|Publication number||US3347002 A|
|Publication date||Oct 17, 1967|
|Filing date||Nov 15, 1966|
|Priority date||Sep 26, 1963|
|Also published as||DE1283759B|
|Publication number||US 3347002 A, US 3347002A, US-A-3347002, US3347002 A, US3347002A|
|Inventors||Penkuhn Arno L K|
|Original Assignee||Penkuhn Arno L K|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (29), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 17, 1967 A. K. PENKUHN 3,347,002
THREE POINT FOUNDATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES Original Filed Feb. 12, 1964 HRNO L. K. PENKUHN BY WWW United States Patent 3,347,602 THREE POINT FOUNDATION FOR BUILDING STRUCTURES Arno L. K. Penlmhn, 3 Holbeinstrasse, 798 Ravenshurg, Germany Continuation of application Ser. No. 344,323, Feb. 12, 1964. This application Nov. 15, 1966, Ser. No. 5%,628 Claims priority, applicatio; Germany, Sept. 26, 1963,
12 Claims. (a. 52167) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This application is a continuation of application No. 344,323, filed Feb. 12, 1964 and now abandoned.
This invention relates to a supporting foundation arrangement for building structures and machinery and the like and is particularly concerned with a three point supporting foundation which will protect the supported structure or machine or the like from damage on account of shifting of the earth due to earthquakes, tremors, collapsing of underground tunneling and the like.
Still further the present invention relates to an arrangement for preventing damage to a machine or structure supported by the supporting arrangement from shifting of the structure relative to the ground because of expansion and contraction of the structure due to changing thermal conditions and the like.
Supporting foundations are known for supporting building structures and the like, to decrease the liability of damage thereto because of shifting earth.
Arrangements of this nature, for example, are shown in the United States Patents 981,884; 1,651,411; and 2,014,643.
'Movement of the earth during earthquakes, which is probably the most severe condition to be encountered by a supporting foundation for a 'building structure and the like, cannot only result in undulating movement of the earth in the vertical direction more or less bodily but many times there is also a substantial amount of horizontal movement and of the slipping of the ground in one place relative to the other in the vertical direction and the creation of fissures in the surface of the earth.
Heretofore known supporting foundations having three points of support as in Patent 981,884 referred to above, fail to take into account the relatively large horizontal movements that might take place in the earth between one support point and another and can only compensate for undulating movements of a relatively small amount.
In other arrangements in connection with Patent 1,651, 411 referred to above, multiple supporting points in excess of three are employed and a support of this nature is defective because it cannot compensate adequately for undulating movement of the earth which would twist and strain the supporting foundation and likewise does not permit sufficient freedom of movement of the various points of support to compensate for lateral shifting of the earth.
The same comments apply to Patent 2,014,643 referred 3,347,002 Patented Oct. 17, 1S6? to above, which will compensate only for horizontal shifting movements of the earth.
With the foregoing in mind, the present invention proposes a novel and improved supporting foundation for building structures and the like in which substantially all of the aforementioned earth movements can be adequately compensated for and thereby protect the supported structure from damage.
The present invention further proposes the provision of a novel supporting arrangement, which, without damage to the supported structure or machinery, automatically compensates for their shifting on the ground, caused by a change of temperature, followed by expansion or contraction.
Still further, the present invention proposes the provision of a three point supporting foundation structure in which at least two of the three supporting points are permitted considerable free movements in any direction whereby the supporting structure has great capacity for compensating for earth movements.
The objectives and advantages of the present invention are realized by providing a rigid supporting base for the structure to be supported, which base must be rigidly connected with or be part and parcel of it, and which base may be, for example, triangular as by being formed of three steel beams and placed under the rigid base are three supporting bearings according to the present invention. The base could, of course, be other than triangular.
In one form of the invention the supporting bearings comprise ball studs fixed to the base and resting on bearing surfaces disposed therebeneath, at least one of the ball studs bearing on a concave surface.
In some cases one of the ball studs may be fixed against lateral movement on a supporting ground plate while another is slidable on a horizontal ground plate and the third ball stud rests on a concave bearing surface.
For heavier structures where point contact of the ball studs would be objectionable because of the high stresses that would be developed therein, the ball studs are provided with sockets which rest on bearing surfaces therebeneath in the form of ground plates which can be concave or flat as conditions indicate.
In still another arrangement, instead of ball studs there are employed universal joints to connect the bearing shoes with the rigid base, such joints providing for flexibility on the same order as that provided by the ball studs.
It is advatageous, at least in certain instances, to include shock absorbing means, such as resilient bushings in the structure, to prevent rapid small vibrations of the earth from reaching the supporting structure.
The bearings and other movable parts of the supporting foundation according to the present invention are preferably protected from moisture and pests and the like by closing the structure with elastic covers and maintaining a supply of pesticide in the region of the joints.
Conduits for water, gas and electricity, and the like, leading to and from the structure, can be connected thereto any place where the least movement between the structure and the ground is likely to occur.
The exact nature of the present invention will become more clearly apparent upon reference to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic perspectivev view showing, somewhat simplified, a supporting foundation according to the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a vertical sectional View showing a typical bearing formed of a ball stud and with the ball stud indicated in two dilferent positions relative to the ground plate on which it rests;
FIGURE 4 is avertical sectional view showing a supporting bearing arrangement utilizing a universal or Cardan joint and a concave bearing supported on a ground plate by means of shock absorbing inserts, and
FIGURE is a vertical sectional view showing a shiftable ground plate with a concave upper surface and a bearing resting thereon having a different type flexible connection with the rigid base of the supporting foundation.
Now referring to drawings somewhat more in detail, in FIGURE. 1, 1 represents a rigid suporting base which may be made up, for example, of three steel beams rigidly intreconnected. Secured to the underside of the base are three ball studs 2 that form the support for the base and for any structure resting on the base.
The ball stud at A is mounted in a ball socket that is fixed to ground plate base plate 2a. The ball stud 2 at A is thus tiltably connected with its base plate but is not laterally shiftable relative thereto.
The ball stud at B on the other hand, rests in a concavity formed in the upper portion of base plate 2b, and is freely movable over the concave surface of the said base plate.
The ball stud at Crests on a flat upper surface of the pertaining base plate 2c and is freely movable lateral ly on this surface.
The particular arrangement described is basically the arrangement of all of the supporting structures according to the present invention but FIGURE 1 specifically shows an arrangement that might, be employed when the supported structure was relatively light.
In FIGURE 2 an arrangement is illustrated which is adapted for supporting much heavier structures.
In this figure, 1 again indicates the rigid base and secured thereto is ball stud 2 which has a shank portion received in a socket 3 to be held in place therein by a tapered pin 5 with the socket 3 being rigidly connected withbase 1 by bolts 4.
Ball stud 2 is swivelly mounted in socket 9 and detained in place therein by retaining plate 10. Socket 9 on the bottom is curved to fit the curved bearing surface 11 of ground plate 12 so that lateral movement of ball stud 2 on the ground plate can take place.
The bearing surface 11 of the ground plate and the ball stud and its socket are preferably sealed by the flexible sealing member 7 thatvis secured to the periphery of ground plate 12, as by the screws 14.
As will be seen, the ground plate 12 is adapted for penetrating into the earth 13, so that it is not shiftable in the earth.
The central position of ball stud 2 is indicated at D and a shifted position thereof is shown at E, where it will be seen that the socket pertaining to the ball stud is tilted to position 15.
The bearing surfaces between the ball stud and its socket and between the socket and bearing surface 11 can be lubricated in any suitable manner including the provision of a supply of lubricant thereto before mounting of the flexible cover 7.
The cover 7 is sealingly connected to the ball stud above the ball portion thereof by clamp 8 and positoned above clamp 8 is a groovedring 6 which may be filled with a pesticide or a like material for repelling animal pests.
Other repelling means are, of course, possible, preferably of ring shape and they might include electrical devices as well as chemical devices.
The support arrangement illustrated in FIGURE 2 corresponds in function to the position B of FIGURE 1 wherein the ball stud is movable in all directions over a concave surface.
In FIGURE 3, a ball stud 2 is provided and a socket for this ball stud, indicated at 16, is formed directly in the ground plate which is imbedded in the earth 13.
FIGURE 3 shows that the ground has shifted and that the ground plate has shifted with the ground to a predetermined angle while the ball stud 2 remains stationary and in supporting engagement with base 17 In the FIGURE 3 modification, the flexible cover 7 may be relatively small and may be clamped to ring 10 in sealing engagement with the ball portion of the ball stud which may, as describedbefore, be lubricated.
The FIGURE 3 showing corresponds generally to position A of FIGURE 1 wherein the ball stud 2 is tiltably connected with its ground plate but is not shiftable latcrally thereof.
FIGURE 4 shows an arrangement wherein base 1 has connected thereto in a rigid manner, the upper fork 17 of a universal or Cardan joint, which joint also includes the intermediate block 18 secured to fork 17 by pin means 19 and also secured by pin means 20 to the lower fork 21 of the joint.
Fork 21 of the joint is curved on its bottom surface for slidably engaging the concave upper surface 11 of ground plate 23.
In the same manner as describedin connection with the socket 9 of FIGURE 2 the universal or Cardan joint between lower fork 21 andu-pper fork 17 gives full freedom of movement of lower fork 17 to follow surface 11 as in the event of any lateral shifting of the ground plate 23.
Ground plate 23 has as a portion the ground engagingportion 24 imbedded in the earth 13 and threaded to and upstanding from ground engaging portion 24 are studs 26 extending into recesses in the bottom of portion 23 of ground plate and within these recesses are the resilient rubber-like bushings 25.
i The described arrangement permits the absorption within the ground plate of-rapid or small vibrations so that earth vibrations are dampened out before they reach base 1.
As before mentioned the ground plate structure is imbedded in the earth and does not shift laterally relative thereto.
In FIGURE 5, there is shown a modified flexible joint between the base 1 and a ground plate 33. In this modification a socket 29 is rigidly connected to base 1 and rotatably receives shaft portion 28 of a member 27 which is connected by pin 31 with a shoe 32 that has a curved lower surface for fitting the curved upper surface 11 of ground plate 33.
Shaft 28 is rotatable in socket 39 andis retained in assembled relation therewith by pin 30. The joint of FIGURE 5 provides for full freedom of movement of shoe 32 in following the curvature of ground plate 33.
FIGURE 5 will also show that ground plate 33 rests on the ground 13 or on a flat foundation block or the like so that if shoe 32 reaches the stop element 34- located at the periphery of surface 11, the ground plate will thereafter slide on its supporting surface, that is, either on the ground or on a foundation plate or the like without further relative movement between the shoe and. the ground plate.
Except for the lateral movement of shoe 32 on surface 11 the showing of FIGURE 5 corresponds generally to the position of the ball stud 2 at C of FIGURE 1.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the present invention is concerned primarily with a supporting foundation for structures such as buildings and machines and the like, that includes a rigid base, three spaced points of support between the base'and the earth, with at least one of said points of support including a bearing element slidable on an upwardly concave bearing surface.
The supporting arrangement according to present invention accommodates for substantial ground movements including undulating ground movements, lateral shifting ground movements, and the creation of fissures in the ground within the boundaries of the supporting foundation.
As in most cases the supporting structure will require conduits and the like for the supply to the building of electricity and water and in some cases gas, and sewer lines and the like, these must be led from the building.
When the supporting foundation is of the type where one support point is stationary relative to the ground, as, for example, the support at A in FIGURE 1, the conduits and the like are advantageously led into the building in the region of that particular support point. On the other hand, where all three support points are movable on their respective ground plates, it is the region of the center of the building which will take the least movement relative to the ground and under these circumstances the conduits and the like will be led into the building in the region of the center thereof.
Suitable flexible portions will be included in the conduits between the earth and the building or other supported structure so that the conduits and the like are not damaged by movement of the building structure relative to the earth.
The ball studs, it will be noted, can rest directly on the base or ground plates and slide and/or pivot thereon or may have sockets tiltably mounted thereon which serve to increase the area of contact thereof with the base plate. In either case, the members engaging the base plates are referred to broadly, as shoe elements.
It will be understood that this invention is susceptible to modification in order to adapt it to different usages and conditions; and accordingly, it is desired to comprehend such modifications within this invention as may fall within the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A foundation arrangement for supporting structures so as to compensate for shifting movement of the earth comprising; a rigid horizontal base for fixed supporting engagement with the bottom of the structure to be supported, three ground plates spaced in a horizontal plane beneath the 'base and supported on the earth, three spaced support elements fixed to said base and extending downwardly therefrom and engaging respective ones of said ground plates so as to be supported thereby, at least a first and a second of said support elements being laterally slideable on their respective ground plates, at least a first one of the said ground plates pertaining to said first and second support elements being concave upwardly and the pertaining first supporting element being convex downwardly so as to tend toward a lowermost position on the plate, and at least a second one of said three ground plates comprising means which prevent an unlimited rotation of said base and structure around the first ground plate and provide for automatic self-adjustment of said base and structure to one single and definite final position only in relation to the three ground plates after earth movements.
2. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which at least said first supporting element is a ball stud with the ball portion thereof at the bottom and resting on the concave upper side of said first ground plate.
3. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which said first and second supporting elements are ball studs, both of said first and second ground plates being concave upwardly, said ball studs having their ball portions at the bottom and resting on the concave upper sides of said first and second ground plates respectively.
4. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which both and first and second ground plates are concave upwardly, and downwardly convex foot portions swivelly mounted on the lower ends of said first and second support elements and resting on the concave upper sides of said first and second ground plates respectively.
5. A foundation arrangement according to claim 4 in which the third one of said support elements is swivelly connected to its respective ground plate but is held against lateral movement thereon.
6. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which said second support element is swivelly but nonlaterally moveably connected to its respective ground plate and the third support element comprises a foot element tiltably connected thereto and having a lower planar surface and the third ground plate has an upper planar surface slidably supporting said third support element by said lower planar face of said foot element.
7. A foundation arrangement according to claim 6 in which said one support element has a foot portion swivelly mounted thereon and convex downwardly and resting on the concave upper side of said first ground plate, said second support element being swivelly connected to said second ground plate, and said third support element having a foot portion swivelly mounted thereon and comprising said lower planar surface of said third support element.
8. A foundation arrangement according to claim 7 in which the said support elements comprise universal joints effecting the said swivel connections.
9. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which each ground plate comprises an upper portion supportingly engaging the respective support element, a lower portion engaging the earth, and resilient shock absorbing means disposed between and interconnecting said upper and lower portions of each ground plate.
10. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which said ground plates are adapted for sliding movement on the earth.
11. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which each support element has a foot portion swivelly mounted on its lower end and convex downwardly and each ground plate has its upper side concave upwardly and supportingly engaging the convex under side of a respective foot portion.
12. A foundation arrangement according to claim 1 in which all of said supporting elements are in the form of ball studs and all of said ground plates are concave upwardly, said ball studs having their ball portions at the bottom and resting on the concave upper sides of the respective ground plates.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 981,884 1/1911 Ruhl 52-167 1,651,411 12/1927 Porter 52-167 2,014,643 9/1935 Bakker 52-167 X 2,035,143 3/1936 Cavaglieri 52-167 2,196,140 4/1940 Coflman 52-293 X 2,208,972 7/1940 Ropp 52-167 2,359,036 9/1944 Harper 52-16'7 X 2,680,259 6/ 1954 Milk 52-573 X 2,705,928 4/1955 Pont 52-167 X 2,950,576 8/1960 Rubenstein 52-167 X 3,256,785 6/1966 Stammbach et a1. 94-13 FOREIGN PATENTS 148,394 1/1937 Austria.
FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner.
A. C. PERHAM, Assistant Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||52/167.4, 405/229, 405/230, 52/101|
|International Classification||E04H9/02, E02D27/34|
|Cooperative Classification||E04H9/021, E02D27/34|
|European Classification||E04H9/02B, E02D27/34|