|Publication number||US3344984 A|
|Publication date||Oct 3, 1967|
|Filing date||Oct 14, 1963|
|Priority date||Oct 14, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3344984 A, US 3344984A, US-A-3344984, US3344984 A, US3344984A|
|Inventors||Kopczynski John F|
|Original Assignee||Kopczynski John F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (5), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 3, 1967 J. F. KOPCZYNSKI 3,
SUBJECTION OF FLOWABLE MATERIALS TO HIGH LINEAR SPEEDS AND HIGH CENTRIFUGAL FORCES Filed Oct. 14, 1963 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.
Oct. 3, 1967 J. F. KOPCZYNSKI SUBJECTIO N OF FLOWABLE MATERIALS TO HIGH LINE SPEEDS AND HIGH CENTRIFUGAL FORCES 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 14 1963 9. m 3 M NO. Y\.. 2 l M 5U 0 3 2 8 F 2 M w E n w 7 A @WS 5 2 L 3 2 9 a a w H i 9 2 f H y 3 v f I u q 2 h 7 3 w (3 1 1r 3 la v & 1 w; 1 W mm m 0\ 9 w m w WM n w w W m R O N E V m Oct. 3, 1967 J. F. KOPCZYNSKI SUBJECTION OF FLOWABLE MATERIALS TO HIGH SPEEDS AND HIGH CENTRIFUGAL FORCES Filed Oct. 14
O 3. 9 J. F. KOPCZYNSKI 3,344,984
} SUBJECTION OF FLOWABLE MATERIALS TO HIGH LINEAR SPEEDS AND HIGH GENTRIFUGAL FORCES 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Oct. 14 1963 CENTER LINES 'OF WAVE POCKETS IN VARIOUS PROGRESSIVE WA PA H VE T s POSITIONS ENERGY SPECIMENS (LIQUID) SOLID (BALL) BASE OUTSIDE I DIAMETER 0F TROUGH PATH ROTARY TRACK INVENTOR.
Oct. 3, 1967 J. F. KOPCZYNSK! 3,344,984 SUBJEGTION 0F FLOWABLE MATERIALS TO HIGH LINEAR SPEEDS AND HIGH CENTRIFUGAL FORCES Filed 061;. 14, 1963 I 5 Sheets-Sheet s mvEw-ron United States Patent SUBJECTIGN OF FLOWABLE MATERIALS TO HIGH LINEAR SPEEDS AND HIGH CEN- TRIFUGAL FORCES John F. Kopczynski, 1026 Sweeney St., North Tonawanda, N.Y. 14120 Filed Oct. 14, 1963, Ser. No. 315,980 10 Claims. (Cl. 23321) This invention relates to the subjection of different materials, and particularly flowable materials, concurrently to very high travel speeds and high centrifugal forces in order to study any effects on the properties or compositions of such materials due to such speeds and forces, all, if desired, within one persons range of view, and without the necessity of operating the actuating means at such high speeds. By linear I mean along a selected line. i
In my Patent No. 3,026,719 granted on Mar. 27, 1962, I have disclosed an apparatus for causing a body, such as a ball bearing, for example, to travel at ultra-high linear speeds along an endless loop track that itself is moved only at a moderate speed. The present invention relates to modifications and variations of such apparatus, and its method of use to ascertain the effects of such ultra-high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces on various objects including flowable and fluid materials, such as upon gases, liquids and powders, and upon fluids formed of a physical mixture of components that by themselves have different densities.
An object of the invention is to provide improved apparatus and methods for subjecting specimens of various selected materials concurrently to very high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces, and where such forces may also vary in direction and amount during such linear travel, which enables one to observe any changes in the physical properties of flowable material due to very high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces, with which the centrifugal forces may be varied or caused to fluctuate somewhat, with which one may observe the tendency of liquids formed of physical mixtures of different components that differ individually in density, to separate in layers according to their densities under the combined influence of ultra high-linear speeds and high centrifugal forces, and which will employ relatively simple and inexpensive apparatus.
Other objects and advantages will appear from the following description of some examples and uses of the invention, and the novel features will be particularly pointed out in connection with the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing:
FIG. 1 is a plan of simple apparatus constructed in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional elevation of the same, the section being taken approximately along the line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 2a is a sectional elevation of the runner in the same, the section being taken approximately along the line 2a2a of FIG. 1; a
FIG. 3 is another sectional elevation of the same, the section being taken approximately along the line 3-3 of FIG. 1, which is at right angles to the section shown in FIG. 2;
FIG 4 is a sectional elevation of another speed ring, with the new roller therein, and which may be given gyratory movement according to the means of FIG. 2 of my said patent;
FIG. 5 is .a sectional elevation of another embodiment of the invention, such as may be used advantageously with liquids formed of components that separately are of different densities;
FIG. 6 is a plan of the same;
FIG. 7 is a sectional elevation of a modification of the device shown in FIG. 5, the section being taken approximately along the line 77 of FIG. 8;
FIG. 8 is a plan of the device shown in FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a sectional elevation of another device that may be used for liquids;
FIG. 10 is a schematic view illustrating steps with operation of the embodiment of the invention which is shown in FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a transverse sectional elevation of another embodiment of the invention for use with liquids made up of a mixture of components that individually have different densities; and
FIG. 12 is a sectional plan of the same, the section being taken approximately along the line 12-12 of FIG. 11.
The invention of FIGS. 1-4 employs a hollow shell in which different materials may be placed and rolled at ultra high speeds around an endless track where they are subjected to ultra high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces. In this particular example, the endless track is reciprocated back and forth in a plane to cause the shell to roll along the track. In FIGS. 5 and 6' a liquid composed of a physical mixture of components that separately have different densities is subjected to very high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces to enable one to observe and compare the tendency of different mixtures to stratify and separate or decompose under such speed and forces. FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate a modi fication of the device shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, where the cyclic movement is caused by two eccentric propelling devices. FIGS. 9 and 10' illustrate the treatment of a body of loose liquid to impart thereto high linear speeds and centrifugal forces, and FIGS. 11 and 12 illustrate still another device for liquids made up of components of different densities.
Referring first to the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 1-3, a cage member 1 is mounted to reciprocate approximately horizontally in a channel 2 of a base 3, the member 1 having rails 4 on opposite .sides thereof which are received in and are slidingly guided by grooves 5 in opposite side walls of the channel 2, and which support the member 1 slightly above the bottom wall 6 of the channel 2. The base 3 rotatably mounts an upright shaft 6 which extends upwardly into a downwardly opening recess 7 in the lower face of the member 1, where it terminates in an eccentric cam pin 8 that rotates therewith. The recess -'7 is elongated in a direction crosswise of the direction of reciprocation of member 1, and a block 9 is guided by the sides of recess 7 for reciprocation back and forth in the recess 7 in directions crosswise of the direction of reciprocation of the member 1 in base 3. The pin 8 is rotatably received in the block 9, and as the shaft 6' rotates the eccentric pin 8 will shift the member 1 back and forth in the base 3.
The member 1 has a cavity 10 that opens upwardly through an open face 11. The peripheral wall 12 of this cavity 10 has the shape of an endless loop, preferably circular, and in cross-section is channel-shaped to serve as a track for guiding a rolling element 13. Preferably the track in cross-section is approximately semi-circular, and the open face 11 is smaller in diameter than the maximum diameter of the track so that there will be some over-hang for the track along the margin of the open face 11 that keeps the rolling element 13 within the cavity 10. As the shaft 6' rotates the member 1 will be reciprocated through a very small amplitude or throw, determined by the throw of the eccentric pin 8, and this will cause the rolling element 13 to start a linear rolling movement along the peripheral wall 12. The element 13 will make one complete circuit along the wall 12 for each revolution 3 of the eccentric pin 8, and hence for any given speed of the shaft 6', the travel speed of the element 13 along the wall 12 will be much higher.
The element 13 (FIG. 2a) is hollow and its chamber is divided by circular and radial walls 14 into a plurality of compartments 15 and 16. The compartment 16 is approximately centrally of the element, and the compartments 15 are arranged around the central compartment 16 so that they are eccentric to the axis of rolling of the element 13. Each of such compartments is accessible through an individual opening in a face of the element that is closed by a removable cover such as a screw plug 17. Different materials may be placed in the compartments and subjected to the high speed linear forces as well as centrifugal forces due to the movement of the element in a circular path. In addition, the material in each compartment 15 will be subjected to further centrifugal forces due to the rotation of the element 13 on its own axis, as it travels along the wall 12. The further centrifugal forces will, during part of a rotation of element 13, be additive to the forces due to the translation along wall 12 and partly negative when the additional centrifugal forces are directed toward the center axis of wall 12. This results in a net centrifugal force that varies in amount, to which the material in element 13 is subjected.
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 4, the member 1a corresponds functionally to member 1 of FIGS. l3, except that it is given a gyratory movement by the mechanism using two eccentrics as shown in FIG. 2 of my prior patent, and the ball 14 of the patent is replaced by the running element shown in FIGS. 1 and 2a.
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6, the apparatus provides for treatment of a stream of liquid to very high linear speeds and centrifugal forces, and particularly to streams of liquid that are physical mixtures of components that separately have different densities. For example fresh milk is a physical mixture of cream and skim milk, and petroleum and water may be physically mixed yet separately have different specific gravities or densities. Alcohol and water can be physically mixed, yet they separately have different specific gravities or densities. Sea water is a physical mixture of fresh water and various minerals, yet water and the minerals separately have different densities or specific gravities.
Such apparatus employs a shell 18, somewhat flat, like a round pancake and having a chamber 19 therein. In its upper face it has an opening 20 that is normally closed by a cover 21, removably secured in closed position by screws 22. A gasket 23, such as an O-ring, disposed in an annular groove in a peripheral wall of the cover engages with the peripheral wall of the opening 20 and effects a liquid tight seal between the cover and the shell 18.
An upright shaft 24 is rotatably supported in a bearing sleeve 25 and above this sleeve the shaft carries a head 26 that rests on the upper end of the sleeve. The head 26 fixedly carries an upright post 27 which is parallel to the axis of the shaft 24, but offset sidewise from the shaft axis to act as an eccentric cam pin. The upper and lower walls of the shell 18 have aligned bosses 28 and 29 which extend toward one another in the chamber 19. The bosses 28 and 29 have aligned passages 30 and 31, each lined with a bearing sleeve 32, and the eccentric post 27 extends through the sleeves 32. A screw 33 is threaded into the free or upper end of the post 27 and confines a disc 34 that overlies the upper end of the upper sleeve 30 against the free end of the post 27. The head 26 of the shaft abuts against the lower end of the lower sleeve 32, and this, with the screw 33 and disc 34, confines the shell 18 rotatably on the post 27. A pantograph type linkage comprising the parallel links 35, 35 and parallel links 36, 36 connected together at similar ends by a connecting rod 37, with the free end of the links 35, 35 pivotally connected to the lower wall of the shell 18 and the free ends of the links 36, 36 pivotally connected to the base 24a provides a stabilizing linkage by which the shell 18 is held from rotation while permitting it to gyrate under the action of the rotating eccentric post 27. The upper boss 28 terminates at its lower or inner end within the chamber in a flange 38 that extends radially nearly to, but stops in spaced relation to the peripheral wall 39 of the chamber 19, and is disposed approximately midway between the top and bottom of the chamber 19. The peripheral wall 39, in cross-section, is approximately semicircular.
The cover 21 is provided with an inlet port 40 to which a conduit 41 is connected. This conduit has a flexible lead to follow the small gyratory motion of the shell, and is connected to a source of liquid, under pressure, which is one of such physical mixtures of materials of different densities. The end wall 39 has an outlet port 42 to which is connected a flexible conduit 43 that extends downwardly from the shell. The bottom wall of the shell 18 has ports 44, 45 and 46 arranged at different radial distances from the peripheral wall 39 and these ports are connected respectively to flexible conduits 47, 48 and 49.
In operation, while the shaft 24 is rotating and eccentric post 27 is causing bodily gyrations or movements of the shell 18, a liquid mixture of components that separately have different densities or specific gravities is delivered under pressure from a suitable source through the conduit 41 into the interior of the gyrating shell 18, near the center of such gyration and at the upper face of the partition or Wall 38. The gyrations imparted to the liquid so introduced into the chamber 19 will tend to cause the liquid to swirl along the wall 39 at a very high linear rate under the same forces that caused the element 13 to roll along the peripheral wall in FIGS. l-4. The travel of the liquid at high speed about the center of gyration of the shell 18 will result in high centrifugal forces that tend to separate the components of the liquid according to their different separate densities or sepcific gravities in the same manner that cream separates from milk in a cream separator under centrifugal forces. The heavier components will move toward the wall 39 and will be removed through conduit 43. The lighter components will remain near or move toward the center of gyration and form radially stratified layers of components of different densities, and they are separately removed through the conduits 47, 48 and 49. The wall 38 may have apertures 50 from face to face at different radial distances from the center of gyration to facilitate the Stratification with different radially related layers having different densities or specific gravities.
In the embodiment of the invention which is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8, the device is the same as illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 except that there are two eccentric elements operatively connected for operation together for causing gyrations of the shell 51 that corresponds to shell 18 of FIGS. 5 and 6. The two eccentric pins or cams 52 serve to prevent rotation of the shell and limit its motion to one of gyration through a very small throw or amplitude of movement. Two upright shafts 53 and 54 are rotatably mounted in a base 55 and operatively connected for rotation together. They are driven from a motive source, not shown, such as in the manner shown in my said earlier patent. The upper end of each shaft 53 and 54 carries a head 56, and each head carries one of the upright pins 52. Each of the pins 52 is eccentric to the axis of the rotation of the shaft 53 or 54 on which it is mounted. The bottom wall of the shell 51 has two depending lugs 57, each with a downwardly opening recess lined with a bearing sleeve 58. The eccentric pins 52 are rotatably received in these sleeves 58. A boss 59 depends from the under face of the cover 68 that corresponds generally to the cover 21 of FIGS. 5 and 6, the cover being connected to the opening 61 in the top wall of shell 51 in the manner described for the conection of cover 21 to v.3 the shell 18 in FIGS. and '6. The lower end of the boss 59 carries a flange 62 that is parallel to the top and bottom walls of the shell 51, approximately between them, and extends nearly to but at its marginal edge is spaced from the peripheral wall 63 of the chamber of shell 51. It may also have a few apertures 64 from face to face and which correspond in location and function to the apertures 50 of FIGS. 5 and 6. The shell has liquid inlet and outlet ports and conduits which correspond to those of shell 18 of FIGS. 4 and 5 and are correspondingly identified by the same numerals. The operation of this embodiment is basically the same as described for the embodiment of FIGS. 5 and 6.
and is similarly gyrated except that the opening 66 in the upper face of the member is closed by a cover 67 which is detachably confined in closed position over the opening 66 by screws 68. A ball or other rolling or sliding object 69 is disposed in the chamber of the shell so that when the shell is gyrated, as explained in my said patent, the ball or object 69 will tend to travel at ultrahigh linear speeds along the peripheral wall 70 of the chamber of the shell. However, a specimen 71 of a flowable material, to be examined and studied, and which may be a liquid or powder, preferably only partially filling the chamber, is also disposed in the chamber of the shell 65, and when the shell is then gyrated or given a small, cyclic movement the flowable material 71 tends to move bodily and linearly along the peripheral wall 70, but it is also mechanically propelled linearly along such wall 70 by the ball or object 69, and therefore a higher linear rate of travel of the flowable material along the wall 70 is obtained than might be obtained if the ball or object 69 was not employed. This action is illustrated schematically in FIG. 10, where the liquid moves at a high speed as a wave linearly along the wall 78, during which it is subjected to high centrifugal forces due to its rapid rotary movement. It will be noted that for the small amplitude of bodily travel of the member 65, as shown by the broken circular line 72 in FIG. 10, the ball and liquid will make one complete circuit along wall 70, which greatly multiplies the linear speed of ball and liquid. The outside diameter of the path of the member 65 is shown by the broken line 73 and some of the successive wave positions or paths o the liquid 71 are shown by the broken lines 74.
In the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12, a base 75 rotatably mounts an upright shaft 76, by means of a bearing liner sleeve 77, and this shaft has a head 78 which rests upon a flange 79 at the top of the liner sleeve 77. The head 78 carries upon it, and upstanding therefrom, a pin 80 which is parallel to but offset from the axis of the shaft 76 so as to act as an eccentric cam pin. A closed shell 81 is mounted on the eccentric pin 80 in the same manner that shell 18 is mounted on eccentric pin 27 in FIG. 5. When the shaft 76 is rotated it will cause gyration of the shell 81 in the same manner that rotation of shaft 24 in FIG. 5 caused gyrations of shell 18. In FIGS. 11 and 12, however, the shell 81 has a flat under face which rests and rotates upon a platform 82. The upper face of platform 82 is provided with a plurality of annular and concentric, separate grooves or channels 83, 84, and 85. The platform 82 is provided with a plurality of passages 86, 87, and 88 leading to the channels 83, 84, and 85, respectively, each controlled by a valve 89 outside of the platform and there each connected to an individual flexible pipe 90. A plurality of small springs 91 are dispensed under compression between the upper face of the base 75 and the under face of the platform 82 to press the platform 82 against the under face of the shell or housing 81, and keep each of the channels 83, 84 and 85 closed at its top by the under face of the shell. The springs 91 have their ends received in small recesses 92 in the platform 82 and the base 75. Upstanding pins 93 fixed on the base 75 are received in downwardly opening recesses in the under face of platform 82 to restrain the platform 82 from rotating with the shell 81. The outer periphery 94- of the shell 81 is cylindrical and a plurality of rollers or guides 95 are arranged around the shell 81 to be engaged by the shell outer periphery as the shell gyrates, which absorbs or counteracts upon some of the outward forces that act upon the shell and tend to enlarge its path of gyration.
The top of shell 81 has a large opening that is normally closed by a cover 96, which is removably confined to the shell across such opening by screws 97. The bottom wall of the shell 81 has a plurality of upstanding flanges 98 and 99 which are concentric to the axis of the eccentric pin '80, spaced apart radially therefrom and terminate in height in spaced relation to the cover 96. The cover 96 has a flange 100 that depends into the chamber of the shell 81 to a level just a little below the upper edges of the flanges 98 and 99, which provides an up and down zig-zag passage in the chamber of shell 81 in a direction radially of the chamber. The inner peripheral wall 101 has a port 102 opening into a passage 103 in the shell that opens downwardly over the space above the channel 83 of the plat-form so as to communicate with that channel. The channel is wide enough to remain in communication with the passage 103 during gyration of the shell 81. The bottom wall of the shell 81 has a passage 104 therethrough between the flanges 98 and 99 which opens downwardly into the channel 84 during all gyrations of shell 81. The bottom wall of shell 81 also has another passage 105 therethrough which opens downwardly into channel during all gyrations of the shell.
During operation of the device shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, a fluid, liquid or gaseous, which is a physical mixture of components, that separately have different densities, is delivered from a source (not shown) under pressure to pipe or conduit leading to passage 88, from which it passes upwardly into the chamber of the shell 81 near its center. As the shell gyrates this fluid will tend to move outwardly in a radial direction and also try to move at high linear speeds along the outer peripheral part of the chamber of shell 81. This fluid will fill the shell chamber and pass out through ports 102 and 104 into grooves or channels 83 and 84 and then out through passages 86 and 87. An examination of the densities of the fluids delivered from conduit passages 86 and 87 with one another and with the ingoing fluid will indicate the extent to which any stratification according to densities of the component fluids resulted from the gyrations of the shell and the high linear speeds of the fluids in the shell chamber. Selected operations of the valves 89 will aid in regulating the fluid flows, ingoing and outgoing in the passages 88, 86 and 87.
The vertical overlapping or overrunning of the flanges 98, 99 and prevents too rapid a movement of the ingoing fluid toward the outer peripheral wall of the shell chamber. The fluid in passing radially outwardly in the shell chamber will have to zig-zag back and forth vertically in such movement radially outwardly. The flange 100 is nearer the flange 98 than it is to flange 99 so that inertia of the heavier part of the fluid passing downwardly between flanges 98 and 100 will not descend as far in the space between flanges 98 and 99 as the lighter part of the fluid, which may aid in the tendency of the fluid components to separate according to the relative densities of such components. The extent to which different fluid mixtures of components of separately different densities will separate or stratify according to densities under the ultra-high linear speeds and centrifugal forces can be easily demonstrated bythis apparatus.
In all of the illustrated examples of the invention, a flowable material may be subjected to ultra-high linear or physical translation speeds along the track and very high centrifugal forces within ones field of observation,
without having the problem of lubrication of a high speed bearing or subjecting a body that holds the material under test to centrifugal forces that might cause it to disintegrate or break apart, because the members 1 and 1a of FIGS. 1-4, member 18 of FIGS. 5 and 6, member 51 of FIGS. 7' and 8, and member 65 of FIGS. 9 and 10 need not themselves move bodily at a high speed, but can cause a high rotary speed of any object or material that is disposed in the chamber having the endless loop wall or track. With this invention one can study the effects of ultra high linear speeds and centrifugal forces on different flowable materials, such as upon liquids that are composed of components that are separately or different densities or specific gravities and the tendency of the components to stratify or separate from one another under such speeds and forces. One may subject powdered materials of different kinds, such as different metal powders, to such speeds and forces to study the effects on the tendency of such materials to bond together or form alloys. One may also study, with this invention, the effect on human and animal blood of such high linear speeds and centrifugal forces and thereby anticipate the effects on blood in a human being or animal when travelling in space under different conditions. If the apparatus used is subjected to different pressures or degrees of vacuum, the effect on blood of the speeds and forces under different atmospheric conditions can be studied. One may also study the effect of high speeds and forces on different materials that may be used in space travel, in order to discover any weaknesses in them that might make their use in space travel undesirable or dangerous, and also safely test materials for wear, tensile strength, ductility and density at forces up to disintegration or explosion points of the tested materials. The speeds and forces to which the specimens to be tested are subjected may be higher than heretofore possible because the units of larger diameters, even if vibrating or gyrating at only a fraction of an inch throw and at a moderate rate or speed, will cause objects or materials disposed in the large tracks to have a planetary action and achieve very high linear speeds determined by the speed of the eccentrics and the diameter of the path of the object to that of the unit. The object or material is the only part that moves or revolves at ultra-high speeds. By greatly increasing the diameter of the endless track, the speeds of the objects or materials can be greatly increased.
With this invention one may imitate natures means of moving energy specimens through the principle of waves, as illustrated, for example, in FIGS. 9 and 10. One may generate mechanical waves that move energy specimens of liquids, solids or gases in a continuous line of propagation at ultra-high speeds and centrifugal forces. Many other uses will develop from time to time as a result of the uses hereinabove recited.
It will be understood that various changes in and modifications of the steps, details, materials, conditions, uses, and arrangements of parts, which have been herein described and illutrated in order to explain the nature of the invention, may be made by those skilled in the art within the principle and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.
1. Apparatus for subjecting flowable materials concurrently to ultra-high linear rotary speeds and high centrifugal forces, for enabling a study of any changes in the properties of such materials due to such speed and forces, which comprises;
(a) a member,
(b) means for imparting to said member a regular,
repeated cyclic movement in a plane and for preventing spinning of said member,
(c) said member having an endless, closed loop channel, a center line of which is aproximately all in one plane, facing inwardly of the path, and
(d) a rollable hollow body in which a specimen of said materials may be confined eccentrically of the axis of rolling of said body and having a rolling diameter which is only a small fraction of any distance across the loop of said channel, confined in the 5 channel to roll freely therealong, once around for each cycle of movement of said member,
(e) whereby said specimen confined in said body will be, during such cyclic movements of said member with said rolling movement of said body along said channel, subjected to ultra-high linear speed, and
10 ultra high and varying centrifugal forces due both to the rolling of the body along the track and also to additional centrifugal forces created by the additional rolling rotation of said body about its own axis of rotation.
2. Apparatus for subjecting fluids containing components that separately have different densities, to ultrahigh linear speeds and high centrifugal forces to enable a determination of the effect of such speeds and forces in causing any physical separation of said components, which comprises:
(a) a member having therein a closed chamber with opposed, spaced apart faces, a peripheral wall connecting said faces and defining the outer periphery of the chamber, and a partition between and spaced from said faces and extending from about the inner periphery of the chamber towards said peripheral wall, and with said peripheral wall defining a passage in said chamber from face to face of the partition adjacent to said peripheral wall,
(b) means acting on said member for imparting there to a repeated cyclic movement in directions substantially in a common plane generally parallel to said partition, with an amplitude less than a small fraction of any width across said chamber,
(c) a supply conduit connected to said member and opening into said chamber toward one face of said partition near the inner margin of the partition, by which a specimen of said fluids to be examined may be delivered into said chamber during cyclic movements of said member, and
(d) a plurality of separate withdrawal conduits con nected to said member, one opening into said chamber close to said peripheral wall for withdrawing fluid from said chamber close to said wall, and the others opening into said chamber at different inter vals between said peripheral wall and the inner periphery of said chamber, at the side of said partition opposite from said supply conduit, for with drawing fluids from said chamber at different radial distances from the center of said cyclic movement of said member,
(e) whereby, by comparison of the fluids withdrawn from said chamber through each of the different ones of said withdrawal conduits, the effect of said high linear speeds and centrifugal forces on said fluids in tending to separate said components thereof may be ascertained.
3. The apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said 60 cyclic movement is gyratory.
4. The apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said partition is apertured from face to face thereof in its interior face area.
5. The apparatus according to claim 2, wherein said 65 cyclic movement is gyratory and said partition is aper tured from face to face thereof in its interior face area.
6. Apparatus for subjecting materials concurrently to ultra-high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces for enabling a study of any changes in such materials that 70 may be due to such speeds and forces, which comprises:
(a) a member having an approximately horizontal, endless loop, track facing towards the central area thereof,
(b) means acting on said member for imparting to it a repeated, cyclic movement in an approximately horizontal plane, with an amplitude less than a small fraction of any width between opposite sides of said track, and preventing spinning of said member,
(c) a body disposed on and rollable along said track repeatedly during said cyclic movements of said memher and having a closed but openable chamber therein in which a specimen of said material may be confined,
(d) whereby a specimen of said material confined in said body and rolling along said track at an ultrahigh speed Will be concurrently subjected to high centrifugal speeds due to travel of said body along said endless track and to an additional centrifugal force due to the concurrent rotation of said body about its own axis.
7. The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said chamber in said body is disposed eccentrically of the rolling axis of the body.
8. The apparatus according to claim 6, wherein said cyclic movement is reciprocatory.
9. The method of subjecting a fluid containing a mixture of components that separately have different densities, to ultra-high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces to enable a determination of the eifect of such speeds and forces upon such fluid, which comprises:
(a) gyrating an approximately horizontal chamber with an endless, approximately circular, peripheral wall about a vertical axis with an amplitude of throw that is only a small fraction of the diameter of said chamber,
(b) supplying a stream of said fluid under pressure into said gyrating chamber near its axis of gyration,
(c) withdrawing one portion of said stream of fluid from one zone of said chamber close to said peripheral Wall, and
(d) withdrawing another portion of said fluid from a zone of said chamber, between said one zone of withdrawal and the axis of gyration of the chamber,
(e) whereby the tendency of said components of different mixtures to stratify and separate according to their different densities, under the influence of both said high linear speed and centrifugal forces, may be compared.
10. The method of subjecting flowable materials to ultra-high linear speeds and high centrifugal forces for the purposes of observing the effect of such speeds and forces on the properties of such materials, which comprises:
(a) confining a specimen of said materials in a rollable body,
(1)) depositing said body with its contained specimen in an endless loop track facing the interior of its loop and along which said body may roll, and having its peripheral line of maximum distance across approximately in one plane, and
(c) imparting to said track a small cyclic movement, less in extent than any distance across said track, and in a plane parallel to said one track plane, that causes rolling of said body along said track, once for each cycle of movement of said track and preventing spinning of said track,
(d) whereby the specimen in said body will be subjected to a high linear speed along said track and concurrently high centrifugal forces due to the travel of the body along said track and also to the rotation of said body about its own rolling axis.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 489,201 1/1893 Peck 233-17 506,609 10/1893 Seymour 233-5 529,662 11/1894 Naylor 233-21 703,630 6/1905 Laird 233-17 X 791,703 6/1905 Laird 233-17 X 1,080,223 12/1913 Latchem et a1. 233-17 X 2,809,020 10/1957 Magee et a1. 3,026,719 3/1962 Kopczynski 73-88 3,092,582 6/1963 Lacker 233-22 X 3,159,999 12/1964 De Zubay et a1. 73-61 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,195,462 5/ 1959 France.
HENRY T. KLINKSIEK, Primary Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US506609 *||Dec 5, 1892||Oct 10, 1893||Ore-concentrator|
|US529662 *||Nov 14, 1891||Nov 20, 1894||F Three||Fourths to george thomas mclauthlin|
|US703630 *||May 21, 1901||Jul 1, 1902||August Ten Winkel||Centrifugal separator.|
|US791703 *||Mar 26, 1904||Jun 6, 1905||Wilbur G Laird||Centrifugal separator.|
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|US2809020 *||Apr 9, 1954||Oct 8, 1957||Willard Conrad Ivan||Shaker|
|US3026719 *||Feb 25, 1959||Mar 27, 1962||Kopczynski John F||Propulsion of bodies at high linear speeds|
|US3092582 *||Mar 20, 1959||Jun 4, 1963||Black Clawson Co||Centrifuge|
|US3159999 *||Jul 18, 1961||Dec 8, 1964||Atlantic Res Corp||Method for determining settling in dispersions|
|FR1195462A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3505214 *||Dec 6, 1966||Apr 7, 1970||Albert G Bodine||Sonic separator|
|US3703984 *||Apr 21, 1970||Nov 28, 1972||Harold T Pruessner||Method and apparatus of centrifugal separation|
|US3888410 *||Nov 30, 1973||Jun 10, 1975||Nasa||Fluid control apparatus and method|
|US4202487 *||Feb 22, 1978||May 13, 1980||Beckman Instruments, Inc.||Lipoprotein rotor lid|
|US6808633 *||Jun 23, 1999||Oct 26, 2004||Hitachi, Ltd.||Centrifugal separator and sample preparation device using the separator|
|U.S. Classification||494/10, 494/47, 494/38, 494/85, 494/44, 494/37|
|International Classification||B04B5/00, B04B5/04, B04B5/08|
|Cooperative Classification||B04B5/08, B04B5/0442|
|European Classification||B04B5/08, B04B5/04C|