy in the panel, as the panel tends to return to its unstressed condition therefor maintains a relatively rigid canopy roof structure for the entire length of the rafters. The panel may also be bowed prior to assembly to the rafters and held in a bowed condition during assembly or may be permanently bowed panels, in which case the tension straps brace the panels against snow loads.
The posts 12 supporting the forward ends of the rafters 13 and 15, are shown in FIGURE 8 as being hollow and as being generally triangular in form having concave side walls 55, connected together by end walls 56, truncating the angles of the triangle. The posts 12 may be extrusions and may preferably be aluminum extrusions having inwardly opening screw receiving bosses extending along the corners between a wall 55 and a wall 56 of the post at the truncated end of the triangle. The screw receiving bosses 57 extend for the length of the posts, and are alternately arranged at the junctures of the walls 55 and 56, to provide one boss at each truncated end of the triangle.
Each post 12 is mounted on a base 59 secured to the foundation as .by bolts '60. The base 59 is shown in FIG- URES 7 and 8 as having a generally triangular raised portion 61, generally conforming to the form of the post 12 and having screw holes 62 therein for screws 63. The screws 63 extend through the screw holes 62 from the bottom of the base and are threaded in the screw receiving bosses 57. The screws 63 may be conventional forms of sheet metal screws. The raised portion 61 of the base 59 also has a raised annular guide rib 64 extending upwardly therefrom facilitating the centering of the base and screw holes with respect to the post 12.
A cap 65 is mounted on the top of the post 12 and forms a support for a rafter 13 or 15 on said post. The cap 65 is shown in FIGURE 9 as having opposite flanged portions 66 having screw holes 67 leading therethrough. The cap 65 also has an inclined plane flanged portion 69 generally rectangular in form and adapted to abut the bottom of a rafter 13 or 15. The inclined plane flanged portion 69 has a screw hole 70 therein at the base or lower end portion of the rectangular flange portion adapted to register with a boss 57. Metal screws 71 passing through the screw holes 67, 67 and 70 may thus secure the cap to the top of the post 12. The inclined plane flanged portion 69 also has screw holes 72, 72 therein, through with screws or bolts 73 pass to attach the cap 65 to the bottom flange of the rafter.
The angle of the inclined plane flanged portion 69 of the cap 65 may be at the angle of a conventional canopy and is .steep enough to accommodate rain to readily drain along the main gutters 17 in the rafters 15. Where, however, it may be desired to increase or decrease the angle of the canopy, an adapter plate 74 may be used. The adapter plate 74 is shown in FIGURES and 11 as having a generally flat bottom having screw holes 75 extending tberethrough, at the corners of the plate, and of the same spacing as the screw holes 72 in the cap 65. The adapter plate 74 also has an inclined plane flanged portion 76 extending about the margin thereof and forming an inclined plane surface which may either engage the bottom of a rafter, where the angle of inclination of the canopy is steeper than the angle of the flanged portion 69 of the cap 65, or the flanged portion 69, where it is desired that the angle of the canopy be a shallower angle than the angle of the inclined plane flanged portion 69 of the cap 65, as shown in FIGURE 13. The angle of the flanged portion 67 is herein shown as being half the angle of the inclined plane flange portion 69 although the angle may be varied in accordance with canopy requirements, and adapter plates of various angles may be supplied.
In securing a rafter to the cap 65 through an adapter plate 74, the adapter plate is placed at the proper angle so its top surface will be parallel with the desired angle of its associated rafter, and metal screws or bolts pass through the'holes 72, 72 in the inclined plane flanged portion 69 and holes 75, 75 in the adapter plate 74, and through the bottom flange of the rafter, to rigidly secure the rafter to the post 12.
It should be understood that while the panels 16 are herein described as being stressed to a bowed condition, and as being maintained in their bowed condition by tension straps, that they may also be formed into a permanently bowed form.
It may be seen from the foregoing that I have provided an improved form of rigid canopy, which may readily be set up over a doorway, over a patio or may even serve as an awning, and that the canopy is of such a simple construction and is so arranged that it may readily be set up by the purchaser of the canopy without requiring skilled help or special tools.
It may further be seenthat the simplicity and efiiciency in the canopy is attained by supporting the panels on the upper legs of H-beams, conforming to the angle of bow of the panel and bowing the panels during the assembly operation, against the corrugations thereof, where the panels are corrugated, so the corrugations will extend transversely of the panels and form in effect troughs for directing rain to the gutters, extending along the rafters.
It may further be seen that in addition to the corrugations directing rain to the gutters extending along the rafters, that any rain blown along the side of the building may readily drain across the deflector plate 27 onto the panels 16 and in turn into the troughs 17. Any wind blown rain, blown under the deflector plate 27, will drain into the transverse gutter 21 and will be carried thereby to the ends of the canopy structure.
While I have herein shown and described one form in which the invention may be attained, it may readily be understood that various variations and modifications in the invention may be attained without departing from the spirit and scope of the novel concepts thereof.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a canopy structure,
at least two parallel spaced rafters,
means supporting said rafters at their ends in vertically spaced relation with respect to the ground,
said rafters being in the general form of H-beams having a web and upper flanges inclined upwardly and outwardly away from the web,
tension straps having opposite end portions conforming to the angles of said flanges and having generally horizontal intermediate portions extending across the space between said rafters and spaced along said rafters at predetermined intervals and secured thereto in an initially unstressed condition,
a bowed panel mounted at one side on the inclined upper flange of one of said rafters and bowed to engage the upper inclined flange of the other of said rafters,
cap strips extending along each outer top side of said panel in alignment with said inclined upper flanges,
and fastening means extending through said cap strips, panel and flanges securing said panel to said flanges in a bowed condition whereby the stored up energy in said panel maintains the tension strips under tension.
2. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 1,
wherein the panels are made from a corrugated glass fiber material with the corrugation thereof extending transversely of said rafters,
and wherein metal screws extending through said inclined flanges and the crests of the corrugations of said panel are provided to retain said cap pieces to said panels and maintain said panels in a bowed condition.
3. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 2,
wherein load distributing members are mounted on said rafters to extend inwardly therefrom beneath said inclined flanges,
and wherein said load distributing members have upright supporting legs having supporting engagement with the undersides of said inclined flanges, adjacent the outer upper ends thereof.
4. In a canopy structure,
at least two parallel spaced rafters in the general form of H-beams having upwardly inclined flanges extending toward the space between said rafters,
means mounting said rafters on the wall of a building at their rear ends,
means supporting the forward ends of said rafters to slope downwardly with respect to the wall of the building at a relatively flat angle,
tension straps extending across said rafters in parallel spaced relations with respect to each other for the lengths of said rafters and connected between said upwardly inclined flanges,
a corrugated panel secured to one of said panels and bowed into engagement with an opposite flange, with the corrugations thereof extending transversely of said rafters,
means securing said tension straps and panels to said upwardly inclined flanges of said rafters and maintaining said panels in a stressed bowed condition including cap pieces extending along the tops of said panels in alignment with said flanges and means extending through said panels, tension straps and cap pieces, for securing said cap pieces into clamping engagement with said panels,
whereby said panel maintains said tension straps under tension by the stored up energy therein.
5. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 4 wherein the panels are made from a relatively rigid bendable corrugated plastic material.
6. In a canopy structure,
at least one intermediate rafter and a pair of outer rafters extending along opposite sides of said intermediate rafter in parallel spaced relation with respect thereto,
means supporting said rafters in vertically spaced relation with respect to the ground at their rear ends,
other means supporting said rafters at their forward ends in vertically spaced relation with respect to the ground,
said rafters being in the general form of H-beams,
said intermediate rafter having a bottom flange,
a central web and oppositely inclined top flanges extending upwardly and outwardly of said web,
said end rafters each including a bottom flange,
a central web extending upwardly therefrom and a top flange inclined upwardly and outwardly from opposite sides of said web,
tension straps extending across said rafters at predetermined spaced intervals and having opposite end portions conforming to the planes of said inclined top flanges and secured to said inclined top flanges and tying said rafters together at spaced intervals.
and panels extending between said rafters and secured to the top of one inclined flange and bowed into engagement with the opposite flange and secured thereto, and maintaining said tension straps under tension by the stored up energy therein.
7. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 6 wherein the canopy panels are corrugated and are made from a glass fiber material and the corrugations thereof extend transversely of said rafters.
8. In a canopy structure,
at least one intermediate rafter and two parallel outer rafters on opposite sides of said intermediate rafter,
a hanging rail extending horizontally along and secured to the wall of a building and having a gutter for wind blown rain extending along the lower end thereof,
a support ledge extending forwardly of said gutter,
means supporting said rafters on said support ledge to extend forwardly therealong,
an individual post for each rafter supporting the forward end thereof in vertically spaced relation with respect to the ground,
said intermediate rafter including a bottom flange,
a web extending upwardly therefrom,
a top flange extending along the top of said web in the general form of a trough and having parallel upright sides spaced laterally from said web, with attachment flanges extending angularly upwardly and outwardly therefrom,
said side rafters each having a bottom flange, a vertical web and a top flange extending to opposite sides of said web and inclined upwardly from said web and facing said intermediate rafter,
said top flange forming attachment means for a corrugated panel and a deflector for rain on the outside of said rafter,
tension straps having end portions conforming to the angles of said flanges and intermediate portions extending across the space between said rafters at intervals and secured thereto,
canopy panels extending along said rafters in the spaces therebetween and secured at one end portion to the top surface of an upwardly inclined flange and bowed to generally conform to the angle of the opposite inclined flange and secured thereto,
the stored up energy in said canopy panels attained by the stressing thereof in a bowed condition, maintaining said tension straps under tension and said canopy in a rigid condition.
9. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 8 wherein the panels are made from a corrugated glass fiber material and the corrugations thereof extend transversely of said panels to direct rain to said rain gutter.
10. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 8 wherein load distributing members are mounted on said support ledges beneath said inclined flanges and have upright supporting legs having supporting engagement with said inclined flanges, adjacent the outer upper ends thereof.
11. In a canopy structure,
a hanging rail extending horizontally along and secured to the wall of a building,
a gutter for wind blown rain extending along the lower end portion of said hanging rail,
a support ledge extending forwardly of said gutter,
a plurality of parallel spaced rafters secured to said ledge and extending forwardly therefrom,
an individual post supporting the forward end of each rafter in vertically spaced relation with respect to the ground and in declining relation with respect to the wall of a building,
said rafters being in the general form of H-beams and each having a bottom flange,
a web extending upwardly therefrom and at least one inner flange extending inwardly of said web in an upwardly inclined direction,
tension straps extending across said rafters at predetermined spaced intervals and secured to said top flanges,
a canopy panel extending along the top flange of one of said rafters,
a cap strip extending along a side edge of said canopy panel above said top flange,
means securing said cap strip, canopy panel and tension strap to one of said flanges,
a cap strip extending along the opposite side edge of said panel,
said panel being bowed to conform to the inclined flange of the opposite rafter, and means extending through said cap strip and securing said panel and tension straps to the opposite flange of said channels,
whereby said tension straps maintain said panel in a stressed bowed condition.
12. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 11 wherein the canopy panels are corrugated panels made from a glass fiber material and the corrugations thereof extend transversely of said rafters to direct rain to said rafters.
13. A canopy structure in accordance with claim 12 wherein the panels are made from a corrugated glass fiber material with the corrugations thereof extending transversely of said rafters, wherein the fastening means, fastening said tension straps and panels to said flanges comprise nuts and bolts, and wherein metal screws extending through said flanges and the crests of the corrugations of said panel are threaded in said cap pieces between said nuts and bolts.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 16,767 3/1857 Worthen 52-86 2,181,938 12/1939 Fine 52-301 X 2,811,935 11/1957 Jones 52-94 X (Other references on following page) UNITED 9 10 STATES PATENTS 3,226,891 1/ 1966 Heirich 52-95 X Dynn 3,263,389 8/1966 Heirich 52-95 X Kristek 248188.2 i h 52 94 X FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner. Schroyer 52-74 5 Toti 52*14 X M. O. WARNECKE, Asszstant Exam'mer.
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|U.S. Classification||52/11, 52/13, 52/300, D25/56, 52/86, 52/94, 52/222, 52/93.2|
|International Classification||E04F10/00, E04F10/08|