US 3345641 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 10, 1967 D. c. JENNINGS VENTILATED SPACE SUIT 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 2, 1964 E @e em NM Z5 7 V, w 10M M W5 Wp TNW M QM 5W J MJUNU /f W/ f W w W a e y d, d 7 F Mm n a y MW YY m MH 5 .W g im. w27.
Oct. 10, 1967 D. c. JENNINGS 3,345,641
'VENTILATED SPACE SUIT Filed April 2, 1964 2 Sheets-sheet 2 United States Patent O 3,345,641 VENTILATED SPACE SUIT David C. Jennings, East Hampton, Conn., assignor to United Aircraft Corporation, East Hartford, Conn., a corporation of Delaware Filed Apr. 2, 1964, Ser. No. 356,825 Claims. (Cl. 2-2.1)
This invention relates to pressure suits and more particularly to the ventilation of the body surface of the pressure suit occupant.
It is an object of this invention to provide a ventilation garment to be worn under a pressure suit to control and direct the distribution of ventilation gas ow so as to obtain the highest degree of mixing of ventilation gas with the water vapor at the skin surface and thereby to carry away the latent heat containing vapor at high efiiciency with a minimum flow of Ventilating gas.
It is an object of this invention to provide a Ventilating garment for a pressure suit in which supply fluid is passed over the surface of the body of the occupant through narrow passages adjacent thereto.
It is a further object of this invention to teach a ventilating garment which is capable of being fitted for persons of differing sizes.
It is still a further object of this invention to teach a Ventilating garment which is capable of flexing at the joints Without cutting off supply fluid.
It is still a further object of this invention to teach a Ventilating garment which is capable of efficient operation at low pressure and at low flow of Ventilating fluid.
It is still a further object of this invention to maintain contact between the body of a pressure suit occupant and a Ventilating garment placed thereover by placing distensible tubes over the surface of the Ventilating garment and establishing a pressure differential between the tube exterior and interior so that the tubes will change in shape to accommodate changes in shape, size and position of the Various parts of the occupants body as a result of occupant motion. This pressure differential is produced by providing orifices of selected size and number in the walls of the tubes and flowing pressurized fluid into and out of the tubes through the orifices to produce a positive pressure differential between the tube interior and exterior. The pressurized fluid flows through and is distributed byy a plenum chamber so that pressurized fluid flow will be maintained even when certain regions of the system are collapsed due to occupant motion or position or by exterior forces.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the specification and claims and from the accompanying drawings which illustrate an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. l is a showing of a typical pressure suit, such as a space suit, with occupant.
FIG. 2 is a simplified schematic of a typical space suit life support system.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view through the.body or limb of the pressure suit occupant showing the Ventilating pressure suit garment in operation.
FIG. 4 is a partial perspective View of the Ventilating garment.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the ventilating garment unpressurized.
Referring to FIG. 1, we see pressure suit 10, which may be a space suit or other type of pressure suit and which comprises basically of helmet or head closure 12, pressurized suit body 14, including gloves 16 and boots 18, and portable life support system 20.
Referring to FIG. 2 we see a simplified schematic of the space suit life support system comprising pressurized Ventilating uid reservoir 22, which is preferably a gaseous ICC oxygen (O2) reservoir and which is connected through shutoff valve 24 and regulator valve 26 to supply line 28, maintaining the pressure level of the gas in the system. Recirculating oxygen gas passes through line 28 and into space suit 10 and then to the extremities of the body of the occupant through an intake supply system and then therefrom through an exhaust system to exhaust line 30. After passing through the CO2 remover 3%2 and blower 34, the recirculating gas is passed through water boiler heat sink 36 where cooling of gas and condensation of water vapor occurs, then through water separator 38 where condensed water removal occurs and then through line 40 to rejoin the supply line 28.
In a pressure suit, it is necessary to distribute the ventilation gas or air uniformly over the occupants body and collect it after it picks up moisture and heat from the occupant. The Ventilated space suit now to be described in greater particularity accomplishes this function at 10W flow, low pressure operation.
Referring to FIG. 3, We see a typical cross-sectional showing of the ventilated pressure suit in operation. Pressure suit wall 14 envelops the entire space suit structure. Ventilation gas supply enters the pressure suit interior through conduit 28 and discharges therefrom through exhaust conduit 30, after first passing over the surface of the body of the occupant.
The Ventilating portion 42 of the pressure suit comprises a porous, thin walled, open weave or net type spacer garment 44 which covers the surface of the body of the occupant 46. Garment 44 may be a simple net, open weave or other fabric or porous structure which is capable of permitting the flow of gas therethrough laterally while defining a gas passage 48 the thickness of the garment wall around the body of the occupant. Distensible and iniiatable, flexible bags or tubes 5G are: positioned over the entire surface of the occupants body outboard of garment 44 and are enveloped within tension layer 51, which is preferably made of a nonporous material.
Outer layer 52 loosely envelops tension layer 51 and is also made t of a nonporous material and preferably,
t although not necessarily, may be made of two layers 54 and 56 of nonporous fabric with insulating scrim 58 therebetween.
A plurality of ported connectors 60 extend through and` join tension layer 51 and outer layer 52 while defining a port therethrough in spaced intervals as best shown Vin FIG. 4 so that when pressure is` supplied therebetween, intake manifold or plenum chamber 62 is formed. Ported connectors 70 extend through andconnect tension layer 51 with the outer wall 72 of bags 50 while defining a port therethrough. Ports are positioned along the inner wall 82 of tubes 50 adjacent porous fabric 44.
Distensible bags or tubes 50 extend preferably parallel to one another and when inflated, define small spaces therebetween.
OPERATION Supply fluid enters pressure suit 14 and the ventilated portion 42 thereof through conduit 28 and passes therefrom into the inlet manifold or plenum chamber 62 to inflate said plenum chamber by separating tension layer member 51 from outer layer 52. From inlet manifold or plenum chamber 6-2, the Ventilating fluid passes through ports or orifices 70 into distensible tubes 50, to inate the tubes 50 and cause the inner wall 82 thereof to flatten out against porous garment 44, which is now confined between inner wall 82 and the spa-ce suit occupants body 46 to define narrow channel or passage 48 adjacent and over the entire surface -of the occupants body. The outer wall 72 of tubes 5t)` flatten out against tension member 51 and serve to bring member 51 into tension for support purposes. The Ventilating gas in inflated tubes 50 then passes through ports or orifices 80 into passage 48 where is flows laterally and in opposite directions from port S and through garment wall 44 to the opposite sides of distended tubes S0 into narrow spaces 90, picking up body moisture and heat in passing therethrough. This body moisture and heat pickup is accomplished mainly by evaporation but also, at times, by applying heat to the surface of the body of the occupant. From spaces 90, the Ventilating air then passes through ports 60 into. exhaust manifold 10G, from whence it is returned through exhaust flow outlet 30 to` a pressure suit life support system illustrated in FIG. 2,.
The pressure of the Ventilating fluid entering inlet 28 and the relative sizes of ports 70 and 80 are selected so that, with tubes or bags 56' distended, spaces 90 arel small and there will be a proper pressure drop through the system to permit low flow operation.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific embodiment herein illustrated and described but may be used in other ways without departure from its spirit as defined by the following claims:
1. A pressure suit ventilation garment comprising a porous net or open weave layer adapted to contact the body of the wearer, a exible tension member loosely enveloping said porous layer, a plurality of parallel, distensible tubes positioned between said porous layer and said tension member and spaced so that when said tubes are inflated, said tension member is drawn taut as said tubes form an inner wall fiattened out against said porous layer and an outer wall attended out against said tension member while adjacent tubes `are spaced slightly from each other, a plurality of first ports extending through said tension member and said outer wall of said tubes, a plurality of second ports extending through said inner wall .of said tubes, a plurality of third ports extending through said tension member between said tubes when inflated, `and means to pass pressurized fluid through said plurality of first ports to inflate said tubes and then to pass from said tubes through said plurality of second ports and then to pass through said net layer and then to pass between said tubes and through said plurality orf third ports.
2. Apparatusl laccording to claim 1 and including an inlet uid manifold connected to conduct fluid to said plurality of first ports, an exhaust manifold connected to receive fluid from said plurality of third ports.
`3. Apparatus according to claim 2 wherein 'saidf first ports are substantially larger than said second ports.
4. A pressure suitl ventilation garment comprising a porous type or open weave layer of material adapted to contact the body of the Iwearer, a first layer of nonporous material loosely enveloping said net layer, a second layer of non-porous material loosely enveloping said first layer, a plurality of spaced port defining joints be tween said first and second layers to make a plenum chamber therebetween while defining a port therethrough, a plurality of parallel distensible tubes positioned between said net layer and said first layer, a plurality of first ports connecting said plenum chamber to the interior of said tubes, a plurality of second ports connecting the interior of said tubes to said porous layer, means to introduce pressurized fluid in said plenum chamber to pass therefrom through said first port to distend said tubes so that they flatten out against said net layer and against said first layer to cause said rst layer to become taut in tension `and to cause adjacent tubes to be spaced slightly `from each other and then to pass from said inflated tubes through said second ports, through said porous layer and between said inflated tubes through said spaced ports.
5. A ventilated pressure suit comprising a porous garment of thin wall thickness adapted to cover the body of the occupant, a plurality of inatable bags adapted to cover the body of the occupant and positioned outwardly of and adjacent said garment and each having an inner wall adjacent said garment and an outer wall, a nonporous tension layer enveloping said bags, a non-porous outer layer loosely enveloping said tensionv layer, a plurality of first ported connections each connecting said tension layer yand said bag outer wall while defining a port therethrough, a plurality of ports in said bag inner walls adjacent said garment, a plurality of second ported connections each connecting said tension layer and said outer layer while defining a port therethrough, land means to pass pressurized fluid between said tension layer and said outer layer to separate same and form a plenum chamber therebetween, and so that said fluid then passes through said rst ported connections into said bags to expand said bags so that said tension member is brought into tension as said bag inner walls flatten out against -said garment and said bag outer walls fiatten out against said tension member, and so that said fini-d then passes through said bag inner wall ports and through the walls of said porous garment and between said bags and then through said second ported connectors, said pressure of said fiuid and the size off said ports in said first ported connectors and the size of said ports in said bag inner wall being of selected value such that said 4bags are spaced slightly when infiated so that the pressurized fluid passes uniformly through the walls of said thin Walled porous garment and hence across the body of the -occupant to pick up moisture and heat therefrom.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,093,834 9/1937 Gaugler 2-2.1 X 2,255,751 9/1941 Bancel 128-402 X 3,043,300 7/1962 Flagg 2`-81 X 3,049,896 -8/1962 Webb 12S-144 FOREIGN PATENTS 908,312 10/ 1962 Great Britain.
JORDAN FRANKLIN, Primary Examiner.
J. R. BOLER, Assistant Examiner.