US 3347001 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
B. L. COSDEN Oct. 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 5. 1965 IOO 68 INVENTOR BRYAN L. 6050EA/ im, 770m, /m,
ATTORNEYS' OC. 17, 967 I B, COSDN 3,347,001
ROOF SHINGLE WITH INTERLOCKING FLANGES AND LOCATOR Filed March I5, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 @3e 6.260 62H60 30 66x68 feo 60 46j 52 5o (5 AIL Y ma. u
H Il H 24m ,l :e se se v 28 88 2O I N VEN TOR f1 57 Z5 @RYA/v l.. 0050EA/ ATTOR NEYS B. L. COSDEN Oct. 17, 1967 ROOF SHINGLE WITH INTERLOCKING FLANGES AND LOCATOR- Filed March 5, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR @Hm/v L. 0050EA/ 72M f3 AZoRNEYs United States Patent O 3,347,001 ROOF SHINGLE WITH INTERLOCKING FLANGES AND LOCATOR Bryan L. Cosden, 149 Askoran Trail, Medford Lake, NJ. 03055 Filed Mar. 3, 1965, Ser. No. 436,901 17 Claims. (Cl. 52-105) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An interlocking single sheet shingle of rectangular shape having bent flanges on all four edges with opposed edge flanges reversely bent in opposite directions. The flange on the bottom edge is disposed on the underside of the shingle and Ithe top flange is bent over the outer face of the shingle. Both the top and bottom flanges include positive locking abutment portions at complementary laterally spaced Iapart locations protruding from the flanges toward the body of the shingle and with the abutment edges facing the respective flange bends. The abutments snap past and latch with each other when a bottom flange of ya shingle in an upper shingle course is interengaged with the upper flange (flanges) of a lower course of shingles. The lateral spacing of the locking abutment portions is such that the cooperative locking abutment is disengaged by a relative lateral shifting of upper and lower interlocked shingles to permit interengaged shingles to be separated. A nail t-ab at one upper corner has a countersunk nail hole. An upstanding undulated water dam protrusion is located partially in the nail tab and partially in the shingle body and extends under a side flange of the shingle at the nail tab corner. A lanced locator abutment is on the top flange of each shingle to properly locate and also provide metal to metal contact between adjacent upper -and lower shingles.
This invention relates to improved building covering devices and more particularly pertains to an interlocking shingle, preferably made of metal, for installation on roofs. The invention in this applic-ation is an improvement over the invention in copending United States application Ser. No. 322,462 led Nov. 8, 1963, by Thomas O. Marini, Bryan L. Cosden and lewis G. Marini, now Patent No. 3,269,075.
Shingles made of metal or the like have been used for many years and many basic aspects lof interlocking shingle construction are now Within the public domain. Some of those basic features include the rectangular shape, bent over interlock flanges on all four edges of the shingle with opposed edges of the rectangle having interlock portions bent over in opposite directions, a nailing tab made integral with the shingle material and vertical ridges or grooves to add rigidity but also intended in large part to constitute simulated shingle division lines such as seen in the old wooden shake roof-s. Examples of rectangular shingles made of metal and having bent ange edges to provide interlock between :adjacent shingles are found in U.S. Patents No. 262,475, No. 303,921 and No. 2,680-,- 415. Two of the patents teach the use of a corner nail tab integral with one of the bent back flanges and the third shows a corner nail tab extending directly from the main body of the shingle. Embossed or pressed ridges from top to bottom can be found in -a patent to Birch et al. 2,173,774.- An additional aspect of particular importance insofar as shingles made from metal are concerned is provision of one or more drain holes in the gutter formed by a lower interlocking shingle flange, permitting escape of condensation which inherently forms on the under side of the shingle. One prior art example of such a drain hole is shown in a U.S. Patent No. 2,488,887.
An interlock shingle is usually susceptible to leakage of rain blown by the wind up through gaps at the interlocking corners .at upper edges of joined shingles. This problem exists in many prior art shingles and has not been satisfactorily solved without considerable expense of complex fittings, configura-tions or auxiliary materials. On the other hand, capillary or gravity ow leakage past the lateral and horizontal interlocks has been essentially solved for many years. Another problem which to date has not been given much serious consideration, concerns the provision of positive and direct metal to metal contact between adjacent metal shingles. Lack of electrical continuity in metal roofs could be Ia fire hazard of considerable import, particularly as a result of electrical storms.
Another major problem which in particular confronts those who install metal shingles arises from the fact that the shingles are at and should they become loose upon the previously laid courses of shingle, will act in the manner of a sled for a worker unlucky enough to be standing, kneeling or sitting on the loose shingle, and this is true for plastic shingles as well as metal ones. The common method used in installation of shingles is that a worker places about tive of the metal shingles in interlocked position `and he then goes back and nails each shingle through the corner tab. While the method has evolved -as a time saving expedient, it nevertheless presents a safety hazard because there have been times when-a worker, prior to nailing the shingles, has inadvertently stepped or rested his weight on and dislodged an unfastened shingle which thereafter becomes :an effective sled, skidding the worker down the roof and over the eaves, resulting in broken bones and other physical damage.
Various forms of notches and marks have been used along the borders of prior art metal shingles to provide a visible shingle installation locator mark, but none, insofar as is known, provide a combination visual and positive abutment locator for accurately placing shingles in staggered offset relation during installation. Another aspect lacking in previously known shingles, particularly where horizontal rows of shingles are to be laid with a true aligned interiit between the adjacent lock flanges of the rows of shingles is the provision of suitable offsets and cutouts in reverse bends to accommodate multiple layers of metal. Properly located flares and offset steps in the flanges can result in the Ihorizontal shingle edges being mated in a substantially straight and continuous line thereby eliminating a somewhat zig-zag nonlinear course which often results from shingles with simple bend construction of the flanges.
Accordingly, a primary object of the present invention resides in providing a novel interlocking shingle made of metal or similar material such as plastic sheet.
A still further object resides in providing a rectangular interlock shingle having an integral corner nailing tab provided with a novel embossed, wind blown leakage sealing Water dam disposed in the tab and corner shingle material adjacent and below the tab nail hole properly disposed to accomplish a sealed fit with the ange of an adjacent lateral shingle.
Another object resides in the provision of a novel rectangular interlock shingle having upper and lower edge flanges formed by bent edgel portions of the shingle body, the upper flange being bent forward and down over the face of the shingle, the lower flange being bent back and up behind the shingle with positive lock abutment portions underlying the ange, the upper flange portion being provided with novel lanced and protruding lug locks extending from the flange toward the face of per course shingle up into the upper ange of a lower` course row of shingles and under the lanced lock lugs of that upper ange. In conjunction with this object further specific objects reside in making the lower ange lock abutments by lanced and depressed portions of the flange or by providing an additional reverse bend on the lower flange disposed back under the lower flange.
In conjunction with the preceding object a still further object of this invention resides in the provision of novel laterally spaced apart spaces between the lanced lock lugs or cutouts in the reverse bent locking ange portion of the bottom ange of each shingle, the spaces or cutouts being located at intervals equal to the rlanced protrusions on the upper flange but offset to one side of the corresponding position of such lanced protrusions and enabling release of a positive locked` condition by laterally shifting a locked shingle.
A still further object of this invention resides in the provision of novel lanced 'semi-notches in the bent flange edges of rectangular interlock shingles, the lanced seminotches having points bent up slightly above the plane of the flange,` such point structures, when the shingle is installed, constituting a physical as well as a visual locator for positioning adjacent shingles and in addition enabling a direct intermetal contact between the point and the surface of an adjacent shingle.
A further object resides `in the provision of a plurality of integral points in the shingle` structure along interengaging borders of adjacent metal shingles to provide point tosurface metal contact between interengaging portions of shingles enabling such points to break the surface of adjacent shingles if such surface is a non-metallic material.
Still another object resides in the provision of novel and improved rectangular interlock shingles having corner tabs integral with the main body of the shingle and provided with an upstanding embossed undulating U- shape sealing formation or protrusion constituting a water dam or seal portion around each side and along the bottom of the nail hole in the nail tab, lanced lock protrusions in upper or lower anges of each shingle together with cooperating lanced lock protrusions` or reverse bend flange lock portions on the other ilange adapted to be disposed under and behind lanced protrusion locks of adjacent shingles, means enabling quick disconnect of such positive interlocks, lanced semi-notches along flange edges to provide visible and physical intershingle locator devices and direct shingle to shingle electrical metal contact, a pierced aperture near one corner of the gutter formed by the lower bent flange enabling condensation drain, and offsets in interlocking ange bends particularly adjacent the upper right corner position and a cutout at the lower right corner to minimize or compensate for more than one layer of metal which can and does result from interlocking cooperation of shingle flanges and to thereby enable straight line installation of a course of interlocked shingles.
Further novel features and other objects of this invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, discussion and the appended claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings showing preferred structure and embodiment, in which:
FIGURE l is a plan view of a single shingle made in accord with the present invention, the left hand panel having random embossments represented thereon and intended to simulate a grain such as seen in natural shingles, such embossments being omitted from the other two thirds of the shingle for purposes of disclosure. The lower nange of FIGURE 1 illustrates one manner in which a portion of the ilange can be made as a positive interlock in accordance with this invention;
FIGURE 2 is a view of the same shingle shown in FIGURE 1 and represents the shingle ipped 180 about its lower horizontal edge to show details of the underside of the shingle;
FIGURE 3 is a section taken on line 3 3 of FIG- URE 1, to more clearly illustrate the ridges embossed in the shingle `and details of anges on the side edges of 'the shingle;
FIGURE 4 is a vertical section taken on line 4-4 of FIGURE 1 and depicts some details of the upper ange with the lanced lug positivel lock protrusions `and of the lower double bent flange which includes the lower posi-` tive lock;
FIGURE 5 is an. enlarged detail section taken on line 5-5 of FIGURE l to show the nature of the embossed pattern which can be made in the face of the shingle;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged detailsection taken on line 6 6 across the nail hole in the nail tab of FIGURE l;
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged detail view looking down at the upper right hand corner of the shingle shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 8 is an enlarged detail section taken online 8-8 of FIGURE 12, illustrating the cooperating interlock between side anges of two adjacent shingles;
FIGURE 9 is .an enlarged detail section taken on line 9-9 of FIGURE 1 illustrating one of the lanced :protrusion lock lugs -in the upper iiange of the shingle `in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE l0 is an enlarged detail section taken on line of two shingles made in accord with the FIGURE 1- embodiment;
FIGURE 14 is a partial view of the lower edge of a blank like that in FIGURE 11 but showing a second embodiment having elongated lanced lock .protrusions to provide the lower ilange positive lock;
FIGURE 15 is an enlarged section view `showing a positive `interlock between the lower and upper flanges of two shingles made from the FIGURE 14 blank with a lanced lock in the lower ange; and
FIGURES 16 and 17 are enlarged -front and section views showing a point dimple arrangement which can be made in the nail tabs and which can be provided in the flanges if desired.
Referring now to the drawings for a detailed description of the inventive structuce, correpsonding reference numerals will indicate corresponding components or parts throughout the description and in the different gures of the drawing.
FIGURES l-l3 illustrate the structure of a shingle 20` made in accord with the present invention and which includes a -r'st embodiment of .a lower edge lock. Three of such shingles are shown in FIGURE 12, interlocked in the manner in which they will be secured to a roof. FIGURE l shows the upper face while FIGURE 2 illustrates the underside of shingle 20. The shingle as depicted in FIGURE 2 is in effect ipped over about its lower edge.
FIGURE 1l represents a sheet blank 22 from which shingle 20 is made. The material can be any thin strong material capable of maintaining the nal shingle configuration. Some of the new thin strong plastics having heat resistent qualities are adaptable for such use, although at present such plastics are quite expensive. Many of the lightweight strong sheet metal materials currently being used lfor interlocking shingles can be used in making the present invention, and one very satisfactory material is 0.020 aluminum alloy, known in the trade as 3003. Aluminum alloy sheet pre-coated with a decorative and/ or protective coating is available at costs which are economically feasible and suitable for use in making shingles and shakes.
Blank 22 can be stamped from a roll of sheet material or from a pre-cut rectangular blank. With continued reference to FIGURE l1, face 24 of blank 22 will be the outside or upper face of the final shingle. The side edges 26 and 28, the top edge 30 and the ybottom edge 32 of blank 22 will be bent to provide the folded interlocking flanges of shingle 20.
At the left hand edge of blank 22, near the upper left corner, is a cutout 34 which leaves a small extended tongue 36, to `be referred to hereinafter. The lower left corner is cut off at a 45 angle with `an intermediate step providing two 45 edges 38 and 40, with a small intermediate vertical edge 42 at the step. Vertical edge 42 enables accommodation of the lower edge rolling bend in a final shingle while the 45 edges enable a mitered overlapped fit between vadjacent interlocked shingles. Inset a small amount from the top corner of 45 edge 40 is a small aperture 44 which becomes the drain opening in the lower flange of the final shingle.
The upper and lower right hand corners of blank 22 are .also specially shaped. A nailing tab 50 at the upper right corner is formed between a notch 46 cut from the upper edge 30 and a notch 48 cut from side edge 28. The corners of tab 50 may be rounded, as shown, and a nailing aperture 52 punched and countersunk in the center of the tab during stamping of the blank. The right hand edge of top notch 46 (the left hand edge of tab 50) is vertical and continues down into the blank as a lanced slit 54 which extends a short distance beyond the apex of the notch 46 to enable or accommodate a rolled bend of the top edge to form the top edge interlocking flange of the shingle.
The lower right corner o-f the right hand edge is cut back with a deep cutout leaving a short vertical edge 56 which matches the edge extent of short vertical step 42 on the left hand lower corner, both of which accommodate a rolling bend for the lower flange. The right corner cutout leaves a 45 projection 58 which, when the lower flange is formed, leaves a horizontal space in the lower edge of a flange to accommodate the left end of the lower fiange of a laterally adjacent shingle and also provides a 45 mated fit with the lower left 45 edge.
Along the top edge 30 of blank 22 and at equally spaced lateral locations approximately 1A" from the edge are four protruding lock lugs 60, each made by a lance cut 62 of approximately 1/2 and a simultaneous offsetting of the metal immediately above the lance cut. In FIGURE 1l, lugs 60 are offset towar-d the viewer. Such operation results in 'an offset locking shoulder 64 at the lower side of each lug 60 as seen in FIGURES 9 and 1l. The total number o-f lugs may be varied and can be governed according to the width of a shingle but at least two should be provided. Most shingles are arranged so that shingles in one course have a 50% overlap relative to shingles in adjacent courses. When an even number of locking lugs Iare used in the top edge flanges, the cooperating positive lock portions in the lower flanges of adjacent upper courses of shingles can utilize the same spacing and, when shingles are 50% offset, will be inherently vertically aligned with the top flange lugs 60.
At a location on the upper edge 30 which will be the midpoint of the top edge of a finished shingle a locator semi-notch is made by a short vertical lanced slit 66 and `a bend of the metal at the side of the slit into a three corner tab 68. As viewed in FIGURE 11, tab 68 is bent down away from the viewer. The locator tab is also seen :in FIGURES l and l0.
Along the bottom edge 32 of blank 22 several rectangular notches 76 .approximately 1A deep and l long provide a number of edge portions 78 which, by an appropriate double bend of the lower edge 32, results in wide positive lock shoulders that will cooperate behind upper edge flange lock lug shoulders 64 in a manner :as shown in FIGURE 13 and to be further described hereinafter. Notches 76 between each of the edge locking portions 78 result in discontinuities in the double back lower flange bend of a finished shingle .and enable disconnection of the positive lock between lock lugs or lugs and lock portions of upper and lower course shingles, as will also be described hereinafter.
The just described lower edge of a stamped blank con-v stitutes the original lower flange and lower fiange positive lock configuration. An alternate and economically preferable lower edge configuration has been developed as part of this invention and is depicted in FIGURE 14 wherein the lower portion of a modified blank 22' is shown. The first embodiment requires a strip of shingle material lapproximately 1A" wide over and above the material necessary to provide the lower edge shingle interengaging flange. The blank 22 for the second and preferred embodiment requires less shingle material` because the strip of material which provided locking portions 78 in shingle blank 22 is not needed and has been deleted. Lower edge 32 of blank 22 is straight and in lieu of locking portions 73 has four integral elongated lanced lock lugs 80 similar to previously described lock lugs 60 and formed by lateral lanced slits about 1% long together with an offsetting of material below the slits in a direction away from the viewer to form protruding lugs 80 with straight abutment shoulders 82. In a finished shingle, the lug shoulders 82 of appropriate ones of the lower edge lock lugs 80 can be snapped up and locked behind the shoulders 64 of appropriate upper edge lock lugs 60 as shown in FIGURE 15 and as will be further described hereinafter. Otherwise, preferred shingle blank 22' has the same configuration as the first embodiment blank 22.
To make the shingle more rigid, to break up the apparent width of each shingle by providing appropriate shadow lines to simulate smaller width shakes, and to provide gaps to permit escape of condensation collecting on and running down the undersides of shingles, several vertical ridges 86 are em-bossed to stand up from the outer face of the shingle. These ridges 86 may be stamped at the same time the blank is Icut or may be made in a subsequent second stamping operation. The ridges extend, in a vertical sense up across the shingle face, from a lower position immediately adjacent the bottom fold or bend edge upward to a position which terminates short of the top edge of the shingle or approximate the edge of the top flange, as shown in FIGURE 4.
If desired, portions of the shingle which provide the panels between vertical intershingle joints and embossed ridges 86 can be embossed as shown at 88 in FIGURES 1 and 5 in. 4a wavy pattern or otherwise to simulate wood grain. Such embossment can be done when the blank is initially stamped or in a subsequent stamping operation.
A feature of primary importance, to prevent leakage of .vindblown rain at the upper corner joinder of lateral shingles, is the provision of an upwardly protruding small ridge line type of embossment which make a seal formation 90 in the upper right hand corner of the shingle. The complete seal protuberance configuration extends partially into the material of tab 50 and partially into the corner of the main body of the shingle. The embossment seal strip 90 effectively brackets an area disposed below the nail hole 52 however, it is extended downward and diverted to a horizontal -stretch 92 (see FIGURE l) in the main shingle body. The seal strip 90 and particularly the horizontal lower stretch 92 of the seal protuberance will be disposed under the upper end of a left side fiange when two shingles are interlocked in one course. When the two flanges interlock, as shown in FIGURE 8, the seal strip 90 presses in tight engagement with the under surface of the top portion of the left hand side-flange of an interlocked shingle to effectively close or dam the small opening which has invariably been present at that location in previously known interlocking shingles. Portions of the embossed seal strip 90 lcan be -seen in FIGURES 6 and 7 and are also clearly shown in FIG- URE 16.
FIGURE 6 shows the countersink 94 made around the nail hole 52, an operation which can be accomplished simultaneously with or after .punching the hole 52. Such countersink is provided to aid an installer in locating the hole with a nail without wasting time visually placing the nail and is primarly a time savng device. A pattern of small dimples 96 are formed to project as points from the under side of tab 50. Such dimples do not pierce the material but will help stifen the tab and, in metallic` shingles, enable a means of making contact with a groundedstripof metal which can be laid under each course of shingles; It is contemplated that similar non-piercing dimpled points such as 97 in FIGURE l could be made to extend in an appropriate direction from portions of the interlocking flanges to scratch the surface of adjacent shingles and make metal to metal contact between all adjacent ones of metal shingles.
The locator semi-notch v68 and additional such coniigurations could be provided in all franges, will have a point which can scratch the surface of the shingles in adjacent courses or even in the same course to assure metal to metal contact.
Returning to FIGURES 1 and 2 the visible shingle face 24 is the visible face of the blank l22 seen in FIG- URE 11 whereas the shingle face visible in FIGURE 2 is the underside of the shingle blank 22.
Shingle has an integral interlocking flange 100 along its top edge formed by bending the upper portion oftblank 22 forward and down over outer face 24 in a curved or rolled bend, the respective ends of which are the previously described recess cut 34 and the slit 54. Terminal edge 30 of top ,tlange 100 is reexed, giving the appearance of a slight S-bend (see FIGURES 4 and 13), which permits ease in initial interengagement of shingles. The left hand end of top flange 100 includes and terminates with the previously mentioned extended tongue 36. The right hand end of top ange 100 terminates in the beveled edge of previously described notch 46 and, for an inch or so, is shaped with a slight outward flare as shown at 102 in FIGURE 7. The flared portion 102 is stepped to provide an upward otIset 104 as seen in FIGURE l at the right hand end of the top bend edge of the shingle. The stepped offset 104 accommodates an extra thickness of metal which will occur near the corner where two laterally engaged shingles are joined whereas the fiare 102 permits jockeying of `the tongue 36 under the flared end 102 when assembling the next lateral shingle.
When flange 100 is formed by the top edge of the blank being bent forward and over the shingle face, the protruding lanced lock lugs 60 will project toward the shingle face with their straight abutment edges 64 disposed nearest to the top, i.e., facing toward the bend of the top flange. At the same time the positive locator seminotched point 68 approximately midway along the edge of ange 100 will project slightly out away from the shingle. i
The lower edge shingle interlock flange 110 of the first embodiment (FIGURE ll-blank 22) is formed by the edge portion being bent in a curved rolling bend back and up behind the under face of the shingle after its terminal i edge portions 78 were first bent to an acute angle in the same direction. Portions 78 will now underlie the flange 110 from which they extend at the acute angle clearly shown in FIGURES 4 and 13. Flange 110 serves as a gutter at the bottom of a shingle which, when assembled with a next lower course of shingles, is disposed over the outer shingle face and under the upper ange 100 of those shingles in the next lower course. Any condensation moisture running down the underside of a shingle will collect in the gutter ofange 110 and can thence pass out of the gutter drain aperture 44. The double bent locking portions 78 are disposed at a sufficient angle and the flange 110 provides enough springiness to enable the straight abutment edges of portions 78 to positively lock behind the abutment edges 64 of the upper flange lock lugs 60v when an upper course shingle is snapped into place with its lower edge back turned flange 110 engaged up under the top edge front flange 100 of a lower course of shingles. Such positively locked engagement is shown in FIGURE 13, it being understood that a slight clearance of at least approximately 0.020" should be provided between the abutting edges 64 of locking lugs 60 andthe straight edges of locking portions 78 when flanges 100 and 110 are completely seated into each other in interlocking engagement. Such clearance is merely to permit assembly of adjacent shingles.
By construction, when the shingles are installed with a 50% offset, cutouts 76 betweenadjacent locking portions 78 will be disposed between each occurrence of a postive locking engagement between lugs 60 and portions 78.
Then, if desired, by sliding one shingle laterally a few inches, cutouts 76 can be shifted to juxtaposition under associated lock -lugs 60 in the upper flange of lower shingles thereby permitting a vertical disengagement between the shingle flanges 100 and 110 to enable removal of the upper course shingle.
Second embodiment The distinction between the first and second embodiment resides in the lower flange, the lower flange 110 of thev second embodiment of shingle (see in FIGURE 14) using less material than that of the first embodiment because ofv the use of lanced lock lugs 80 in the main interlock flange 110' instead of the double bent locking portions 78. Because the double bend is avoided, it is preferred that lower flange 110 be bent, with a rolled bend, back and up behind and slightly toward the under face of the-shingle and then having a reflex terminating curvature similar to the upper liange previously described. The bend places the `lower lanced lock lugs 80 at the rear or underside of the shingle protruding fromthe ange toward the under face of the shingle. The straight edge lock abutment ofv each lanced lug 80 will be facing toward the bottom of the bend. Again the flanges have sufficient springiness to permit the lower rear ange of an upper course shingle to be snapped into the aligned upper outer flanges 100 of thefnext lower course of shingles and the abutment edge 82 of the lower, lanced lock lugs 80 will snap into positive locking position behind the abutment edge 64 of the upper flange lock lugs 60, as shown in FIGURE l5. Again a slight clearance of at least approximately 0.020", the thickness of the material should be `provided between the abutting edges of the mated lock lugs when the interlocking flanges completely bottom in opposed ange gutters. Disengagement of the locked relationship between the lock lugs 60 and 80 in the second embodiment can be accomplished in the same manner as for the iirst embodiment, by shifting the upper shingle a short distance to one side until the mated lock lugs are no longer aligned and abutting, thereafter enabling the tlanges and hence the shingles to be disengaged by a vertical displacement.
The side and top flanges of the second embodiment shingle are exactly like the side. and top anges of the` first embodiment and therefore need not be shown or specifically described in further detail.
Common features erably its end 114 will be definitely terminated short of the edge a distance approximately equal to the thickness of shingle material to accommodate ease of placement of laterally adjacent shingles and so that the bottom edge of both adjacent shingles can be exactly aligned.
The left hand lian-ge 116 is formed by forwardly offsetting at 118 and then bending the left edge portion of blank 22 back and to the right under the bottom surface of the shingle. The upper end portion of flange 116 terminates closely adjacent the bottom f the upper bend or in other words adjacent the top edge of upper flange 100 and is the portion which will be pressed in close contact with the embossed seal ridge 90 at the upper right hand corner of the adjacent left hand shingle. The diagonal cut 38 at the lower end of the left flange 116 assures an absence of a corner portion of the -auge 116 under the end of lower flange 110 or 110 which would result in an unnecessary thickness of material at that corner when lateral shingles are interlocked.
The side flanges 112 and 116 are bent on a very short radius (almost a fold) which is -only slightly greater than the thickness of the material in order to result in a fiat vertical joint between shingles. The top and bottom flanges 100 and 110 however are bent on a greater radius, in effect, a definite rolling bend to accommodate and enable the positive locking function between upper and lower `shingles and to provide a deep shadow line between courses of shingles. For exemplary material of 0.020" thickness, a roll bend at the top edge with 0.136l inside radius has been found satisfactory and the refiex curve on flanges 100 can be made on a 0.500 inside radius. The same dimens-ions can be used on flange 110 although a a 0.124 inside radius and the reflex curve made on a a 0.124 inside radius and the reflex curve made on an 0.605" radius.
To install the shingle, courses are laid in a standard manner, starting at the lower left corner of a roof. The first shingle can be secured in a manner known to roofers, eg., by a special edge piece -or by special shaping and fastening of the left edge of a shingle to overlap the side edge of a roof and a nail Ibeing driven through the hole in tab 50. One or more shingles along the same course can then be placed and interlocked passing toward the right side of the roof. The lower edge of the shingles can be kep-t in a straight line because the clearance space 114 at the lower right corner of each shingle permits the lower left corner of the adjacent right hand shingle to fit up tight with non zig-zag offset due to overlap ,of material at the corner joinder of the bottom anges.
The entire -left ange 116 is offset (see 118 in FIG- URE 3) up away from the outer face of the shingle so that the joinder overlap of laterally adjacent shingles simulates a vertical ridge line like ridges 86 to delineate the intermediate panels. With side flanges 112 and 116 in snug interengagement, the upper end of ange 116 (which is the one bent under the shingle, is disposed in tight surface contact with the embossed sealing dam 90, effectively closing any gaps at the upper corner joinder of the laterally adjacent shingles.
Additional courses of shingles can be installed in conventional manner, either a course at a time or in a stepped arrangement moving down from left to right. Usually four or five shingles are put in place and then nailed. An upper course shingle is centered over the joinder between two of the next lowermost course of shingles. Because of the positive 50% offset flocator 68, the upper shingle can be placed 1) so it is approximately centered, (2) with its lower interlocking flange 110 or 110 ready to be snapped up into the upper interlocking flanges 100 of the lower course of shingles and (3) with its right hand edge close to the middle locator point 68 on one of the lower course of shingles. A slight shift of the shingle to the right will result in a positive feel when the right hand shingle edge abuts the locator 68 to indicate to the installer that the shingle is exactly positioned. The installer then can hit the lower edge of the upper shingle with the heel of his hand and the fianges will mate and the flange lock means will snap over each other with an audible click and will be positively locked. Additional lateral shingles in that course can be installed in a similar manner without concern that they will disengage or shift down before a nail is driven through the tabs.
If for any reason a shingle must be removed it can be shifted several inches laterally to the left and the positive lock will ybe disengaged and the shingle then disengaged merely by shifting the upper course shingle down to disconnect the iower and upper anges.
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency yof the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A rectangular flanged interlock shingle comprising: a main body portion; a corner tab with a central aperture integral with said main body portion provided with an upstanding embossed undulating U-shape sealing strip constituting a water dam seal portion adjacent each side and along the lbottom of said aperture; lanced lock protrusions on at least one of the upper and lower fianges of each shingle and cooperating lock abutment portions on the other of the upper and lower flanges adapted to be disposed under and behind lanced pnotrusion locks in the said one ange of adjacent similar shingles; means in said upper and lower anges enabling quick disconnect of such positive interlocks; at least one lanced seminoteh along at least one of the upper and lower flange edges to provide a visible and physical intershingle locator device; an aperture near ,one corner of the gutter formed by the lower flange enabling condensation drain; and offsets in interlocking flange bends, at least one of which is adjacent the corner tab position, and a cutout at the same end of the -lower flange to minimize misalignment of adjacent shingles and to compensate for more than one layer of metal at corners of interlocking shingle flanges to thereby enable straight line installation of a course of interlocked shingles.
2. A shingle as defined in claim 1, made of metal and including meanslocated in its peripheral portions adapted to be engaged by portions of adjacent shingles and capable of penetrating the surface of such portions of adjacent shingles to accomplish a direct shingle to shingle electrically conductive contact.
3. A thin sheet material interlock shingle having a main body portion of rectangular shape with interlocking flanges on all four sides comprising: an apertured nailing tab structurally integral with and extending from one of the upper corners of said main body portion; an upstanding integral wind blown leakage sealing water dam, disposed partially in said tab and partially in the said one corner of said shingle, continuous from one side of the tab down to said one corner, across under a portion of the adjacent side edge flange and up the other side of said tab to accomplish a sealed fit with mating interlocking portions of an adjacent lateral shingle.
4. A shingle as defined in claim 3, wherein a plurality of non-penetrating small dimples with contiguous projections are included in said tab. i
5. A shingle as defined in claim 3, wherein the material of construction is sheet metal and a plurality of small non-penetrating point protuberances are formed in a portion of the periphery of the shingle capable of engaging and penetrating the surface of another metallic 11 structure to enable metal to metalV electrically conductive contact,
6. A shingle as defined in claim 5, wherein said plurality of integral point protuberances are located in the shingle flange structure along borders adapted to interengage adjacent metal shingles to provide a scratched point to surface metal contactibetween such interengaging portions of shingles enabling said points to break the surface of adjacent shingles if such surface is covered with non-conductive material.
7. A shingle comprising: a single thin sheet of substantially rigid but thin and springy material with a rectangular body portion having oppositely and reverse bent flange portions at its top and bottom edges and oppositely reverse bent flange portions at its two side edges; a nail tab structurally integral with and extending from a corner of the body portion of said shingle and separate from all of said flanges having means in the approximate center thereof adapted to have a fastening nail passed therethrough; an embossed sealing ridge protruding upwardly from the face of said nail tab and said body disposed in an undulate-d shape disposedon both sides and below said nailing means, and with the lower portion of the undulated shape of the ridge extending partially into the adjacent corner of said body andunderlying the adjacent end of a side flange with a wide lateral sealing ridge portion.
8. A sheet metal roofing shingle formed of a single sheet of thin rigid but flexible material and having strengthening struck up ridges; each of its side edges formed by straight cuts and reverse bends to provide overlapping interlocking flanges, opposite ones of which are reversely bent; and a nailing tab at one upper corner of said shingle having an undulated |U-shape embossed seal strip protruding upward from said nail tab surface and said shingle corner with a portion constituting a windblown water `dam underlying a portion of an adjacent side flange and imparting substantial rigidity to said tab.
9. A thin sheet metal rectangular interlock shingle with interlocking flanges on all four sides comprising: at least one lanced semi-notch in the e-dge of one of said flanges which is disposed over the outside surface of the shingle, the semi-notch having a sharp terminal point bent on a bend line at an angle in from the flange edge and up away from the shingle to disposition above the plane of said one flange and so located between the ends of said one flange to constitute a physical as well as a visual locator device for accurately positioning adjacent shingles.
10. A thin sheet material rectangular interlock shingle comprising: upper and lower edge flanges formed by bent edge portions of the shingle body, the upper flange being bent forward and down over the face of the shingle, the lower flange being bent back and up behind the shingle; said upper and lower flange portionslboth being provided with protruding lock abutment portions extending from the flange toward the body of the shingle and having abutment edges facing the respective flange bends; the lock abutment portions on said lower flange being complementary to those on the upper flange to provide between adjacent courses of shingles a positive intershingle lock rendered operable merely bysnapping the lower flange on an upper course shingle up into and under the lock abutment portions of the upper flange of a lower course row of shingles; said lock abutment portions being laterally spaced apart in both flanges, enabling release of a positive locked condition between several shingles in adjacent courses by a relative lateral shifting of the locked shingles.
11. A shingle as defined in claim 10, wherein the protruding lock abutments portions in at least one flange are provided by `a doubled back straight edge portion of the flange edge bent back under the flange at an acute angle.
12. A shingle as defined in claim 10, wherein the protruding lock abutments on both flanges comprise laterally disposed lanced and depressed portions of flange material depressed toward the shingle body with a straight cut edge facing the bend portion of the flange.
13. An interlocking single sheet` shingle of rectangular shape comprising: top, bottom and side flangeswith opposed flanges reversely bent in opposite directions; said flange on the bottom edgebeing disposed on the underside of said shingle and doubled back under itselfl with an acute angle bend; and said'top flange being bent over the outer face of said shingle and having lanced protrusions constitutingpositive locking lugs under which the doubled back bottom flange of an adjacent upper course shingle provides `a positive lock upon installation interengagement of bottom and top flanges of adjacent lower and upper course shingles; means in said doubled back portion of said bottom edge flange providing laterally spaced apart abutment portions complementing said lanced protrusions and enabling release of a positive locked condition between shingles in adjacent courses by a relative lateral shifting of a shingle in one course relative to `the adjacent interengaged interlocked shingle course; and a nail tab extending from one upper corner v of andtstructurally integral with the main body of said shingle.
14. A substantially rigid but flexible thin sheet material shingle of generally rectangular shape comprising: a first top edge interlocking flange bent over the exterior shingle face; a second bottom flange bent back over the underside of the shingle and being of sufficient extent as to enable a reversed terminal edge bent under itself at an acute angle; third and fourth bent flange members along both side edges one extending over the outside face of the shingle and the other extending over the underside face of said shingle; said first flange having a plurality' of integral individual positive locking lanced protrusions formed therein projecting inward toward the outer face of said shingle and providing abutmentedges parallel to and facing the flange bend, said protrusions being spaced along the length of said flange with the spacing between said protrusions being at least .three times the width of said protrusions, and enabling the bottom flange of an adjacent shingle in the next upper course of shingles to be positively interlocked under said upper flange with said reversed terminal edge flange snapped under and behind the abutment edges of said lanced protrusions to provide positive locked interengagement between adjacent courses of said shingles; and means in said reversed termi- `the underside face of said shingle; said first and second flanges having a plurality of integral individual positive locking lanced protrusions formed therein projecting inward from the flange toward the adjacent surface of said shingle and providing abutment edges parallel to and facing the associated flange bend; said protrusions in the top flange being spaced along the length of said flange with the spacing between said protrusions being at least three time-s the width of said protrusions; and said protrusions in the bottom flange being wider than the topk flange protrusions; such lanced protrusions enabling the bottom flange of adjacent shingles in an upper course of shingles to be positively interlocked under upper flanges of a next lower course of shingles with said lock protrusions of the bottom flanges snapped under and behind the abutment edges of the top flange lanced protrusions of the lower course of shingles to provide positive locked interengagement between adjacent courses of said shingles.
16. A shingle of rectangular shape, comprising: a single at sheet of thin susbtantially rigid material, the major body portion of which is planar; an even number of vertical corrugations spaced laterally in said main body prtion, and constituting upstanding ridges on the outer face of said shingle; side portions of said shingle being bent to form reversed interlock flanges on both side edges and on opposite faces of said main body portion enabling interlocking of the shingle with laterally adjacent identical shingles; top and bottom edge portions of said shingle also being reversely bent in opposite directions to constitute anges disposed adjacent opposite faces of said main body portion, the bottom ange being bent backwards under the shingle body and its bend forming a gutter; said top and bottom flanges each having an even number of positive locking abutment portions under the ange providing positive locking edge portions projecting toward the main body portion and facing the associated flange bend; a fastening tab having a countersunk nail hole in its center and being an integral extension of the main body portion at one of its upper corners for securing said shingle to a roof structure; a drain means provided in the wall of said gutter enabling drainage of condensation water from the underside of said shingle; at least one of said anges having its positive locking abutment portions comprising lanced depressed protrusions at spaced apart locations forming protrusion lock abutment edges under said flange olTset toward said main body portion whereby the bottom anges of an upper course of said shingles can interlock with the upper flanges of an adjacent lower course of said shingles with bottom flange locking abutment portions interlocked with 14 said lanced protrusions of upper flanges thereby preventing removal by vertical displacement of two vertically adjacent interlocked shingles; and a positive and a visual locator semi-notch upstanding from the top ange at an approximate midpoint thereof.
17. A shingle as deiined in claim 16, wherein both of said anges have spaces between said positive locking portions, said spaces on each ange being of greater width than the width of said positive locking portions on the other flange with the spaces between said locking portions on the `bottom flange being laterally offset a distance at least equal to the width of said lanced projections from positions in alignment with said lanced projections on the other flange, to thereby enable disengagement of a positive locked condition between two shingles by a relative lateral shifting of two vertically adjacent interlocked shingles.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,026,202 5/1912 ClaWson 52--527 1,220,463 3/1917 Schnug 52-553X 1,297,591 3/1919 Prescott 52-522 1,705,620 3/1929 Kielberg 13S-167 2,027,029 1/ 1936 Eckert 52--105X 2,631,552 3/1953 Korter 52-530 2,634,760 4/1953 Williams 138-168 2,897,930 8/1959 Primich 52-522X 3,236,932 2/1966 Grigas et al 52-522 X 3,246,436 4/1966 Roush 52-521 X 3,269,075 8/ 1966 Marini et al. 52-522 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
A. C. PERHAM, Assistant Examiner.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,347,001 October 17, 1967 Bryan L. Cosden It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction and that the said Letters Patent should read as corrected below.
Column 9, line 34, strike out a 0.124 inside radius and the reflex curve made on an" and insert instead better n mating fit will result if the roll bend is made on line 48, for "non" read no Signed and sealed this 5th day of November 1968.
EDWARD J. BRENNER Edward M. Fletcher, Jr.
Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer