|Publication number||US3345718 A|
|Publication date||Oct 10, 1967|
|Filing date||Jan 21, 1966|
|Priority date||Dec 24, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3345718 A, US 3345718A, US-A-3345718, US3345718 A, US3345718A|
|Inventors||Reed Alfred Joseph, Hollihan John Phillip, Turton Walter|
|Original Assignee||Stevens & Co Inc J P|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (4), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 10 1967 J; HOLLIHAN ETAL PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TEXTURIZING TEXTILE MATERIAL 2 Sheets$heet 1 Original Filed Dec. 24, 1984 (JOHN )Q/mz/P #OLLIHAN Awe-:0 doscPH P550 BY MALT Oct. 10 1967 J. P. HOLLIHAN ETAL 3,345,718
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TEXTURIZING TEXTILE MATERIAL Original Filed Dec. 24, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS United States Patent ()fifice 3,345,718 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR TEX- TURIZING TEXTILE MATERIAL John Phillip Hollihan, Wyckolf, N .J., Alfred Joseph Reed, Wallace, NO, and Walter Turton, Stamford, Conn., assignors to .l. P. Stevens & Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Original application Dec. 24, 1964, Ser. No. 421,055, now Patent No. 3,325,987, dated June 20, 1967. Divided and this application Jan. 21, 1966, Ser. No. 555,944
13 Claims. (Cl. 28-1) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLGSURE A process and apparatus for crimping fibers wherein the crimps of the fiber are of a zigzag configuration and wherein the fiber is twisted in alternate directions along the fiber axis at or near the apices of the crimps. In addition, the crimps are of substantially uniform size and present a substantially constant distribution pattern throughout any given length of a fibrous textile product prepared by this process. The fibers are introduced in a substantially tensionless state between a set of opposed surfaces whose alternate depressed and raised areas are engaging under an applied pressure and thereby engage the material and each other so that the material as a result of the tensionless speed zigzags laterally just prior to being gripped and crimped. Permanently grooved surfaces, one of them being resilient while the other is relatively nonresilient, provide the gripping feature.
This application is a division of our co-pending application Ser. No. 421,055 filed Dec. 24, 1964, now US. Patent 3,325,987, granted June 20, 1967, which application is a continuation-in-part of our application Ser. No. 338,077 filed J an. 16, 1964, now abandoned, and entitled, Apparatus and Process for Treatment of Heat-Deformable Material in Textile Fiber Form. More particularly, this invention relates to a new textile product, a process for the preparation thereof and apparatus for carrying out the process. Specifically, the invention relates to a crimped or bulked textile product and to the process and apparatus for manufacturing it.
In the field of textile products, considerable research has been directed toward the production of textile materials which simulate the curled or kinked state of certain of the naturally occurring fibrous materials, such as some types of wool. Spun yarns and textured fibers and yarns were developed as a result of such research in the field of synthetic textile fibrous materials. These products simulate by artificial crimping the bulkiness of certain wool fibers whose bulkiness is a direct consequence of the kinked or curled character of the wool. However, although the spun yarns and textured materials so developed have had good commercial acceptance, many of them still present certain drawbacks. For example, the crimp imparted often results in torsional responses toward pigtailing which causes processing difiiculties. In addition, non-uniformity in the size of the crimps often causes a loss of tensile strength, as well as random distribution of the crimps along the longitudinal axis of a fibrous textile material.
In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a textile product which does not exhibit the disadvantages mentioned as well as a process and apparatus for producing the same.
In order to understand the invention more readily, reference is directed to the attached drawings taken in conjunction with the following specification. In the drawings:
3,345,718 Patented Oct. 10, 1967 FIG. 1 is an elevational schematic view of one embodiment of an apparatus according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view in perspective of a set of rolls for imparting deformation to textile material according to the invention, including feed rolls and take-up rolls; and
FIG. 4 is an enlarged detail showing the engagement of the raised and depressed area of the rolls for imparting deformation to textile material.
The term fiber as employed throughout the specification and claims is to be understood to include fibers, such as staple fibers, drafted fibers, continuous monofilaments, composite yarns of such fibers and monofilaments and other filamentary materials.
A textile product according to the invention comprises textile material, that is, crimped fiber wherein the crimps of the fiber are of a zigzag configuration and in which the fiber is twisted in alternate directions along the fiber axis at or near the apices of the crimps. Consequently, the crimps lie or zigzag in a diverse number of planes. Moreover, the crimps are of substantially uniform size and present a substantially constant distribution pattern throughout any given length of a fibrous textile product prepared by the process of the invention, as set forth more fully hereinbelow. However, the textile material may have and it is possible to produce non-uniform crimps of random distribution in cases where special elfects are desired. The crimp frequency for a given length of fiber can vary widely. The number of crimps per given length is not critical although limited somewhat by the physical limitations of the apparatus and the size of the fibrous material being processed thereon. In general, as the denier size of the fibrous material is increased, the number of crimps per given length of textile material being treated decreases. In terms of apparatus, as explained more fully hereinbelow, the number of the raised and depressed areas on the opposed surfaces per given area thereof decreases while the depth of the depressions increase.
As a practical matter, as many as 350 crimps per inch and more can be imparted to a fibrous textile material processed in accordance herewith. As mentioned hereinbefore, as the denier size of the fiber increases, the number of crimps per given length decreases. A crimp frequency in a range of 350 or more per inch can readily be imparted to fibrous materials of relatively small denier. An excellent material having as little as 10 to 16 crimps per inch on 10 to 20 denier fiber to as many as about 50 to 250 and as great as 350 or more can be made on 0.5 to 4.0 denier fiber which is suitable for utilization in fabrics employed in the apparel field. The number of crimps imparted to the fibrous material will, of course, result in its being more or less bulky, thereby making it particularly useful in certain desired end uses where different degrees of bulkiness are desirable. Both knitted and woven textile fabrics manufactured from textured ma terial prepared in accordance with this invention wherein approximately 14 to 16 crimps per inch were imparted to the fibrous material exhibit excellent hand and bulk properties as well as excellent color quality.
A textile product in accordance with this invention can be manufactured from a wide variety of materials. For example, the textile product may be proteinaceous material, cellulosic material, synthetic thermoplastic polymeric material, thermo setting polymeric material, fiberglass and the like. Illustrative of such materials are the cellulosic fibers, cellulosic acetate fibers, the polyamides, polyesters, the acrylics, wool, cotton and the like.
A textile product, according to the invention, is prepared by introducing textile material preferably, in fiber form, in a substantially tensionless state between a set of opposed surfaces whose alternate depressed and raised areas are engaging under an applied pressure and which engage the material and each other so that the material as a result of the tensionless feed zigzags laterally just prior to being gripped and crimped. This is attained with permanently grooved surfaces if one' of them is resilient while the other is relatively nonresilient. Preferably, the fibrous material should be at an elevated temperature, although heating is not essential.
After deformation of the textile material between the surfaces takes place, the material is removed while maintained under controlled tension. The product has a substantial proportion of the deformation imparted thereto retained substantially permanently.
Generally, the fibrous textile material is removed from between the opposed surfaces in a substantially tensionless state. It may be cooled by ambient temperature or it may be positively cooled while being removed from between the opposed surfaces.
The material being treated is processed at a temperature at least suflicient to permit it to undergo deformation. The upper temperature limit should not exceed that which will cause destruction or decomposition of the textile material being treated. Where a positive heating step is utilized, the material to be treated can be raised to an elevated temperature by any suitable means either before it passes between the surfaces which deform it, or while it is physically present between the surfaces and undergoing deformation. The particular temperature employed in the treatment of a particular textile material depends upon the characteristics of the material itself. For example, certain type of proteinaceous material, such as wool or the like is readily processed at room temperature, that is, at about 20 C. On the other hand, a synthetic material, such as nylon, is processed at a temperature of at least about 150 C. In any case, regardless of the temperature being employed, in order to achieve a good product, the material being deformed or crimped is overfed between the opposed surfaces at a rate sufficient to insure that it is maintained in a substantially tensionless state, that is, that degree of tension at or below which textile material fed between the opposed surfaces complies in both a lateral as well as a vertical direction.
In carrying out the processes of this invention, the textile material being treated is deformed between the opposed surfaces at a wide variation of applied pressure. The particular amount of pressure should be at least enough to insure that the material passing between the opposed surfaces is made to conform to the shape of the depressed areas on the opposed surfaces as well as to the raised areas thereof. At the same time, the material should not have so much pressure applied thereto that it is physically damaged by contact between the surfaces. Generally speaking, applied pressure in a range of about 240 to 400 pounds per linear inch of the roll is sutficient in most cases to achieve the desired object. On the other hand, it is to be noted that the most suitable pressure necessary for processing of any particular fiber is readily determinable and is limited mainly by physical limitations of the apparatus or physical limitations of the fibrous material itself.
In carrying out the practice of the invention, it should also be noted that positive means for setting the material being treated are preferably, although not necessarily, utilized. As pointed out hereinabove, such means may include raising the fibrous material to an elevated tem perature, but also include treatment with a chemical setting agent or the like. Any suitable chemical setting agent for the particular fibrous material being processed can be used. Examples of suitable chemical setting agents for keratin based fibers are reducing agents, alkaline reducing agents, thiols such as thioglycollic acid, and saturated steam at elevated pressures. For other proteinaceous fibers, such as silk, high temperature steam and any of the conventional tanning chemicals, as well as formaldehyde, may be used. For cellulosics, the setting agents could be drawn from any of the chemical groups such as formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde, melamine formaldehyde, and other thermosetting agents or chemicals. In general, any chemical which is able to supply permanent crosslinking either by co-valent or any other type of permanent bonding is suitable. Thermoplastic fibers may be pre-softened either by heat or the use of volatile plasticizers which would. be evaporated off during the setting operation.
Consequently, a process for the preparation of a textile material in accordance herewith is also suitably one which comprises introducing textile fiber from a source at a first speed to a first set of feed rolls, increasing the speed of the textile fiber as it leaves the feed rolls and overfeeding it between a second set of rolls, as described more fully hereinafter, which mesh with each other while under applied pressure, deforming the textile fiber between the second set of rolls and collecting the fiber in substantially tensionless condition or state with the deformation imparted thereto retained therein substantially permanently. As mentioned hereinbefore, the fiber can be heated either before it passes between the second set of rolls or while it is between them. Moreover, as previously mentioned, cooling of the material can take place either by ambient temperature exchange or by a positive cooling means after the fiber passes from between the second set of rolls and is collected on the third set of rolls at a speed less than that at which the fiber travels between the first set of rolls and the second set of rolls.
Suitable apparatus for carrying out the process described above is illustrated in the attached drawings. Generally, an apparatus for treating textile material in accordance with the invention comprises a set of opposed surfaces having alternately depressed and raised areas which engage each other, at least one of the surfaces being resilient and substantially permanently grooved by the remaining surfaces which are substantially non-resilient in nature. Moreover, the apparatus also includes means for moving the surfaces into contact and maintaining them in engagement under pressure, such as a hydraulic means or the like, as well as means for feeding textile material between the surfaces in a substantially tensionless state and means for taking up the textile material under controlled tension after it passes from betweenn the surfaces.
Referring more particularly to FIGURES 1 and 2, there is shown an apparatus, generally designated as 10, which is suitable for treatment of textile material, in this case illustrated as fibers, in accordance with the invention. In the embodiment shown, there is depicted a beam designated as 11 on which is wound a large number of ends of a fibrous textile material 12. Beam 11 is supported by journal means, not shown, and is free-running but provided with a friction drag or other suitable device to provide uniform tension in the fibrous textile material on the beam.
The fibrous textile materials, that is, textile fibers 12, pass through a reed 13 supported by a means not shown. Subsequently, the fibrous textile materials 12 pass through a reed 14 which is suitably adapted to traverse in a well known manner the path of the materials horizontally in a direction substantially perpendicular to the path of travel.
The fibrous textile material 12 then passes through overfeed mechanism 15 comprising two relatively small diameter rolls 16 and 17, the material being S-looped about the rolls 16 and 17 both of which are driven by means not shown. Generally, any suitable combination of rolls and driving arrangement may be utilized to provide the overfeed. The fibers 12 then pass between a set of opposed surfaces illustrated as a pair of rolls 18 and 19. The number of opposed surfaces may be greater than two, however. At least one of the rolls is made of a resilient and also softer material, such as disclosed more fully hereinafter. The other roll or rolls are fabricated from a relatively hard material, such as steel. In any case, the relatively hard roll or rolls have a surface configuration which is designed to impart a crimp to the fibers 12 as well as to impart the particular surface contours thereof to the softer resilient roll 19.
The surfaces of rolls 18 and 19 are in pressure contact. This state or condition of pressure is attained and maintained by hydraulic or other means through any suitable arrangement and generally by forcing the lower roll against the upper roll. Drive roll 18 is rotated by means not shown and roll 19 is driven as a result of the frictional force resulting from the pressure contact with roll 18.
Roll 18 can be heated, for example, by passing heated fluid through the center thereof. In such a case, roll 18 is preferably constructed of a heat conductive material. There is shown in FIG. 3 a stationary journal member 20 communicating with the interior of the hollow rotating shaft 21 of roll 18. A hose 22 from a source of heated fluid, not shown, is connected to journal 20. Extension 23 of shaft 21 is connected to the drive means of rotating roll 18. In this manner, heated fluid can be supplied to roll 18 while it is rotating.
Since roll 19 is resilient and in order to prevent it from overheating and thereby wearing excessively, there is provided means to cool it with an air blast, such as tube 24 having a plurality of air outlets 25. Tube 24 is connected to a supply of compressed air not shown.
The take-up assembly, generally designated as 16a, comprises rolls 26 and 27 and is capable of maintaining the fibrous textile material 12 under controlled tension until it is cooled suflicient to retain substantially permanently the crimp configuration imparted thereto. Both rolls 26 and 27 are driven by means not shown. Any suitable take-up assembly may be used for this purpose. Moreover the take-up rolls may comprise a set of rolls which can be greater than two in number if desirable. In addition, it is to be noted that either one or both of the take-up rolls 26 and 27 can be utilized to provide positive cooling means for cooling the textile material being processed. This is shown in FIG. 3 wherein a journal 28 rotatably receives the hollow shaft 29 of roll 26 through which a supply of coolant from a source not shown is fed by way of hose 30. It will be understood that if this means of cooling is utilized, roll 26 will be fabricated from a material which is capable of conducting heat. It should be further understood, however, that the textile material being treated may be cooled sufliciently to achieve substantially perm-anent configuration of the deformation therein solely as a result of ambient heat exchange. Therefore, rolls 26 and 27 would not have to be adapted for cooling purposes.
Alternative methods of cooling are also possible, such as passing the material being treated while in a tensionless condition or state through an atmosphere which is maintained at a low ambient temperature. Regardless of the particular method of cooling utilized, the cooling should be accomplished before the yarns are exposed to forces which would tend to remove the crimp imparted thereto by rolls 18 and 19.
The overfeed assembly, generally designated as 15, is an important part of the apparatus of the invention. As the textile material being treated enters the nip of the rolls 18 and 19, it must be in a substantially tensionless condition as pointed out hereinbefore. As the material passes between these rolls, it is deformed in accordance V with the raised and depressed areas of the surfaces thereof. Once the textile material enters the nip of the rolls 18 and 19, there should be no further slippage. If the material is delivered under tension, substantially higher pressure is necessary in order to achieve a deired degree of deformation. Accordingly, optimum results are assured by feeding the textile material 12 in a substantially tensionless condition in order to provide sufficient reserve length to compensate for any shrinkage or the like which might occur. Feeding the textile material in a tensionless condition also is desirable in order to provide as much extra material lengthwise as possible in order to minimize stretching as the crimping takes place. Another reason why tensionless feeding is useful resides in the fact that the material will first twist one way and then the other, that is, in a right and left direction as it is drawn by the engaging raised and depressed areas of the rolls at the threshold of the nip.
The amount of overfeed will vary. It is dependent, of course, upon the equipment design, the type of material, the throughput speed, and other such factors. The particular amount of overfeed for a particular material being utilized can be readily determined. In any case, it is necessary that the overfeed generally be sufficient to assure that the textile material being processed will be in a substantially tensionless condition or state when first engaged by rolls 18 or 19. For example, when treating nylon, the rotation of the feed rolls 16 and 17 of the overfeed assembly 15 is adjusted to provide a linear velocity somewhere in the approximate range of about 5 to 15% greater than the linear velocity of the roll 18, that is, the drive roll which bears the original raised and depressed areas on its surface. This amount of overfeed is generally sufficient to assure that the material being processed will be in a substantially tensionless state when it enters the crimping rolls.
After the fibrous textile material has passed between the crimping mechanism, that is, roll 18 and 19, as mentioned hereinbefore, it is taken up on the take-up assembly 16a in a substantially tensionless condition, that is, under controlled tension. While take-up is being accomplished, the material, as mentioned before, can be cooled and thereafter it may be subjected to the degree of tension which is necessary to carry out the balance of any operation. For example, the textile material 12 can pass through reed 31 after leaving the take-up assembly 16 and then to a finishing operation generally denoted by reference number 32 in FIG. 1. This finishing operation may involve sizing of the material, or dyeing, or some other such operation. Finally, the material is wound on beam 33 which is rotated by means not shown and it is now ready for knitting, weaving or other fabricating processes.
With respect to roll 18, it is to be noted, as mentioned hereinbefore, that it may be fabricated from a relatively hard material such as steel, whereas roll 19 is made of a resilient material. In such a situation, the surface of the hard roll is contoured by engraving or other similar procedures by which the desired pattern of raised and depressed areas is cut into its surface. On the other hand, the resilient roll 19 is constructed of a suitable compacted composition or the like which has a durometer hardness in a range of about 72 to 100, and preferably in a range of from about to 86. (See ASTM Designation D 1484- 59.) For example, the resilient roll 19 can be suitably fabricated from a blend of about 65% cotton and 35% wool, which is resin-impregnated and pressed to have a durometer hardness in the ranges expressed he-reinabove.
A convenient method of shaping or contouring the surface of the deformable resilient roll follows. Initially, the surface of the roll is wetted by sponging and the hard roll, that is, roll 18, is heated to a temperature of approximately C. after which the resilient roll is forced against the hard roll under pressure of about 240 pounds per linear inch. The hard roll 18 is then driven at a linear velocity of approximately 50 feet per minute for a period of approximately 15 minutes. The resilient roll 19 is then released from contact with the roll 18 and is Wetted once more. The temperature of roll 18 is increased to approximately C. and the resilient roll is once more pressed against it under a pressure of about 400 pounds per linear inch. Once again the roll 18 is driven at a linear speed of approximately 50 feet per minute for a period of about 15 minutes. The procedure is then repeated as often as necessary using increasing pressures until the contour of the roll 18 is substantially impressed or formed upon the surface of the roll 19.
The resiliency of roll 19 helps to prevent breaking or cutting of the textile material passing between the rolls. The use of a resilient roll helps to avoid the build-up of undesirable excessive pressure by sharing the pressure load. In other words, excessive pressure at any point or area between the surfaces of the rolls is relieved since the resilient roll will deform. This prevents any undue strain upon the materials passing between the rolls. Thus the upper hardness limit of 100 durometer for the resilient roll is based on the desire to have at least the required elasticity to provide continuous engagement and to prevent breakage of the material being processed due to nonuniform excessive pressures. Apparently, the resilience of roll 19 permits continuous engagement between the raised and depressed portions of the co-acting surfaces of the rolls. A raised portion striking a raised portion should out rather than crimp the material. With the use of the resilient roll no such action is evident, as may be seen both from examining the crimped material or the clear pattern cut in the soft roll 19.
With respect to the lower limit of hardness of roll 19, it is to be understood that a surface which is too resilient results in excessive deformation of the roll with consequent lack of a clearly cut pattern and, hence, insufficient deformation of the material being processed.
During use, the resilient roll 19 always carries the cut complementary pattern of the grooves 34 of roll 18. At the same time, the diameter decreases or is worn away. Hence, it appears that the lower roll is gradually and continuously re-cut during use.
In the embodiment shown in the drawings, the grooves 34 in roll 18 are helical and are at an angle of approximately 25 with the axis of roll 18. The helical configuration is used to avoid pattern repeats in a fabric woven or knitted from material processed in accordance With the invention. However, it is to be appreciated that such pattern repeats can be avoided through selection of weave construction and control of other variables. Consequently, for the purposes of the present invention, if a crimped yarn is desired, the grooves 34 may be parallel to the axis of roll 18 or at any angle up to 45 or greater and still produce yarn having desirable properties.
In the embodiment shown in the drawings, the surfaces of rolls 18 and 19 have a contour in a rounded or chamfered saw-tooth pattern as shOWn in FIG. 4, the grooves 34 being separated by land areas 35. The tooth form of the bottom roll 19 has a larger radius at the top and bottom of the tooth than the corresponding portions of the hard surface roll 18. This results in a crimped eflFect as mentioned hereinbefore. Satisfactory crimping of yarn is obtained when using spacings of the order of up to 350 grooves per inch.
The depth of grooves 34 is dependent in part on the spacing of the grooves. That is to say, the maximum depth is limited by the requisite land area configuration needed to withstand the pressures necessary for the crimping operation. Aside from this consideration, a deeper groove provides a greater texturization of the yarn. Likewise, texturization is increased by using a greater number of grooves per inch.
Thus, for example, with approximately 150 grooves per inch, the permissible depth is of the order of .002 inch, whereas with approximately 85 grooves per inch, the depth may be increased to approximately .004 inch. Naturally, it is desirable to remove any and all sharp edges so as to avoid any possibility of cutting the yarn being treated.
With respect to the selection of diameters for rolls 18 and 19, the embodiment shown in the drawings depicts substantially equal diameters. However, roll 19 can be made larger than roll 18 since the surface of this roll will tend to wear and be re-cut. It has also been found good practice occasionally to run the rolls without textile material to impart this re-cutting for a sharper pattern on roll 19. By choosing a roll with a large diameter, the life of roll 19 is thus increased.
Depending upOn the hardness of the textile material being treated, there may be wear of the surfaces of rolls 18 and 19 in the areas of contact with the textile material. If such wear occurs, the pattern in such areas will be partially reduced with consequent decrease in texturization. To avoid this wear if it occurs, reed 14 may be connected to a traverse mechanism, not shown. This would provide reciprocal movement of the textile material, for example, with one-half inch travel, or something greater than the spacing between the ends in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the movement of the textile material 12 through rolls 18 and 19. In this manner, the textile material contacts a broad portion of the surface of rolls 18 and 19, and the wear across such broad surface will be uniform.
FIG. 3 depicts a method of pre-heating fibrous textile material 12 before it reaches the nip of rolls 18 and 19. As shown in this drawing, overfeed assembly rolls 16 and 17 are provided with rotary couples 36 and 37, respectively. Couples 36 and 37 communicate respectively with hollow shafts 38 and 39 of the rolls, and are provided with heated fluid through hoses 40 and 41 from a source not shown. In this manner, the fibrous textile material may be heated prior to contact with rolls 18 and 19 and the speed of rotation of rolls 18 and 19 may be increased, thereby providing increased production. With sufficient pre-heat, it may be possible to avoid heating roll 18 in certain types of operation.
As an illustration of the invention, nylon 66 yarn (polymer of adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine) was treated under different conditions of temperature and pressure. The yarn treated was 40 denier, l3 filaments.
An apparatus similar to that shown in FIG. 1 was used, with rolls 18 and 19 having grooves per inch, equally spaced, and parallel to the axis of rotation of the rolls. There was no pre-heating used, nor was there any cooling other than natural ambient heat exchange. Roll 18 was steel and roll 19 was composition roll of 84 durometer hardness.
A sheet of yarns containing 588 ends was treated at a linear speed through rolls 18 and 19 of feet per minute.
It was found that suitably crimped yarn Was produced with a pressure of 240 pounds per linear inch when roll 18 was heated to about C.
Increasing the temperature of roll 18 to C. had little visible effect on the texturization of the yarn. Likewise, the use of pressures above 240 pounds per linear inch had no visible effect at roll temperatures of about 150 C. and about 180 C.
It was found that reducing the temperature of roll 18 to about 135 C. had an adverse effect on the texturization, and it was necessary to use a pressure of 1000 pounds per linear inch to achieve results commensurate with those obtained at the higher temperatures.
Using a semi-dull, round cross-section, high elongation nylon, it was found that slightly improved texturization was obtained using a resilient roll having a durometer hilrsgiess of 84 as compared with a durometer hardness o In the textile field, the ability to stabilize yarns or fabrics is recognized as an advantage in that the yarns or fabrics will resist distortion or shrinkage. One method of stabilizing yarns or fabrics is generally termed heat setting. In the generally accepted method of heat setting, the material is raised to an elevated temperature for a given period of time. (See Man-Made Textile Encyclopedia, Textile Book Publishers, Inc., New York, 1959.) The process of the present invention, in addition to providing a change in the shape and configuration of the yarn treated also is adapted to heat set the yarn.
In accordance with the instant invention, the process can be carried out in a continuous, semi-continuous of oneshot operation. Generally, however, the invention is carried out continuously, that is, material being processed can be fed into the apparatus and taken up at the opposite end without stopping and starting the process at any specified interval.
To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present process for heat setting, nylon 66 yarn of 40 denier, 13 filament construction was knitted into fabric A and fabric A was heat set in the conventional manner.
A yarn of the same construction was treated in accordance with the process of the present invention using an apparatus similar to that shown in FIG. 1. The rolls had 150 grooves per inch at an angle of 26 degrees, roll 18 was heated to about 180 C., the pressure between the rolls was 400 pounds per linear inch, and the throughput was 35 yards per minute with an overfeed of about 8%.
The yarns so treated were then knitted into fabric B of a construction the same as that above.
Two samples of fabric A were laundered at about 60 C. One sample was dried at ambient temperature and the other was tumble-dried in a conventional clothes dryer at a relatively low temperature. The shrinkage in length and width was then measured. The two samples were then washed four additional times and dried in the same respective ways. After the fifth wash and dry cycle, the shrinkages in length and width were measured. The same procedure was used for fabric B. The data so obtained are set forth in Table I below.
TABLE L-SHRINKAGE IN PERCENT The normal beam width of a sheet of 600 yarns is approximately 21 inches. It has been determined that such a sheet of yarns can be narrowed to approximately 9 inches, by appropriate reeding, prior to introduction between rolls 18 and 19. In this manner, the number of yarns which can be treated simultaneously can be increased almost threefold. This is a distinct economical advantage.
In the illustrative examples, the rolls 18 and 19 were contoured to provide a crimped yarn. It is to be appreciated that a variety of patterns may be used on rolls 18 and 19 to achieve desired texturization.
The term linear velocity as used herein is determined by multiplying the circumference of the roll by the revolutions per unit time.
The embodiment depicted and the illustrative examples described above are intended merely to be exemplary of the present invention, and variations therein may be made by one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What we claim is:
1. A process for preparing a textile product comprising introducing textile material in a substantially tensionless state between a set of opposed surfaces each having alternately depressed and raised areas while said surfaces are in contact under an applied pressure whereby the textile material traverses laterally just prior to being deformed, at least one of said surfaces being resilient and in substantially permanently.
2. A process as defined in claim 1 wherein said textile material is removed from between said surfaces in a substantially tensionless condition.
3. A process as defined in claim 1 wherein said textile material is heated before it passes between said surfaces and is cooled in a substantially tensionless condition after it is removed from between said surfaces.
4. A process for preparing a bulked textile product comprising delivering textile material to a treat-ment area in a substantially tensionless state, bringing together upon said material while said material is in said tensionless state at said treatment area a set of opposed surfaces each having alternately depressed and raised areas whereby said textile material traverses laterally just prior to being gripped and deformed, deforming said textile material between said surfaces in said treatment area, withdrawing said opposed surfaces from said material while simultaneously removing said textile material from said treatment area under controlled tension with a substantial proportion of the deformation permanently retained therein.
5. A process for preparing a textile material comprising the steps of overfeeding a textile fiber material between a set of opposed surfaces each having alternately depressed and raised areas, while said surfaces are maintained in contact under an applied pressure, whereby the textile material traverses laterally just prior to being deformed, at least one of said surfaces being resilient and substantially permanently grooved by the remaining sur faces which are substantially non-resilient while the fiber material is at elevated temperatures; deforming the fiber material between said surfaces; removing the fiber material from between said surfaces while maintaining the fiber material under controlled tension and recovering a textile material having a substantial proportion of the deformation imparted thereto rendered therein substantially permanently.
6. A process as defined in claim 5 including the step of preheating the textile fiber material prior to its passage between said set of opposed surfaces to a temperature sufficient to permit said fiber material to undergo deformation.
7. Apparatus for treating textile material comprising a set of opposed surfaces having alternately depressed and raised areas which engage each other, at least one of said surfaces being resilient and substantially permanently grooved by the surfaces which are substantially non-resilient; means for moving said surfaces into engagement and for maintaining said surfaces in engagement under pressure; means for feeding textile fiber material between said surfaces in a substantially tensionless state whereby the textile fiber material traverses laterally just prior to being deformed between said opposed surfaces, and means for taking up said textile fiber material passing from between said surfaces.
8. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 in which heating means are provided to heat at least one of the opposed surfaces.
9. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 in which means for traversing the textile material prior to introduction between said opposed surfaces are located before said opposed surfaces and adapted to traverse said textile material in a direction substantially parallel to the axes of said opposed surfaces.
10. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 in which means to preheat said textile material prior to introduction between said opposed surfaces is located before said opposed surfaces.
11 11. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 wherein cooling means for cooling said textile material after removal from between said opposed surfaces are located after said opposed surfaces.
12. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 wherein the resilient surface has a durometer hardness in a range of about 72 to 100.
13. Apparatus as defined in claim 7 wherein the 0pposed surfaces are provided with grooves spacedfrom approximately 50 to approximately 350 per inch.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Lodge 281 Laros 28-72 Laros 28-72 Lamb 28-1 LOUIS K. RIMRODT, Primary Examiner.
10 MERVIN STEIN, Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,345,718 October 10, 1967 John Phillip Hollihan et 211.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column 5, line 67, for "deired" read desired column 6, line 25, for "roll" read rolls column 9, TABLE I, third column, line 3 thereof, for "2.1" read Signed and sealed this 5th day of November 1968.
EDWARD J. BRENNER Edward M. Fletcher, Jr.
Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2321757 *||Jul 22, 1941||Jun 15, 1943||American Viscose Corp||Method and apparatus for crimping textile fibrous material|
|US2668430 *||Nov 3, 1951||Feb 9, 1954||R K Laros Silk Company||Stocking|
|US2668564 *||Nov 3, 1951||Feb 9, 1954||R K Laros Silk Company||Woven textile item and filament yarn|
|US3180003 *||Nov 29, 1963||Apr 27, 1965||Monsanto Co||Crimping device|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3396445 *||Jun 1, 1967||Aug 13, 1968||Stevens & Co Inc J P||Method for texturizing yarns|
|US3714685 *||Jun 17, 1971||Feb 6, 1973||Stevens & Co Inc J P||Crimping rolls for thermoplastic materials|
|US4109356 *||Dec 30, 1976||Aug 29, 1978||J. P. Stevens & Co., Inc.||Process for texturing synthetic fibrous material|
|US4626390 *||Jan 3, 1985||Dec 2, 1986||Allied Corporation||Self-crimped foamed fibers|
|U.S. Classification||28/279, 28/178, 28/258|