US 3348487 A
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E x 3 48 s@ 4&7
FX 85 Q 2 Oct. 24, 1967 G. MILLER FLUID PUMP AND HEATER SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Aug. 12, 1964 INVENTOR Geary@ Mz) Zar FLUID PUMP AND HEATER SYSTEM Filed Aug. 12, 1954 e@ agg. 3.
5 Sheets-Sheet 2 A INVENTOR George ,1f/Mer ORNEY' Oc. 24, 1967 G. MILLER FLUID PUMP AND HEATER SYSTEM i 5 Sheets-Sheet Filed Aug. l2, 1964 INVENTOR George Mo'ler M my@ A ORNEYS Qdi. 24, 1967 G MlLLER 3,348,487
FLUID PUMP AND HEATER SYSTEM Filed Aug. 12, 1964 5 sheets-sheet 4 f@ i y 8.
241 PHASE SH/Fr /vErwoR/f INVENTOR Gearkge Mer l 27%@ ,HMM/M ATTORNEYS Oct. 24, 1967 G. MILLER FLUID PUMP AND HEATER SYSTEM Filed Aug. l2, 1964 5 Sheets-Sheet .5
INV ENTOR G60/ye' Mer ATTORNEYI United States Patent O M 3,348 487 FLUID PUMP ANDHEATER SYSTEM George Miller, Little Falls, NJ. Howard L. Volgenau, 2401 H St., NW., Apt. 304, Washington, D.C. 20007) Filed Aug. l2, 1964, Ser. No. 389,229 9 Claims. (Cl. 10S-l) This invention relates to a novel, highly useful and inventive method and apparatus for the utilization of the force resulting from the interaction of magnetic fields and electric current. Specifically, the basic physics involved in the invention has -to do with the transformation of energy being either alternatively to introduce heat within the uid or to develop unidirectional movement thereof, or, further alternatively, to introduce heat and motion in combination. Thus, the invention contemplates development of either high velocity fluid flow with little or substantially no heating, or, substantial to very high heating with little or substantially no flow of the fiuid, and, as a third application, a substantial amount of heat and fluid flow, as the particular needs of given applications make necessary. lt is to be understood that the modes and extent of energy transformation as indicated above are a direct result of the teachings of the invention herein and, therefore, the method and apparatus of the invention are in and of themselves useful entirely apart from many operations with which association may be made; however, it is to be recognized that the method and apparatus of this invention are contemplated as usable in combination with still other effects which may be regarded as ancillary. As illustrative of such ancillary effects which may be combined with the present invention, it is contemplated that the method and apparatus of this invention may be employed as a high heating source for a fluid which is being pumped or delivered thereto from a pumping source completely external of the method and apparatus of the invention. Similarly, and reversely, an externally heated fluid may have motion imparted to it by application of the method and apparatus of the present invention. Moreover, it is contemplated that the method and apparatus of this invention may be utilized in any and all environments where moving and/ or heated fluids are involved. As will be appreciated, therefore, the invention is regarded as being of extremely wide and Versatile applicability. Additionally, it will be appreciated that the method and apparatus of this invention are not to be restricted in their environmental usage by the illustrative embodiments and specifically named usages herein mentioned. Thus, where reference is made hereinafter to the apparatus of the present invention as taking the form of a pump, the word pump is intended to be taken in a broad sense and, therefore, to extend to the over-all concept of fluid fiow as effected by a force having its origin from the combined physical effects taught herein. Similarly, where reference is made to the invention as taking the form of a heater, it is not intended thereby that it be restricted to a heater of any conventional or particular type; rather, usage of the word heater is intended to be merely illustrative of the broad applicability of the invention in the field of heating in a general sense. Where the method of the invention is specifically illustrated by embodiment into apparatus hereinafter described, it is not intended that its scope is to be thus restricted; rather, the
3,348,4S7 Patented Oct. 24, i967 ICC method of the invention is contemplated as extending to all environments where it is seen to be useful.
Fluid and liquid pumps of the spiral -type have been known for many years; however, these pumps require a fluid medium of high conductivity and low resistance so that an electric current passes radially through the spiral sections to a return or ground located at the outermost part of the spiral. Consequently, the fluid within the partitions of the spiral are all necessarily at the same voltage potential and, in addition, are all necessarily of low resistance material so that the current can .pass radially therethrough without obstruction and without great energy losses. The spiral configuration is located in a magnetic field such that the lines of flux pass perpendicular to the plane of the spiral so that a vector force perpendicular to the direction of the current and direction of the flux is exerted on the liquid to create a turbulent or spiral movement of the fluid at some resulting pressure.
However, these systems presently found in the art are extremely inefficient, and the only practical manner of using the same is to (l) use only those fluids of extremely high conductivity, such as mercury, ammonia water, and the like; and (2) establish such an extremely strong magnetic field by the use of great masses if iron and thel like. These pumping systems are unwieldy and extremely heavy and bulky.
Lastly, the presently known systems can not eiciently pump low conductivity fluids. If pumping of low conductivity fluid is attempted, the current concentrates in the low resistance spiral vane and very little iiows radially through the fluid. Thus, substantially no force results on the fluid.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a fluid pump which avoids all the shortcomings and disadvantages as listed above.
lt is a primary object of the present invention to provide a pump having a spiral path in which a substantial potential difference exists between each adjacent Wall of said path.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a fluid pump having a spiral path which comprises at least a portion of the secondary of a transformer system, the primary of which is used to establish the magnetic field disposed perpendicular to the plane of the spiral. With this arrangement, the current will be induced current from the energy supplied to the primary winding of the transformer system, and said current will pass radially from one turn of the spiral partition through the fluid medium to the adjacent side thereof due to the one or more voltturn potential induced therebetween by the primary windmg.
It is another object of the present invention to provide the spiral as mentioned above in an open secondary circuit condition, such that the path between the two open ends of the secondary is only completed by the fluid to be pumped.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a uid pump having a spiral path, wherein the fluid is supplied at substantially the center of the spiral, and the egress port is located substantially tangential to the outer path of the spiral.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a fluid pump comprising a spiral path, wherein the inlet and egress ports are both located substantially tangential to and concentric with the outer paths of the spiral.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a uid pump comprising a spiral path, wherein said spiral comprises at least a portion of the secondary winding of the transformer system, and wherein said spiral is adapted to be connected to any predetermined number of outside turns of secondary windings for the purpose of increasing or stepping up the potential voltage between the respective facings of the spiral partitions.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a uid pump comprising a spiral path which cornprises at least a portion of the secondary winding of the transformer system, wherein the current passing between the facings of the spiral partitions can be varied such that the fluid being pumped can be heated as well as pumped to any useful predetermined degree. With this arrangement, the pump can be used in any number of hydraulic systems which require a pumped and heated fluid within the system, without the necessity of having a separate heating unit and a separate pumping unit therefor.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a fluid heater and pump system in which the pumping efficiency can be lowered and the heating efficiency can be raised and, conversely, the heating eliiciency can be lowered and the pumping efficiency can be raised merely by changing a few simple parameters of the system.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a method for heating and pumping fluid by the use of a spiral path pump and heater in which said spiral is at least a portion of the secondary winding of a transformer system.
It is yet a further object of the present invention to provide a uid pump comprising a spiral path which cornprises at least a portion of the secondary winding of a transformer system in which efficient pumping of the fluid can take place notwithstanding the high inherent resistance or nonconductivity of the uid which is being pumped.
It is still a further object of the present invention to provide a gas pump which comprises means for ionizing the gas within the pump and which comprises a spiral path which comprises at least a portion of the secondary winding of a transformer system for the pump.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an electromagnetic pump which has no gyroscopic effect and, therefore, imparts no dynamic forces to any supporting structure therefor.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a fluid pump that will heat and pump fluid and thus replace the heater and pump of certain systems with one eicient unit.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an inexpensive, efficient, compact, lightweight pump which will heat the uid being pumped to a predetermined degree, as well as perform the pumping function.
Other and further objects of the present invention will become apparent with the following detailed description when taken in view of the appended drawings in which:
FIG. l is a schematic representation in perspective of the present invention mounted in the air gap of a transformer core;
FIG. 2 is a sectional top plan View of the pump taken in the plane of the spiral;
FIG. 3 is a sectional elevation view taken along line 3 3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic representation in perspective of another embodiment of the present invention mounted in the air gap of the transformer core;
FIG. 5 is a sectional top plan view of the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 4 taken in the plane of the spiral;
FIG. 5a is a schematic representation of the outside electrical connection for the embodiment shown in FIG. 5;
FIG. 6 is a sectional elevation taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIGS. 7-9 are similar illustrations as that shown in i FIGS. 1-3, respectively, of yet another embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is an illustration of another embodiment of the present invention which functions as a gas blower or pump; and
FIG. 11 is a sectional top plan view of yet another embodiment of the present invention that functions as a gas pump when used in the system show in FIG. l0.
A transformer arrangement is used in the present invention, whereby the primary coil supplies the necessary energy for establishing and reversing of the magnetic field. The secondary winding for the transformer arrangement comprises at least a conducting spiral vane of a given number of turns located within a plastic or otherwise nonconducting material. The voltage established between each turn of this spiral or secondary will depend on the ampere-turns and voltage of the primary Winding, as well as the number, if any, of outside turns of additional secondary winding connected to the respective ends of the spiral.
The current source for the primary winding is, in this example, an alternating current source or alternator or chopper, and it will be understood that because the current flowing from one face of the spiral to an adjacent face of the spiral is an induced secondary current, every time the magnetic lfield changes polarity (that is A changing to negative), the secondary current will also change direction, so that the combination of the magnetic and current eld maintains the force field within the fluid in the same direction.
Referring now to the figures in detail, there is shown in FIG. 1 a pump generally indicated as 10, which is but one example of the present invention, mounted in the air gap 12 of a transformer 14 having at least one primary winding 16 connected to an alternating current source 18. Inlet pipe 20 is disposed through the core and communicates with inlet port 22 at substantially the center of the spiral pump 10, and outlet port 24 also tangentially communicates with pump 10.
Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, there is illustrated a sectional top plan View of the pump 10 taken in the plane of pump 10. As can be seen in FIG. 2, pump 10 is of wafer shape and comprises a circular body 26 which is of nonconducting material such as plastic, refractory or the like. Outlet port 24 is formed in any conventional manner within body 26 and communicates with the -internal chamber of the pump. Disposed within this internal chamber in a spiral wall or band 28 extending in a spiral path from substantially the center of the internal chamber to the outermost edge of the chamber, and this wall 28 can be of any suitable conducting material such as copper, silver and the like.
The operation of the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 1-3 will now be described. It should be understood that this embodiment is most eiiicient in pumping fluids of relatively medium or intermediate conductivity, such as those uids having about the same pH factor as stream water, and will operate poorly on uids of very high conductivity, such las mercury. The current source 18 is energized for the primary winding 16 of the transformer system 14 to establish an oscillating magnetic eld within the center leg of transformer 14. The spiral coil or band 28 then acts as a secondary winding for the transformer system due to the alternating magnetic field established by source 18 and primary winding 16, and said field induces a predetermined number of voltsper-turn within the secondary band 28. It can readily be seen that at point A there is one volt-turn induced in the secondary band 28, and at point B there are two voltturns induced in the secondary coil 28, and points C and D have three and four volt-turns induced thereat, respectively, due to the alternating magnetic field. It can also be seen that when examining the potential gradient from the center of the spiral in any radial direction, the potential difference between one boundary yof a spiral path and its adjacent boundary of the spiral path will always be at one volt-turn difference in potential. The result, therefore, is that the secondary induced current flows between adjacent faces of the spiral band 28 in a substantially perpendicular manner throughout the entire spiral. The uid within the spiral channel 30 necessarily acts as a current conductor to complete an inlinite number of radial paths throughout the entire spiral. With the existence of this current throughout the iiuid within the spiral path 30, and with the existence of the alternating magnetic field, the left hand motor principle can be applied, and it can be seen that a force vector exists substantially parallel to the direction of the spiral channels 30.
When the primary current within the primary coil 16 reverses in polarity, the magnetic field disposed perpendicular to the plane of the spiral also reverses 180, and necessarily the induced -current between the faces of band 28 also reverses in direction such that it is -always in phase with the changing magnetic field. However, the force will remain in the same direction as that experienced 180 earlier. Therefore, the force or pumping action of the uid will always be in the same direction.
Thus, the advantages of this type of induced secondary spiral are extremely great. Firstly, no separate outside current source need be incorporated for the purpose of supplying current at the center of the spiral. The spiral band or vane 2S acts as an internal current source which supplies the necessary current in the necessary direction through the fluid medium, as required by the system. This fe-ature increases the efficiency of the system and requires less power or watt consumption for proper operation.
The current ow is -a necessary factor for the existence of uid pressure and, therefore, if the fluid is for some reason drained 4from pump 10, the pump will no longer operate. The condition at the pump would merely be a normally opened secondary spiral vane 28.
In mechanical pumps, the pressure developed in the impeller is determined by the peripheral velocity of the impeller, and the developed pressure cannot exceed the known relationship between pressure and peripheral velocity. i-'But in the present invention, the force exerted on the iiuid within the spiral path 30 of pump 10 is independent of the velocity of the uid (except for the creation of a back E.M.F.). Thus, in the regular impeller pump, the static pressure head developed is the maximum pressure that the system can develop. The sum of the velocity pressure head and static pressure is, in most mechanical pumps, a constant. In the electromagnetic pump of the present invention, the velocity pressure head -is independent of the static pressure head, and therefore, the velocity pressure head is only limited to the iiuid friction imparted by the boundaries of spiral path 30. Therefore, the total or sum of velocity and the static pressure head can be greater than the static head alone.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, it will be recognized that the incoming fluid will be approximately a four volt-turn potential difference from that of the iiuid in the outlet port 24. However, this voltage potential on the output iiuid can be reduced by directing the fluid in a spiral path a predetermined number of times around the outside of body 26 within the magnetic field as, for example, shown by tube 32. Tube 32 can be of any nonconducting material such as plastic, rubber or the like. The output of the pumping system will then become the output of tube '32, and the iiuid flowing therefrom would be at the same voltage potential as the input uid entering port 22. In this way, the load system of the hydraulic circuit would not be subjected to any unwanted currents or voltages.
As indicated above, the present invention can also be used to heat the uid as well :as perform the pumping function on the fluid. As can be seen from the above description of the operation, there is a high current passing through the fluid within the spiral channels 30` and, con- I =amperes.
=0.313 for air.
B=flux density in lines per square inch. l=length of path through air.
Let it be further assumed that a flux ydensity of 26,250 lines per square inch is used. This figure is relatively small for electromagnetic pumps and, furthermore, this field strength can be greatly increased by the use of ferrite cores now common in the magnetic art.
For the present example, it can be seen that the nurnber of ampere turns would be:
where 99|% of the reluctance for the magnetic circuit is in the air gap.
The force exerted on any conductor carrying current while in a magnetic field is directly proportional to the field strength, the active length of the conductor, and the current owing through it. The force at any one instant for the present example can be computed by the following equation:
Where F=force in pounds. B=ilux density. I :amperes flowing. L=length of path.
Assuming L to be also of an inch, that is to say the distance between turns in the spiral, it can be considered that the path for a total current consists of an infinite number of paths in parallel carrying innitesimal amounts of current. Therefore:
The current I will depend on the internal resistance of the conducting fluid, in this case assuming a total resistance of 0.001 ohms and a volt-per-turn ratio of 0.5 volts-perturn.
5 I- 0I amps thus the force would be F 8.55 26,250 3/8 500 :0.42 pounds (6) Since the area of the spiral channel is 3A; XS; inches or 0.14 square inches, the pressure when the exit port is assumed closed is 3 pounds per square inch. The heat developed would be related to 12R or (500 amps) 2 0.001 ohms (7) :250 watts or 853 B.t.u per hour It can be seen by Equation 3 that pressure (related to F) and heating (related to the square of I) can be varied by changing the distance between the turns of the spiral, changing the ampere turns, or the air gap or any combination thereof. Thus, if it is desired to heat the fluid to a higher degree and obtain the same pressure, the spiral can be designed to have a smaller L (length of path) and a higher current (I). Or, if it is desired to heat the fluid to an extremely high degree, L (length of path) can be greatly reduced, thus increasing the velocity of the uid within the spiral paths 30; however, there will be a frictional drag on the fluid and the velocity of the uid will be held to some predetermined maximum. Another method to control energy absorption or heating would merely be to insert a valve or throttle in the outside hydraulic circuit to slow the velocity of uid within the spiral vane. The current (I) will be extremely great, and the fluid will naturally be greatly heated thereby. Note that the heat characteristic varies as the square of the current (I) and the force (F) varies linearly with the current. Moreover, the relationship between the linear and nonlinear functions can be chosen to meet almost any desired combination of heating and pumping characteristics, depending upon the choice of parameters for the system.
Thus, depending upon the design of the system, there can result an eiicient pump which only slightly heats the pumped uid, or an eicient heater which slightly pumps the heated fluid, or any combination thereof according to the characteristics desired. Moreover, with the present system there is no moving part and the hydraulic circuit, pumping system and heating system can be in one entirely sealed closed system.
From the foregoing description, it is understood that the current existing between the faces of the spiral is secondary winding induced current and, consequently, no external power source need be provided for radially delivering current across the spiral channel. It should also be mentioned that the preferred embodiment of this systern operates within the relatively low secondary voltage and high secondary current range.
It should also be understood that the preferred embodiment is illustrated without an additional current source for the reason set forth above, but that a separate current source can be easily provided between each turn of the spiral wall without departing from the spirit of the invention.
Referring now to FIGS. 4 and 5, there is shown another embodiment of the present invention having particular utility in pumping fluids of all ranges of conductivity, including fluids of very high and very low conductivity. It should be understood that like references are used to denote like structure throughout the present disclosure. The structure as illustrated in FIG. 4 is substantially the same as that in FIG. 1 except for the existence of a secondary coil winding 38 located on the outside of pump 10 and disposed on the same core as primary winding 16. The purpose of the winding 38 will be described hereinbelow. Again, this embodiment preferably operates with relatively low secondary voltage and high secondary current.
Referring now to FIG. 5, there is illustrated a sectional top plan View taken in the plane of the spiral and again the pump unit consists of a circular body 26 made of some nonconducting material. Unlike the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, the spiral path is insulated from the adjacent spiral path by an intermediate spiral partition 27 which, of course, is also made of nonconducting material. A conductor or lead 28' is mounted continuously along the outside wall of the spiral channel 30 throughout the entire length of said channel 30. Another conductor or band 28 is mounted continuously on the inside wall of spiral path 30 throughout the entire length of said spiral path 30. Note that conductor 28' does not electrically contact conductor 28 except in the manner described hereinbelow.
The outer ends of both conductors 28 and 28" are connected to the outer portion 38 of the secondary coil which, as better seen in FIG. 4, is mounted on the same core as primary winding 16. The number of outside turns of secondary winding 38 depends on the desired operation of the system as described hereinbelow.
The operation of the embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 4-6 will now be described. The configuration of the concentric spiral conductors 28' and 28" act as the open circuit of the secondary winding for the transformer system and the only electrical path connected therebetween is through the uid medium within channel 30. However, there is a potential difference between conductors 28 and 28" throughout their entire lengths, depending upon the number of turns in the outer portion of secondary winding 38 and the number of ampere turns in the primary winding 16. Again, it is pointed out that the open `spiral conductors 2S' and 28, along with the outer windings 38, comprise the secondary windings of the transformer system and, consequently, the current owing substantially normal to the faces of conductors 28 and 28" is induced secondary current. Since the resistance between the conductors 28 and 28" is a constant (for constant L) depending on the inherent characteristics of the uid within the system, the magnitude of current flowing from conductor 28 to conductor 28 is directly dependent upon the voltage therebetween and, consequently, upon the number of turns of outside winding 38. Thus, if the number of turns of outside winding 38 is great, there is a great magnitude of current owing between conductor 28 and 28" notwithstanding the great resistance of the liquid disposed therebetween. Again, to eliminate the electrical potential difference between the incoming and outgoing fluid, nonconducting conduit 32 directs the uid in a reverse direction around the magnetic field for a predetermined number of turns to compensate for the internal spiral path turns of the pump.
It is anticipated that if there are a great number of outer turns in outer winding 38, that there exists a substantial phase shift between the miximum peak of current owing between conductors 28' and 28 and the maximum intensity of the magnetic field strength induced by primary winding 16. To compensate for this phase shift, outer windings 38 are placed in series with a phase shift network 39 indicated schematically in FIG. 5a. In sorne instances, depending upon the desired current-voltage magnitudes and frequency, phase shift network 39 and the outer coils 38 are designed as a ringing or resonant circuit to obtain high eciency. This technique is quite well known in the electronics art. With this technique, the current existing between coils 28 and 28 is maintained in proper phase with the oscillating magnetic eld established in core 14, the primary winding 16 and alternating current source 18. By choosing the correct electrical components, an electrical damper or phase shift circuit can be designed in parallel with outer coils 38 and would replace the series circuit 39.
It can be quite readily seen that currents of great magnitude and thus forces resulting in great pressures can exist within channel 3i) to provide the proper pumping function. Furthermore, it can be readily seen that the Huid will be heated (due to the presence of current) as well as pumped. The advantages of this type of pump and heater are exremely signicant when it is recognized that an entirely closed or sealed uid circuit can incorporate the present invention, whereby the uid within the circuit is pumped and heated with the least amount of external involvement with the hydraulic circuit.
The outside windings 38 are shown in the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 4-6 as being electrically connected to points E and F of the conductive partitions 28' and 28, respectively. With this arrangement the outer windings 38 are electrically in parallel with the spiral partitions 28' and 28". However, if the electrical contact 29 associated with point F were redesigned to electrically contact point H, the resulting structure would be an arrangement that had the outer windings 38 in series with the spiral partitions 28 and 28, respectively. Moreover, the electrical contact 29 could electrically contact the spiral partitions 28' and 28" at any desired point along the respective lengths thereof, depending upon the desired results from the design of the system.
Referring now to FIGS. 7-9, there is illustrated yet another embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment pump 10 again comprises a circular body 26 made of some nonconductive material, wherein inlet and outlet ports 22 and 24', respectively, are located substantially tangential of body 26. Spiral channel 30 communicates with inlet port 22 and its interior end connects with a spiral channel 30, said channel 30 communicating with outlet port 24. The spirals are separated by conductive partitions 28 and 28", whereby conductive partitions 28" is always located between -adjacent faces of spiral vane 28. The spiral conducting vanes 28 and 28" are electrically connected to the predetermined number of outside secondary windings 38, which again are in series with a phase shifting circuit 39 as described above.
The operation of the embodiment shown in FIGS. 7-9 is substantially the same as that shown in FIGS. 4-6. The induced secondary voltage impressed on the outside windings 38 appears throughout the inside portion of the secondary windings which comprise spiral partitions 28 and 28". Thus the potential difference exists throughout the entire length of said conductors 28 and 28". The secondary current induced therebetween occurs throughout the entire length -between adjacent faces of spiral partitions 28 and 28". The direction of the current is such to cause force on the fluid within the spiral paths such that the fiuid ows in the directions indicated by the arrows within the spirals. This embodiment also operates preferably with a high secondary current and low secondary voltage.
With this arrangement, the inlet and outlet ports, 22' and 24 respectively, are located in the same plane so that the design of the hydraulic system is maintained simple. Moreover, the fluid moving in channel 30' is rotating oppositely to that moving in channel 30" so that there is no inertial gyroscopic force which can be imparted to any outside supporting structure. Also, there exists no necessity to carry the pumped fluid externally around the pump to compensate for voltage difference Within-the fluid due to internal fluid paths.
Referring now to FIG. 10, there is illustrated another embodiment of the present invention `adapted for using the basic concept in a fluid pump Vor blower. Again, pump is disposed and mounted in an electromagnetic field in which the lines of flux are perpendicular to the plane of the spiral. The embodiment of pump 10 shown in FIG. 10 could be the same as that illustrated in FIG. 5. The electromagnetic field is established by a primary Winding 42 disposed about a plastic or other nonmagnetic, nonconducting support 44. The secondary coils 46 are also mounted on a plastic support 48 for the purpose of establishing induced secondary current within the spiral paths in the manner set forth above.
It is well known that most gases to be adapted to carry an electrical current or to be an efiicient medium for an electrical current must be in an ionized condition. For this purpose, the incoming gases at the input side of pump 10 are heated -by any suitable means generally indicated as heating means 50. The gas should be heated in excess of 600 C. so that the gas will be ionized in a manner as described hereinbelow.
The energization source for primary windings 42 is an alternating, high frequency source 52. Source 52 should be lat high frequency for the following reasons: (l) to obviate the need for a magnetic core and (2) establish a high frequency, high voltage electric field within the spiral paths of pump 10 for the purpose of breaking down and ionizing the heated gas delivered by heating means 50. Once ionization begins within pump 10, the electric high frequency, high voltage field within pump 10 maintains the gas in an ionized state.
With the gas in an ionized condition, the presence of the flux lines established by primary windings 42 induces a secondary voltage such that negative electrons flow normal to the spiral path and positive particles also flow normal to the spiral path in an opposite direction from that of the electrons. Again applying the left hand motor principle to both the moving electrons and moving positive particles, the mass `of gas within the spiral path experiences a force and assumes a velocity greatly in excess of the velocity to be experienced from thermodynamic effects alone. The moving gas exits pump 10 with extremely great velocity. This pump or blower can be used in a closed system or it can deliver gas at high velocity to any ambient.
Referring now to FIG. 11, there is shown another embodiment of the gas pump, wherein the need for gas heating means 50 is obviated by the existence of a thin coat of radioactive material 54 disposed near the inlet port 22. The operation of this pump is similar to the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. l0 except that gas under normal thermal conditions enters port 22 and is quickly ionized by the energy emitted by radioactive material 54, and this gas is maintained in the ionized condition by radioactive bombardment and the existence of the strong, high frequency electric field within the spiral paths as described above. The ionized gas experiences a force in the same manner as described above.
Thus, there has been described an efficient, compact, economical, advantageous pump and heater for various fluids. It it to be understood that other and further modifications of the present invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. For example, with slight modification a direct current source and static magnetic field can be used in the embodiments of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1-9. It should also be understood that the disclosed structure is a schematic illustration of examples of some embodiments that are adapted to practice the concepts of the present invention, and the structure thereof in no way limits the scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A fluid pump for pumping a fluid of high inherent resistance or nonconductivity comprising a housing of electrical insulating material, a spiral conduit in said housing, a conduit of electrical insulating material connected to the center of said spiral, a conduit of electrical insulating material connected to the end of the spiral where-by a fluid can iiow from one conduit of insulating material to the other conduit of insulating material through the spiral conduit, means for producing a magnetic field through the spiral conduit, at least one of the walls of the spiral conduit being an electrical conductor wound in a direction at right angles to the magnetic field whereby the spiral operates as the secondary of a transformer when the fluid to be pumped is in the spiral conduit.
2. A device as defined in claim 1 wherein the spiral conduit comprises a metal band forming the side walls of the conduit and the upper and lower walls are of electrical insulating material.
3. A device as defined in claim 1 wherein the spiral conduit comprises a pair of parallel metal bands wound in the same direction and the upper and lower walls are of electrical insulating mate-rial.
4. A device as defined in claim 3 wherein the means for producing the magnetic field comprises a core having spaced pole pieces and a winding on one of said pieces.
5. A device as defined in claim 4 further including a Winding on the other of said pieces, means connecting one end of the winding on the other pole piece to one of the said metal bands and means connecting the other end of said winding to the other of said bands.
6. A device as defined in claim 5 further including a phase shift network in the circuit between the winding on the other pole piece and the connection to one of said bands.
7. A device as defined in claim 1 wherein the means connecting the conduit of insulating material to the center of the spiral comprises a second metal spiral concentric with the first spiral and having a common center therewith, wherein the means for producing the magnetic field comprises a core having pole pieces on opposite sides of the housing, and a winding on one piece connected to a source of power, a winding on the other piece, means connecting opposite ends of the winding to the spirals, and a 11 phase shift network in one of the connections between the Winding and one of the spirals.
8. A device as defined in claim 5 further including a coating of radioactive material secured on the spiral conduit adjacent the center of the spiral.
9. A device as defined in claim 5 further including a heater in the conduit leading to the center of the spiral.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,736,643 11/1929 Beck 103-1 2,434,705 1/1948 Lago 103-1 2,612,109 9/1952 Wakefield 103-1 2,982,214 5/1961 FOREIGN PATENTS Great Britain. Great Britain.
OTHER REFERENCES Electrical Engineering, February 1963, pages 128-135.
ROBERT M. WALKER, Primary Examiner.
Cochran 103 1 15 LAURENCE V. EFNER, Examiner.