US 3344789 A
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Oct. 3, w RNO D ET AL DIAPER WITH FILM ENCLOSED ABSORBENT Filed Dec. 29, 1964 tmLJLlwli H d w n liJminrfi |',1||1| M a y sw m f C Z m 0 k mm w wmwmw .n E N w United States Patent DIAPER WITH FILlVl EN CLOSED ABSORBENT Edwin Warren Arnold, Suffer-n, N.Y., Otis L. Updike, Jr.,
Charlottesville, Va., and Norman Robert Zinner, Brooklyn, N .Y., assignors to Azur Associates, New York,
N.Y., a partnership Filed Dec. 29, 1964, Ser. No. 421,779 6 Claims. (Cl. 128-287) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A diaper or like article including fibrous means for distributing liquid by capillary action to solid sorptive means for retaining liquid even when pressure is applied thereto and film means enclosing the fibrous means and sorptive means and affording a body fluid ingress. Illustrative are glass fibre Wick means and hydrous calcium silicate sorbent.
This invention relates to an article for sorbing liquid which maintains the liquid in an immobile condition, which article may be used for diapers, catamenial purposes, urinary conduit drainage receptacles, etc.
The diaper problem has been attacked by the development of disposable diapers. These paper diapers have the other drawbacks of the cloth diapers. They become soggy masses immediately after urination, and the urine is allowed to break down into ammonia. Diaper rash ensues as a result of ammonia having been in contact with the sensitive skin of the baby. Continued contact of urine and inflamed skin can promote secondary bacterial infection since urine is an excellent culture medium and promotes bacterial :growth. At the least, the wet diaper is uncomfortable and malodorous and the infant howls for a change. Plastic pants help the bedclothes but not the infant. In fact, by their retentive abilities, plastic pants enhance the maceration of the infant skin. A diaper that would retain the urine during the entire night in such a state that there is minimal moisture at the diaper-skin juncture would minimize discomfort and the likelihood of diaper rash with its attendant complications. Naturally this would be beneficial to the infantand the parents.
Catamenial articles, such as sanitary napkins and tampons, have somewhat the same defects as do diapers in that they can become soggy and malodorous. Pressure on a saturated napkin by body movement can tend to squeeze out the liquid with the unpleasant result of leakage'to the fastidious woman, a disaster. Tampons in particular have limited capacity for menstrual blood.
A most difiicult existence is the burden of the person who has undergone a urinary diversionary procedure and must thereafter dispose of his urine by way of a stoma, which is inconveniently located and difiicult to manage. Today the urine passes out of the stoma to a 'pouch either directly, e.g., see- US. Patent No. 3,055,368, or indirectly through a pliable tube. These pouches slosh as the person moves; it is difi'icult to make a leakproof contact with the stoma. Many forms of athletic activity are difiicult if not impossible'to this category of medical patients. At night the sufferer is chained to the bed by the fact that the pouch must be maintained in a dependent position with relation to the kidneys. This means the drainage receptacle must be attached either to the bed frame or placed upon the floor adjacent the bed. The return of urine to the body by way of the stoma must be avoided to prevent secondary kidney damage from back pressure and urostasis. Tossing and turning in their sleep is also limited in these persons.
In any position the wearer must be careful not to bump the pouch because of breakage or the possibility of liquid re-entering the stoma. Eiforts have been made to overcome these difficulties by using sorptive materials to receive the liquid. These are either bulky, heavy, of small capacity, or tend to release the liquid when pressure is applied to them, as by weight of the body leaning against a surface, in the manner a Wet sponge exudes Water when squeezed.
An object of the invention is an article which can receive liquid and thereafter retain said liquid in an immobile condition.
Another object of the invention is a receptacle for the surgically diverted urinary tract which receives and distributes liquid to a large area of solid sorptive material which immobilizes the liquid, and which permits relatively complete freedom of action to the wearer.
A further object of the invention is a diaper which has over-night capacity and permits the infant to be relatively dry over that time.
Yet another object of the invention is a catamenial article which has large capacity and also does not release liquid in response to body pressure thereon.
Still another object of the invention is a dressing which can be applied to a draining wound, which dressing does not need frequent replacement.
Yet a further object of the invention is a pad which can be inserted in a nursing mothers bra to collect leakage and eliminate the soiling of clothing.
Another object of the invention is an innersole with qualities of dessication which will thereby maintain a dry foot.
Still a further object of the invention is an industrial wipe which does not change shape or lose its solid character after sorbing liquid.
An additional object of the invention is directed to a surgical mask.
Another additional object of the invention is directed to dressings suitable for Weeping dermatological conditions and any serous exudate.
Other objects of the invention will be evident after reading the detailed description thereof.
FIGURE 1 is a side View of a receptacle for receiving urine from a cutaneous urinary stoma, looking at the side which would contact the skin of the wearer, with a partial cut-away.
FIGURE 2 is a cross-section of the receptacle of FIG. 1, taken at plane 2-2, on an enlarged scale.
FIGURE 3 is a cross-section of the receptacle of FIG. 1, taken at plane 33, positioned at a stoma, on an enlarged scale.
FIGURE 4 is a plan view of a diaper embodiment of the invention (the fabric layer is not shown).
FIGURE 5 is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 4, at plane 55, with the fabric layer shown.
In summary the article of the invention comprises: fibrous means for distributing liquid, by capillary action, to solid sorptive means for receiving liquid from said fibrous means, said sorptive means being characterized by the ability to retain the solid state and to retain sorbed liquid when pressure is applied to said sorptive means, and liquid impermeable film means enclosing said fibrous means and said sorptive means, said film means being provided with a liquid ingress to said fibrous means.
FIGURES 4 and 5 illustrate a diaper embodiment of the invention. Fibrous means 10 distribute liquid, as urine, by capillary action to sorption units 12 and 14. Each sorption unit 12 and 14 is a packet of sold sorptive means 16 and 18 enclosed by a liquid permeable material 2i and 22, such as paper, soluble plastic film, nonwoven fabric, etc.
The fibrous means 10 and sorption units 12 and 14 are enclosed by a liquid impermeable film means 26. Herein film means 26 is made up from two sheets 28 and 30 which are sealed at the edge 32. Upper film sheet 30 is provided with liquid ingress for entry of body liquid into contact with fibrous means 10. Herein the ingress consists of a multiplicity of holes 34 in sheet 30 positioned where urinary flow will be passed into the interior of the diaper into the reservoir region occupied by fibrous means only and then distributed to the sorption units for immobilization.
For comfort of the infant, sheet 30 is covered by a fabric layer 36-shown onlyin FIG. 5. Fabric 36 covers at least that portion of the film means 26 which otherwise might contact the skin of the infant. Here the entire upper sheet 30 is covered by fabric 36. Fabric 36 may be made conveniently of diaper cloth or diaper paper. In any case the fabric should be of a nature permitting rapid passage 'of liquid to holes 34.
12 and 14 form an elongated, pliable means suitable for the intended use in connection with a human body, herein a diaper for an infant.
No fastening means are shown in the figures. Many obvious methods will immediately come to mind. A preferred method uses strips of adhesive tape or snaps to secure the diaper to itself.
The film forming sheets 28 and 30 must be impermeable to liquid. It is to be understood that impermeability here includes film which will withstand the action of body liquid, such as urine, for the intended period of use of the article. For example, in a diaper it is intended that the diaper will be worn for a period of 8-12 hours, and the film will be able to retain its impermeability and pliability for that time, plus a substantial safety factor. It is self-evident that many film-forming materials are available of both synthetic and natural origin. Illustrative of synthetic film-forming materials are polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl acetate synthetic rubber etc.. Illustrative natural materials are rubber and gutta percha. A preferred material is polyethylene.
Fibrous means 10 may be any material capable of distributing liquid by capillary action; self evidently this material must also be capable of resisting the chemical action of the liquid being distributed for at least the intended time of use of the article. The fibrous means may also be described as a material [functioning as a wick. Material made of cellulosic fibres, whether natural or chemically modified, may be used as wicking materials. It has been found that glass fibres in the proper arrangement are a superior wicking material. In general, the invention utilizes these in the form of a mat of closely associated glass fibres. However, it is possible to form wicks by the use of long filaments placed in parallel close association. The use .of glass fibres as wicks is described in detail in US. Patent No. 2,477,403; this description is incorporated by reference herein.
A preferred glass fibre is Refrasil, sold by H. I. Thompson Company. Refrasil glass fibres are made from high silica glass; the fibres have been acid leached to provide a porous surface, which is slightly acidic. No lubricant is present on these fibres. It has been observed that these fibres are particularly suitable for handling urinary liquid and also liquids containing disolved substances; these substances appear to become adhered to the surface of the fibres.
The diaper embodiment of the figures utilize packets of liquid-permeable material enclosing the solid sorptive means. The liquid-permeable material is preferably paper. It is not necessary that the liquid permeable means retain its strength after having been wetted since most powdered sorptive material tend to remain in place after having sorbed liquid. In some situations the liquid permeable material may be a Water soluble film such as polyvinyl alcohol.
The solid sorptive means is characterized by the ability to retain the solid state and to retain sorbed liquid when pressure is applied to the sorptive means. The term solid includes true solids, gels and gums which will imbibe water and remain firm. The ability to retain the solid state after sorbing liquid means that to the eye the appearance of the solid sorptive means is relatively unchanged. It must be appreciated that this term is to be taken in the relative sense and Will not apply when the amount of liquid exceeds the capacity of the sorptive means.
In order to attain the object of the invention it is essential that the sorptive means retain the sorbed liquid when pressure is applied to the sorptive means. In other words,
to sorptive means must immobilize the liquid. A wet sponge does not immobilize the water because pressure on the wet sponge will release the water. The pressure which is to be resisted obviously will be determined by the intendeduse of the article. In general, the pressure will amount to that which will be applied by normal body movements or by accidental bumping of the article, while being worn, against a solid surface.
The solid sorptive means may be a granular or powdered solid material, such as activated charcoal, which includes bone char, silica gel, activated alumina; fullers earth; and diatomaceous earth; carboxymethylcellulose; guar derivatives; natural and synthetic gums; bentonite (a gel-former), etc.
An especially preferred solid sorptive material is the ynthetic material sold by Johns-Manville as Micro-Cell E. This is a finely divided powder produced by hydrothermal reaction of diatomaceous silica and lime; it is described as a synthetic hydrous calicum silicate. Micro- Cel B will sorb 34 times its weight of liquid and remain a dry free-flowing powder. As little as 2-3 lbs. will convert one gallon of liquid to a dry free-flowing powder.
The solid sorptive means may also be porous organic solids, or organic fibres. Cellulose acetate tow such as is used in cigarette filters is an exceptionally good sorbent for the purposes of the invention. These organic sorptive materials are self-supporting and can be fashioned as units for use in the article which do not require a packet-formmg wrapper.
It is apparent that the diaper article of FIGS. 4 and 5 can be readily modified for use as a sanitary napkin. It is common in the case of these items to provide deodorant and also medicinal materials. The high sorptive capacity of both the fibrous means and the sorptive means enables the addition of the necessary amounts of these other materials with benefits to the mental peace of the wearer.
FIGS. 1-3 show one embodiment of a receptacle for urine from an ileostomy stoma. As can be seen in FIG. I this receptacle comprises an elongated band-like member which is pliable enough to be wrapped around or partially around a human body. For purposes of visualization, FIG. 1 represents a receptacle about 30 inches long and 5 inches wide, and about /2 inch thick. This receptacle has an adult urine capacity of about one-half day and needs changing about twice a day. FIGS. 2 and 3 have been drawn to approximately a double vertical scale over that of FIG. 1 for clarity. The thickness of the receptacle Packets 74 etc. of solid sorptive vmaterial are distrib-.
uted throughout the interior of member 54 in close contact with the wicks 6064a. In the figures only one packet has been numbered to avoid confusion. It is self-evident that the size of the packets will be determined by the dimensions of the band-like member 54, the number of wicks, the type of solid sorptive material, and especially the type of machinery which produces the receptacle.
Herein packet 74 are elongated units made up of the hereinbefore defined calcium silicate, and a wrapper of paper.
In the FIGURES 1-3 the wicks and sorption units are enclosed by two sheets of polyethylene; an outer sheet 78 and a body sheet 80, heat-sealed at the edges 82 to form a liquid impermeable container.
Body sheet 80 is provided with liquid ingress 86 for entry of liquid from stoma 56. Opening 86 is in this embodiment reinforced with a square of polyethylene 88 (FIG. 1). It can be seen from the figures that the receptacle is designed to be worn next to the skin with the liquid ingress adapted to be positioned immediately adjacent to a stoma. Means may be provided about opening 86 to more tightly seal the skin area about the stoma and avoid seepage along the skin during more strenuous athletic or work activities of the wearer. An especially ef fective arrangement is that involving pressure sensitive adhesive as shown in US. Patent No. 3,055,368.
No fastening means are shown as numerous methods of fastening the member 54 about the body may be devised. A simple snap button arrangement with a number of snaps in an elastic strip will permit fitting the receptacle to the bodies of wearers of different waist measurements.
It is evidenced from inspection that the receptacle of the FIGS. 1-3 is inconspicuous when worn, completely eliminates the liquid sloshing problem, and because the liquid is immobilized, the receptacle may be worn regardless of the posture of the wearer or the vigor of the movements of the wearer. It is considered that the wearer could go swimming with the receptacle of the invention, an unlikelihood with any of the presently known devices for this use.
It is to be understood that many modifications of the diaper and ileostomy receptacle shown in the figures may be devised, and the invention is not limited to these em bodiments which are illustrative only.
It is evident that the article of the invention does in deed accomplish, either in the embodiments described or in embodiments readily devised from the description, each and every object enumerated herein.
Thus having described the invention, what is claimed is:
.1. A receptacle for urine from a urocutaneous stoma which receptacle comprises:
(a) a plurality of elongated glass fibre wicks for distributing liquid, by capillary action, received from a stoma,
(b) to a plurality of sorption units consisting essentially of liquid permeable packets of synthetic hydrous calcium silicate which has the ability to maintain the solid state after sorbing liquid and to retain sorbed liquid when pressure is applied to the sorptive means, and
(c) liquid-impermeable film means enclosing said Wicks and said sorption units to form a pliable bandlike member, said film being provided with a liquid ingress for urine from a stoma, said ingress being adapted to be positioned immediately adjacent to a stoma.
2. An article adapted for use as a diaper or for a similar purpose which article comprises:
(a) fibrous means for distributing liquid by capillary action,
(b) to solid sorptive means for receiving, and retaining liquid, from said fibrous means, said sorptive means having the ability to maintain the solid state after sorbing liquid and to retain sorbed liquid when pressure is applied to the sorptive means, and
(c) liquid impermeable fihn means enclosing said fibrous means and said sorptive means to form an elongated, pliable member suitable for the intended use in connection with a human body, said film means being provided with a liquid ingress for the entry of body fluid.
3. A diaper which comprises:
(a) glass fibre wick means for distributing liquid, by
capillary action, received from a human body,
(b) to a plurality of sorption units consisting essentially of solid sorptive means having the ability to maintain the solid state after sorbing liquid and to retain sorbed liquid when pressure is applied to the sorptive means,
(0) liquid impermeable film means enclosing said wick means and said sorption units to form elongated pliable member suitable for use as a diaper, said film means :being provided with a liquid ingress body liquid, and
(d) fabric means covering at least that portion of said film which otherwise may contact the skin of the user of the diaper.
4. The diaper of claim 3 where said film is polyethylcne.
5. The diaper of claim 3 where said solid sorptive means consist of synthetic hydrous calcium silicate.
6. The diaper of claim 5 where said sorption units consist essentially of liquid permeable packets of said calcium silicate.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,331,271 10/1943 Gilchrist 128290 2,477,403 7/ 1949 Brady 128156 2,542,909 2/1951 De Wet 128-290 2,690,415 9/1954 Shuler 128-290 2,896,618 7/ 1959 Schaefer 128-296 2,934,068 4/1960 Graham et al. 178-285 3,121,427 2/ 1964 Mosier 128-290 3,124,135 3/1964 Olson 178290 3,149,023 9/1964 Bodendorf et al 178-290 3,221,738 12/1965 Ekberg et al 128-287 FOREIGN PATENTS 410,702 5/1934 Great Britain.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner. C. F. ROSENBAUM, Assistant Examiner.