US 3348546 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 24, 1967 R ROBE-4T8 ET AL 3,348,546
INTERMIXING SYRINGE 2 Sheets-Q'Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 1, 1964 INVENTORS RALPH R. ROBERTS BORIS SCHWARTZ Oct. 24, 1967 ROBERTS ET AL 3,348,546
- 'INTERMIXING SYRINGE Filed Deb. 1, 1964 v 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i 22 4 36 24 i 60 /42 30 28 F t Fig.5
INVENTORS RALPH R. ROBERTS BORIS SCHWARTZ United States Patent 3,348,546 INTERMIXING SYRINGE Ralph R. Roberts, Glen Rock, NJ. (48 Winging Way, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 07458), and Boris Schwartz, 400 Park Ave, Paterson, NJ. 07504 Filed Dec. 1, 1964, Ser. No. 415,021 7 Claims. (Cl. 128-218) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An intermixing syringe with an outer housing and a hollow plunger slidable therein, the plunger having a piston portion with two or more spaced ring-like sealing surfaces and with one or more storage chambers each flowconnected to the outer piston surface and between ringlike sealing surfaces. An outer housing having a bore of two diameters, the larger bore portion being positioned between end portions of like relatively constant smaller diameters in which the ring-like surfaces are sized to provide a fluid seal.
This invention relates to a syringe having bothmedicant storage and fluid control means. More particularly this invention relates to an intermixing syringe adapted for the storage, transfer and mixing of pre-packaged medicinal ingredients prior to the administration thereof to the patient.
Even more particularly this invention relates to a syringe of the disposable or throw-away type wherein, at a particular time or the time of use, two or more ingredients previously stored may then be mixed for use and/or administration to the recipient.
Still more particularly this invention relates to a syringe in which the plunger has one or more storage chambers and in which a piston portion has outlets so disposed that when the plunger is moved to a predetermined enlarged intermediate portion in the barrel, the material in that particular chamber whose outlet is presented to the enlarged portion of the barrel is permitted to move from the storage chamber through the enlarged portion to the forward portion of the barrel and to there be intermixed.
The advent and use of new and more potent drugs, and particularly to those requiring mixing immediately prior to the administration thereof, has made the use of a separate storage and container a necessity. Many of these drugs are composed of a combination in which one of the components to be mixed is a powder or dry constituent and one or more additional drugs are fluids in which the powder is dissolved or suspended. Many of these dry powders or components such as the cancerocidal drugs are so toxic to the skin and blood that they must be very carefully hand-led by the one preparing the mixture to prevent any contact with the skin so that an undesirable or dangerous reaction is avoided.
It is an object of this invention to provide a syringe so arranged and constructed that two or more ingredients may be pre-packaged in separate compartments and at a desired time the syringe may be manipulated so as to permit a flowable or fluid portion or portions to enter the forward or dry chamber portion and to be there mixed. After mixing, the now prepared syringe may be used in the conventional way to administer the admixture drug and after expelling the contents the syringe is preferably destroyed or discarded.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a syringe for intermixing a dry and a fluid ingredient. The fluid being carried in a chamber in the movable plunger of the syringe and the dry ingredient being carried in the forward portion of the barrel.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a syringe for intermixing a plurality of ingredients one of which may be a dry ingredient and two or more fluid ingredients, the fluid ingredients being arranged to be separately deliverable to the forward portion of the barrel.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a syringe in which the plunger portion is arranged to provide one or more fluid retaining compartments each provided with an outlet means for delivering the fluid contained therein to a forward barrel portion when the outlet serving that compartment is moved to an enlarged portion of the barrel of the-syringe.
In the attainment of these and other objects and as shown in the accompanying drawings to be hereinafter described, the invention in its broader aspects provides for a syringe which includes a tubular housing having a plunger movable in the bore of the housing, the housing and plunger preferably being made of a low-cost molded plastic, the tubular housing having one end partially closed and with a reduced passageway therethrough. This passageway and the reduced end is so formed as to provide a shoulder means for mounting thereon a regular hypodermic needle. The housing in the preferred embodiment is of two pieces and has the bore portion made in two diameters. The larger diameter of rather short length is intermediate the ends of the bore. Slidable in the lesser diameter of the bore is a plunger of tubular construction with one end closed and formed to provide a piston portion upon which at least two ring-type sealing surfaces are disposed at a predetermined distance apart. These sealing surfaces are a slidable fit in the lesser diameter bore of the housing and are fluid stopping seals while intermediate these sealing surfaces is formed a fluid passageway to an inner chamber for the containment of a fluid. When a plurality of fluids are desired to be stored in the plunger, separate chambers for each fluid are provided and an additional ring type sealing surface is provided on the piston with each ring being spaced so that one or more fluid passageways to a single chamber is provided between adjacent sealing rings. The open end of the plunger is adapted to receive sealing plugs for retaining either singly or jointly the fluids to be stored in the chambers. The plunger, in use, is manipulated so that the fluid passageway between the sealing surfaces is presented to the enlarged bore of the housing permitting the fluid in the chamber to flow to the forward bore portion.
The most important features of the present invention have been outlined rather broadly in order that the detailed description of the invention which follows may be appreciated. There are, of course, additional features of the invention which will be described hereafter and which will also form the subject of claims appended hereto. Those persons skilled in the art will appreciate that the conception on which the present disclosure is based may readily be utilized as the basis for designing other structures for carrying-out the several purposes of this invention. It is important, therefore, that the claims be regarded as including such equivalent constructions as do not depart from the concept and scope of this invention.
A preferred embodiment and a modification thereof has been chosen for purposes of illustration and description and is shown in the accompanying drawings forming a part of the specification wherein:
FIGURE 1 represents an isometric view of the assembled syringe of this invention;
FIG. 2 represents an exploded isometric view of the components comprising the syringe of this invention;
FIG. 3 represents a fragmentary sectional view of the syringe with the piston portion of the plunger adjacent the enlarged inner portion of the barrel;
FIG. 4 represents a sectional view of a preferred embodiment of the syringe in which the plunger has a single fluid receptacle and is in fluid flow transfer position;
FIG. 5 represents a sectional view of the syringe of FIG. 4 with the plunger disposed in flow sealing position; FIG. 6 represents a sectional view of the syringe of FIG. 4 with plunger in the expelled or discharge position;
FIG. 7 represents a sectional view of the normally exterior end of the plunger with a plug seal in sealing position.
FIG. 8 represents a sectional view of the plunger end of FIG. 7 with the plug seal in flow releasing position;
FIG. 9 represents a fragmentary end view of an alternate plunger construction having three fluid chambers;
FIG. 10 represents an end view of the plunger of FIG. 9; and
FIG. 11 represents a sectional view taken on the line H ll of the plunger end of FIG. 9.
Referring particularly to the syringe apparatus of FIGS. 1 through 8 there is provided an outer barrel assembly preferably of molded plastic. This barrel assembly in the preferred embodiment is made of two elements identified as a forward element 22 and a rear element 24. The forward element has its partially closed forward end shaped so that the external portion is formed into a tapered shouldered portion 26 and having a passageway 28 therethrough. The tapered outer portion 26 is formed so as to provide a mounting shoulder for a conventional hypodermic needle 34). Extending rearwardly from the partly closed forward end is an internal bore 32 of a relatively constant diameter and formed at its rear end with a shoulder bore portion which is an enlarged internal bore 34 and which also provides an internal seat for the mounting therein of the rear element 24. The forward end of element 24 has a reduced exterior shoulder portion 36 of substantially lesser length than bore 34 and which is intended to be in the nature of a press-fit with the seat 34 and to provide a fluid tight seal when the barrel elements 22 and 24 are assembled. It is to be noted that when so assembled the bore portion 34 between bore 32 and exterior shoulder portion 36 provides an enlarged internal bore which as reduced to practice may be about one quarter inch in extent. The enlarged bore 34, as reduced to practice, .is preferred to be made about three-thirty seconds inch larger in diameter than the internal bore 32. The internal bore 38 of the rear barrel portion 24 is of substantially the same diameter as the internal bore 32 of the front barrel portion 22.
A plunger assembly 40, preferably of a resilient plastic such as polypropylene, is formed with a flanged end 42 and with the adjacent portion 44 of a cylindrical shape terminating in a piston portion which, as exemplified, has a rear ring portion 46 slidable in the constant bores 32 and 38 of the front and rear barrel elements. This ring 1 portion 46 is of a sufliciently enlarged size to act as a piston ring in the bores 32 and 36 and to have a sufliciently resilient and tight fit in this bore so as to provide a seal against fluid passing up the bores 32 and 36 toward the rear flanged end 42. Adjacent and forward of the ring portion 46 is a reduced diameter 48 which is of a sufficiently less diameter than the ring portion 46 so that the reduced diameter 48 can act as a fluid flow passageway. The reduced diameter portion is terminated by an outer sealing ring portion 50 which is preferably of the same diameter as ring portion 46. This ring portion 50 acts as a piston ring in the bores 32 and 36 and is of such a resiliently tight fit as to provide a sufficient seal against fluid passing down the bores 32 and 36 except when the plunger has been manipulated in the barrel so that the ring portion 50 and reduced diameter 48 are in the enlarged bore portion 34. It is to be noted that ring portions 46 and 50 have chamfered edges so formed as to allow the ring portions to be drawn from bore 32 to bore 36 and vice versa and are spaced sufficiently apart so that both ring portions cannot simultaneously be in the enlarged bore portion 34.
The plunger 40' is provided with a fluid chamber 52 which, as reduced to practice, is cylindrical in shape. The rear end of this chamber as formed in the plunger is open and is closed by means of a removable plug 54. The forward end of the chamber 52 terminates a short distance before the internal or forward end of the plunger 40. Extending outwardly from the forward end of chamber 52 are one or more fluid passageways 56 which preferably terminate at the reduced diameter 48 between ring portions 46 and 50. To facilitate fluid flow and obviate flow stoppage by the plugging of one of the passageways 56 it is contemplated that plural passageways will be provided and that each will be of about one-sixteenth inch diameter or larger.
Air is permitted to enter the chamber 52 to prevent a vacuum or negative pressure so as to allow the fluid in this chamber to flow by gravity through the passageways 56. This air flow is provided by an air passageway 58 adjacent the flange end 42 and formed in the wall of the plunger. Means for closing or opening this passageway is provided by a sleeve 60 which is slidable on the diameter 44 of the plunger. When disposed in the rear position adjacent flange 42 the sleeve 60 prevents air flow to the chamber 52 whereas when slid forward an amount suificient to expose the passageway 58 to the air so that air is permitted to flow into the chamber so that fluid in the chamber 52 will be free to flow through one or more fluid passageways 56. The sleeve 60 also provides one means of providing a positive stop for the forward movement of the plunger assembly 40.
An alternate air relief is shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 in which the rear portion of chamber 52 has formed therein a longitudinal relief 62 and in which a plug 154 similar to plug 54 has a reduced diameter portion 64. To use as a seal for chamber 52 the plug 154 is fully inserted as in FIG. 7. When an air relief is desired for fluid flow, the plug 154 is partially withdrawn as in FIG. 8 whereby air is permitted to flow past the reduce-d diameter 64 through longitudinal relief 62 and thence to chamber 52.
In FIGS. 9-11 is shown an alternate embodiment in which a plunger assembly similar in outer physical configuration to plunger 40 has the fluid chamber divided into three fluid compartments 152a, 152k and 1520. The piston portion of the plunger 140 has a rear piston ring portion 146, a second piston ring portion 147, a third piston ring portion 149 and a front or outer ring sealing portion 150. Reduced diameter portions are formed between adjacent ring portions as for example, a reduced diameter 148 between ring portions 146 and 147, a reduced diameter 151 between ring'portions 147 and 149 and a reduced diameter 153 between ring portions 149 and 150. A fluid passageway 156w extends from fluid compartment 152a and terminates in the reduced diameter 148. A fluid passageway 156b extends from fluid compartment 152b and terminates in the reduced diameter 151. A fluid passageway 1560 extends from fluid compartment 1520 and terminates in the reduced diameter 153.
Use and operation The intermixing syringe described above is preferably made of low-cost plastic molded components. The outer barrel assembly 20 is made by inserting the shoulder 36 of the rear element 24 into the enlarged bore 34 of the forward element 22. Needle 30 may be, at this time, mounted on the tapered shoulder 26 and with the point of the needle protected by a plastic sheath of conventional design (not shown). Prior to the mounting or insertion of the plunger into the barrel, dry ingredients are placed in the forward portion of the barrel. The plunger 40 is then inserted into the barrel with the plunger piston portion disposed with its rings 46 and 50 entirely in either bore 32 or bore 38. The fluid chamber 52 is then filled, usually with a fluid ingredient, and plug 54 or 154 is then inserted to seal the chamber end. The loaded or filled syringe can then be stored until it is desired to mix the ingredients.
To mix the ingredients the plunger is manipulated to the position of FIG. 4 wherein the fluid passageways 56 are disposed in the enlarged bore 34 and air passageway 58 or 62 is uncovered and the fluid in the chamber 52 is permitted to flow, by gravity, from chamber 52 through passageways 56 and enlarged bore 34 into the forward port-ion of the barrel assembly 20. After all or a selected portion of fluid has been moved into the forward barrel the plunger 40 is advanced until ring portion 46 is engaged by internal bore 32 thus fluid sealing the barrel. The syringe is then shaken or otherwise activated as required to mix the stored ingredients. After mixing, the syringe is used in the usual manner with the plunger 40 being moved forwardly into the position shown in FIG. 6 when it is desired to expel the mixed ingredients from the barrel.
When a syringe having a plurality of chambers is to be used and as shown in FIGS. 9-11, the plunger 40 is manipulated so that first one and then the next of the fluid passageways 156a, b and c are positioned in the enlarged bore 34. After the fluid is moved to the forward barrel in the manner described above, the syringe is used similarly as in the previously described manner.
The terms front, forward and rear and similar terms are applicable to the apparatus as described in conjunction with the accompanying drawing and it is to be noted that such terms are merely for the purpose of description and do not necessarily apply to a position in which the apparatus may be constructed or used.
While this invention has been described in detail with respect to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention and it is intended to cover all such changes and modifications in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. An intermixing syringe for the isolated storage of medicants and the like, the syringe including an outer housing having a partially closed front end and an open rear end, and means on said partially closed front end for the mounting thereon of a hypodermic needle, and a hollow plunger slidable in the bore of the housing and providing for the isolated storage of at least one of the medicants and the like, the syringe including means whereby at least one of the ingredients may be selectively transferred from one of the storage portions to another storage portion for the mixing of the ingredients, thesyringe comprising: (a) an outer housing of generally tubular construction and having an inner bore formed with at least two diameters and arranged with a front bore portion of relatively constant diameter, an intermediate bore portion adjacent the front bore portion and larger than said front bore portion, and a rear bore portion of relatively constant diameter and of a size similarto the front bore portion, (b) a plunger of generally tubular configuration and having on its inner end a piston portion closing the end of the plunger, the piston formed with at least two outwardly extending and resilient ring-type sealing surfaces sized so as to be slidable in the like-sized front and rear lesser bore portions While engaging these bore portions in a fluid flow sealing manner and being manipulatable in the front bore for aspiration of'the syringe, the
plunger having at least one fluid passageway from the inner storage chamber of the plunger and terminating at the piston surface and between adjacent ring-type sealing surfaces, the ring-typesealing surfaces as they are brought in the way of the intermediate bore portion being smaller than the intermediate bore portion and rendered ineffective for fluid sealing of the bore, and (c) removable means providing for the sealing of the outer open end of each of the storage chambers of the plunger to seal the chambers for storage and transport.
2. An intermixing syringe as in claim 1 in which the outer housing is made with a forward housing member of generally cylindrical construction having an open rear end formed with a shoulder bore portion of relatively constant diameter and extending from the open rear end to a point intermediate the ends, and a rear housing member of generally cylindrical construction and having a shoulder portion formed on one end and being a pressure tight fit with the predetermined diameter of the shoulder bore portion of the forward housing member and of lesser extent than the shoulder bore portion.
3. An intermixing syringe as in claim 1 in which there is formed a closable air passageway to the rear portion of the storage chamber and there is provided means for opening and closing this air passageway.
4. An intermixing syringe as in claim 3 in which there are a plurality of fluid passageways extending from the exterior piston portion between the ring-type sealing surfaces to the inner passageway of the plunger.
5. An intermixing syringe as in claim 4 in which the piston portion of the plunger includes a plunger mounted rubber cap.
6. An intermixing syringe as in claim 1 in which the storage chamber of the plunger is divided into a plurality of compartments, each compartment separated from the other and each having a fluid passageway from the compartment to the exterior of the piston.
7. An intermixing syringe as in claim 6 in which there is provided a closable air passageway to each rear portion of the storage chamber compartments and there is provided means for opening and closing these air passageways.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,591,046 4/1952 Brown 128-218 2,896,622 7/1959 Hutterman 128218 X 3,279,654 10/ 1966 Pierick.
FOREIGN PATENTS 1,054,173 2/ 1954 France.
746,057 1/ 1959 Great Britain.
RICHARD A. GAUDET, Primary Examiner. D. L. BAKER, Assistant Examiner.