US 3346959 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
0st. 17, 1967 D. s. FRIDGE DENTAL PARALLELING HANDPIECE Filed Feb. 25, 1964 Fig] Fig.2
David S. Fridge INVENTOR.
9 BY (ma WW fiM United States Patent 3,346,959 DENTAL PARALLELING HANDPIECE David S. Fridge, 1709 Springhill Ave., Mobile, Ala. 36604 Filed Feb. 25, 1964, Ser. No. 347,142 8 Claims. (Cl. 32-67) The present invention relates to dentistry and more particularly to an improved paralleling handpiece which is expressly designed and constructed to correctly drill parallel holes in teeth for the insertion of pin-ledge attachments for fixed bridgework and for the cutting of parallel grooves for the insertion of fixed bridgework components such as three-quarter crowns and for similar operations involving abutments having parallel relationship.
As the preceding general statement of the field of invention reveals, instruments have been devised for use by dentists and provision has been made for coordinating and orienting the paralleling guide to assume a position of prescribed usefulness relative to the drill or bur as the case may be. However, it should-be noted at the outset that prior art paralleling instruments take the form of readily applicable and removable attachments for conventional or common types of dental handpieces, already found in every dental ofiice, in hopes of using the same for paralleling purposes. As exemplary of a typical paralleling attachment reference may be made to the paralleling drill attachment of Klein disclosed in Patent No. 2,621,408 of Dec. 16, 1952. Kleins patent has to do with a compact and convenient readily adjustable paralleling gauge which can be easily and quickly attached to and detached from the handpiece of a dental engine. The present invention pertains to a paralleling handpiece, as such, which unlike prior art adaptations is expressly constructed for paralleling procedure and is versatile in that it can be effectually used in forming parallel holes for pin-ledge attachments for abutment teeth aswell as parallel grooves for three quarter crowns and. thelike in preparing for fixed bridgework. The fact that the present invention is integral with and complemental to the handpiece, as distinguished from prior art attachments, the paralleling means is far more rigid and accordingly insures a more perfect preparation of abutment teeth for precision-type fixed bridgework.
It will also be hereinafter evident that with the construction and arrangement herein specifically described, revealed and claimed, all the above precise work may be done in the mouth. Accordingly, the instrument does not have to be set up on a model or reproduction of the patients mouth before preparation can be satisfactorily begun as is sometimes required where analogous competitive devices are involved.
Briefly summarized the present invention constitutes a paralleling handpiece Whose utility is unique in that the elongate body portion of the drill head is provided with parallel adapters, preferably diametrically opposite coplanar sleeves which are integral with the drill head. These adapters constitute precision made tubular receivers for slidable reception and adequate support of extensible and retractible limbs or arms constituting cornponents of an elongated U-shaped carrier frame. The bight portion of the frame is constructed to accommodatingly mount an adjustable and turnable gauge unit, that is, a complemental unit which can be raised or lowered vertically relative to the carrier frame and turned throughout a 360-degree circle. The lower end of the gauge unit is laterally offset and has (1) a tapering or (2) a cylindrical terminal which constitutes the paralleling guide and accordingly cooperates with the drill or bur.
Procedural steps and practices involving the technique of spaced bridge anchorages and abutments in parallel 3,346,959 Patented Oct. 17, 1967 relationship is not herein shown. If, however, the reader is concerned with this aspect of the matter significant background information will be found in a second patent to Klein et a1. 2,399,231 of Apr. 30, 1946.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawing forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a dental paralleling handpiece constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a view in side elevation of the same;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary view with component parts appearing in section and also in elevation and taken substantially on the plane of the section line 3-3 of FIG. 1; and
FIG. 4 is a view in perspective of the paralleling gauge.
Keeping in mind then that the invention at bar comprises a handpiece expressly made for forming parallel holes for pin-ledge attachments and parallel grooves and three-quarter crowns etc. (involved in the production of absolute parallelism on abutment teeth for fixed bridgework) attention is directed to a handpiece 6 small enough to be used with accuracy in the limited space of the patients mouth without discomfort and which embodies angularly adjoined housing components 8 and 10' constructed to accommodate a power delivery shaft 12 and wherein the component part (to the left in FIGS. 1 to 3) terminates at its leading end in a generally L-shaped drill head. The horizontal long branch or body portion of this head is denoted at 14 and the depending angular clamp or drill holder is denoted at 16 and is provided with an axially mounted drill or bur 18 such as is used for forming pin-ledge holes or grooves of varying types. In the present invention the elongated body portion 14 is provided on diametrically opposite sides with a pair of duplicate integral adapters each of which comprises a linearly straight open-ended sleeve, the sleeve on one side being denoted at 20 and the one on the other side at 22 (FIG. 1). These precision bored sleeves provide receivers and the sleeve 22 is provided with a setscrew 24. While it is within the purview of the invention to use a setscrew on both sleeves it has been found that the invention is simplified merely by employing a single setscrew 24. To this end and, see FIG. 2, the receiver or sleeve 22 is provided with an upstanding screw-threaded socket member 26 into which the shank of the setscrew 24 is clampingly screwed.
The paralleling gauge, considered as a structural entity or unit, is denoted by the numeral 28 (see FIG. 4). It comprises an elongated vertical shank 30 with a knurled knob or fingergrip 32 on the upper end and the lower end is angularly olfset as at 34 and terminates in a depending gradually tapering paralleling guide. The guide 36 in FIG. 4 is of uniform cylindrical cross-section from end to end. The guide 37 carried at the lower end of the alternate gauge unit 29 (FIGS. 1-3) is of the gauge and construction shown. It can be added in connection with the two units 29 and 28 that the tapering paralleling guide 37 is for forming pin ledge holes to receive a Williamstype plastic pin. The measurements are specific for the guide but are not to be given here as they do not constitute a significant'aspect of the inventive concept. The gauge unit in FIG. 4, with cylindrical guide 36', is for forming holes for Jelenko type bristles or plastic pins used in the patterns for pin-ledge attachments.
Regardless of whether the gauge unit is as constructed at 28 in FIG. 4 or 29 in FIG. 3 the basic structural char acteristics are the same. With this in mind the main vertical shank when in use is slidingly and rotatably mounted in a vertically disposed open-ended barrel or cylinder 38 as best shown in FIG. 3. This cylinder is provided on one side with a screw-threaded socket member 40 to accommodate the shank of a setscrew 42 which when positioned as shown serves to permit the user to raise and lower the shank 30 and to turn it throughout a circle either clockwise or counterclockwise as the case may be. This barrel and the associated paralleling gauge or unit is mounted fixedly in the bight portion 44 of the elongated U-shaped frame or yoke 39. This yoke constitutes an extensible and retractible carrier and in addition to the bight portion embodies duplicate spaced parallel coplanar arms or limbs 46 which straddle the drill head and have their median portions slidingly mounted with requisite accuracy in the respective receivers or sleeves 20-22. The free end portions which may be said to be rearward (to the right in the figures of the drawing) are accommodatingly shiftable or slidable in clearance channels or grooves 48 provided therefor in diametrically op posite sides of the housing components 8 and 10.
These receivers are not only integral with diametrically opposite sides of the intervening body 14 of the drill head they are parallel to make sure that the U-shaped yok or carrier, morespecificially the arms or limbs 46, slide in and out without binding.
It will be evident by examining FIG. 2 that this view shows a paralleling handpiece set for forming holes for pin-ledge attachments. The handpiece is also used for forming parallel grooves and abutment teeth for threequarter crowns, etc., for fixed bridgework. FIGS. 1 and 2 also show, that is in phantom lines, the paralleling handpiece and guide set in an extended position. As already explained the guide proper (36or 37) may be raised and also lowered or rotated through a circle of 360 degrees. The yoke and other component parts are made of tough rigid stainless steel to maintain necessary rigidity in structure throughout and to appeal to the manufacturing economies of manufacturers. The headpiece parallel tubular receivers should preferably be cast integrally with the drill holder head, that is the body portion 14 and the distance from center to center of the bore so increased that the yoke or carrier arms clear the angular portion of the handpiece housing. It follows that the invention constructed as herein disclosed constitutes a precision instrumentality which, as actual use has shown, unquestionably serves the overall purposes for which it is intended.
The manner of using paralleling instrumentalities in conjunction with handpieces is known to dentists and others skilled in the art to which the invention relates. It is believed therefore that the specification when read in conjunction with theviews of the drawing and by considering the invention as claimed a clear and comprehensive understanding of the subject matter will b had. Accordingly, a more extended description of the details and mode of use is regarded as unnecessary.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention as claimed.
What is claimed as new is as follows:
1. For use when drilling parallel holes in teeth for insertion of pin-ledge attachments for fixing bridgework or drilling parallel grooves for insertion of other fixed bridgework abutments including three-quarter crowns; a paralleling handpiece comprising: in combination, an elongated housing having a leading end terminating in a drill head rigidly supported from said housing and equipped with a power driven drill operating at right angles to the lengthwise dimension of said head, a complemental elongated paralleling gauge having a terminal end portion constituting a guide and whose longitudinal axis is parallel to the corresponding axis of said drill, a pair of guides rigidly supported on diametrically opposite sides of said head, an elongated extensible and retractible carrier including rigid parallel longitudinal limbs having free rearwardly projecting end portions straddling said head and longitudinally slidingly, guidingly, adjustably and retentively supported from said guides against angular displacement and for longitudinal adjustment of saidcarrier relative to said head, the forward ends of said limbs being rigidly interconnected by a bight portion extending therebetween forward of the leading end of said head and from which said paralleling gauge is supported.
2. The structure according to claim 1 and wherein said drill head is of general L-shaped form in said elevation, said paralleling gauge comprising a main linearly straight shank rotatably and longitudinally slidably received through said bight portion and having an upper end disposed above said bight portion and provided with a gripping portion and a lower'end portion disposed below said bight portion which is laterally offset and which terminates in a depending free end portion parallel to i said drill and constituting and providing the aforemento releasably retain said shank in longitudinally adjusted and rotated position relative to said bight portion.
3. The structure according to claim 1 and wherein said drill head is of general L-shaped form in side elevation, said paralleling gauge comprising a main linearly straight shank, rotatably and longitudinally slidably received through said bight portion and having an upper end disposed above said bight portion and provided with a gripping portion and a lower end portion disposed below said bight portion which is laterally offset and which terminates in a depending free end portion parallel with said drill and defining and providing the aforementioned guide, said bight portion including means operative to releasably retain said shank in longitudinally adjusted and rotated position relative to said bight portion, said guide being gradually tapered in cross-section from said one end to the other to properly receive Williams-type plastic pins.
4. The structure according to claim 1 and wherein said drill head is of substantially L-shaped form in side elevation, said paralleling gauge being of one piece rigid construction and comprising a main linearly straight shank having an upper end provided with a gripping knob for raising and lowering and rotating said shank, said shank. having a lower end which is laterally ofiset and which terminates in a depending free end portion which is opposed to and parallel with said drill and constitutes and provides the aforementioned guide, said guide being of prescribed length proportional with said drill and of uniform cross-section from end to end for forming holes for Jelenko type bristles or plastic pins used for example in patterns for pin-ledge attachments.
5. A self-contained paralleling handpiece for forming parallel holes for pin-ledge attachments, parallel grooves for crowns and in producing absolute parallelism on and in conjunction with abutment teeth for fixed bridge? work comprising a handpiece small enough to be used with accuracy in the limited'space of the month without causing undue discomfort to the patient, said handpiece embodying an elongated housing having a leading end terminating in a drill head including a laterally directed drill shank, said drill head embodying a body portion provided on opposite sides with diametrically opposite openfree end portions of said limbs straddling said drill head and being slidably mounted in their respective receivers, means fixedly mounted on said bight portion supporting a paralleling gauge paralleling said shank, and means carried by at least one of said receivers for securely fastening and retaining said limbs in a predetermined set position relative to said receivers.
6. The structure defined in claim 5, and wherein said means comprises a fixed vertically bored cylinder, and, in combination, a paralleling gauge comprising a linearly straight shank slidingly and rotatably mounted in the bore of said cylinder, said cylinder being provided with a setscrew engageable with said shank to permit the shank to be vertically and rotatably adjusted, said shank being provided on an upper end with a gripping knob, the lower end of said shank projecting below the lower end of said cylinder and being offset and terminating in a depending guide which is parallel with end, in conjunction with said U-shaped yoke, is bodily adjustable toward and from said drill head.
7. In combination, a handpiece embodying an elongated drill head provided With a laterally extending drill on one end, a cylinder provided on one side with a set screw, 21 paralleling gauge having a shank slidable and rotatable in the bore of said cylinder, said gauge having an upper end provided with a gauge lifting, lowering and rotating fingergrip and a lower end which is angularly oifset, said oifset lower end terminating in 21 depending integral guide, a rigid yoke having a bight portion and linearly straight coplanar parallel limbs, said cylinder being fixedly mounted on said bight portion, a pair of limb mounting and guiding receivers, said receivers being integrally mounted on diametrically opposite sides of said drill head, extending longitudinally of the latter, and each comprising a tubular member, said tubular members being in coplanar spaced-apart parallelism, said limbs having their free end portions slidable in their respective receivers with said bight portion disposed outwardly of said one end of said head, and at least one of said receivers being provided with a setscrew engageable with the cooperating limb.
8. In combination with a dental handpiece including a drill head housing having a longitudinal axis and an end portion from which a tool bit extends perpendicular to said longitudinal axis, a gauge pin rotatably mounted about a positioning axis disposed in parallel spaced relation to said tool bit, a guide having a pair of parallel spaced rod portions interconnected by a bight portion, a sleeve carried by the bight portion rotatably mounting the gauge pin about said positioning axis in perpendicular intersecting relation to said longitudinal axis, a pair of tubular receivers connected to and extending laterally from the housing, said rod portions extending through the receivers substantially longitudinal axis, lock means mounted by one of the tubular receivers and engageable with the guide for holding the positioning axis of the gauge pin in fixed spaced relation to the end portion of the housing and separate means on the sleeve of the guide for angularly locking the gauge pin relative to the positioning axis,
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,321,130 11/1919 Schlueter 3267 1,380,040 5/1921 Chayes 32-67 2,233,722 3/1941 Weigele 32-67 2,399,231 4/1946 Klein et a1. 3267 2,621,408 12/1952 Klein 32-67 2,644,235 7/1953 Mintz 32-67 2,703,453 3/1955 Landis 3267 RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner. I. W. HINEY, Assistant Examiner.