|Publication number||US3348595 A|
|Publication date||Oct 24, 1967|
|Filing date||Mar 15, 1967|
|Priority date||Mar 15, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3348595 A, US 3348595A, US-A-3348595, US3348595 A, US3348595A|
|Inventors||Stevens Jr Peter P|
|Original Assignee||Walter Landor|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (55), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
24,1967 P. P. STEVENS, JR 3,34 ,595
BAG CLOSURE STRUCTURE Filed March 15, 1967 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
vBY2i Oct. 24, 1967 P. P. STEVENS, JR
BAG CLOSURE STRUCTURE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 15, 1967 /NVEA/7'04? P575? A iriyi/vs, Je
United States Patent v 3,348,595 BAG CLOSURE STRUCTURE Peter P. Stevens, Jr., Point Reyes Station, Califl, assignor to Walter Landor, San Francisco, Calif. Filed Mar. 15, 1967, Ser. No. 623,437 15 Claims. (Cl. 150-3) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A selectively invertible closure structure for open-mesh bags. The closure structure is flexible in order to accommodate inversion thereof, and is in the form of a hollow frustum of a cone adapted to pass a collapsed section of such bag therethrough. Freely extending fingers along the closure structure project, at least in one of the alternate positions thereof, through the open mesh of a bag passed therethrough to prevent relative movement therebetween in one direction, but upon inversion of the closure structure into its alternate position, the fingers no longer inhibit relative movement between the bag and closure structure in such one direction.
The present application is a continuation-in-part of copending application Ser. No. 484,390, filed Sept. 1, 1965, now abandoned.
This invention relates to a closure structure for flexible containers such as bags and the like and, more particularly, to an adjustably positionable, selectively removable closure for use with open-mesh sacks or bags.
Open-mesh bags are used quite extensively for pack-aging fresh produce, and typically constitute a plurality of relatively thin strands or cords loosely interwoven or interconnected at spaced locations so 'as to provide such open mesh. The strands may comprise natural or synthet ic materials or combinations thereof, and the bag formed therefrom is usually a tube or sleeve permanently closed at one end as, for example, by placing a U-shaped fold of paper or other material about the mesh at such one end and then stitching the fold of material to such end of the bag. Evidently, then, each bag is closed at one end and is open at its other end, and it is adapted to receive therein various articles of produce such as potatoes, onions, oranges, grapefruits, etc. After being filled, the open end of the bag is closed, usually by tying a band thereabout.
Conveniently, the bag is used by the retail purchaser of the packaged product as a container therefor since the bag suitably confines the product to a fixed location and also permits air to circulate freely about the product. However, since the bag is non-rigid and flexible, it is most advantageous to close the open end thereof after each entrance to remove an article therefrom If a band is used as the closure, it requires untying and removal before the bag can be entered, and thereafter the band must be retied to close the bag. Although bands of various types have been and are being employed and effectively perform the closure function, they do lack convenience in use because the tying and untying thereof (whether twisting, knotting, looping, etc.) is not often accomplished with facility especially if the band is stiff and is located in proximity with the articles contained within the bag.
Accordingly, an object, among others, of the present invention is to provide a conveniently usable, adjustably positionable, selectively removable closure for use with open-mesh bags and the like, and which closure is characterized by being adapted to pass a collapsed section of such bag therethrough at least in one direction so as to be selectively positionable therealong and permit the closure to be brought into proximity with the articles contained within the bag. When cooperatively engaged with such bag, the closure is adapted to prevent relative 3,348,595 Patented Oct. 24, 1967 movement between it and the bag in a direction tending to remove the closure therefrom, whereby it forms a positive closure for the bag. However, the closure is selectively invertible so as to enable the direction of permissible relative movement between it and the bag section to be selectively reversed (or to permit movement in either direction, depending upon the particular structural form) while the closure is positioned upon the bag in closing relation therewith.
Further features and characteristics of the invention especially as concerns particular objects and advantages thereof, will become apparent from a consideration of the following specification and drawings, the latter illustrating specific embodiments of the invention in which:
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view of a bag closure structure embodying the invention, the view being taken in the direction of the line 1-1 of FIGURE 2;
FIGURE 2 is essentially a side view in elevation of the bag closure illustrated in FIGURE 1 but with parts of the closure broken away and shown in section;
FIGURE 3 is a side view in elevation showing the closure structure in closing position upon an open-mesh bag, the direction of permissible movement of the closure structure relative to the bag being indicated by a prior position of the closure structure which is shown in broken lines;
FIGURE 4 is a side view in elevation, generally similar to that of FIGURE 3, showing how the closure structure is gripped for inverting the same to reverse the direction of permissible movement thereof;
FIGURE 5 is a side view in elevation, similar to that of FIGURE 3 but illustrating the closure structure after its inversion for movement in an opposite direction along the bag, closure structure relative to the bag being indicated by a subsequent position of the closure structure which is shown in broken lines;
FIGURE 6 is a top plan view of a modified bag closure structure embodying the invention;
FIGURE 7 is a partial sectional view of the modified bag closure structure taken along the line 7-7 of FIG- URE 6; FIGURE 8 is a broken side View in elevation illustratlng the modified bag closure structure in position along an open-mesh bag and in its open position so that it is movable in either direction along such bag; and
FIGURE 9 is a longitudinal sectional view of the modified bag closure structure showing the same in the closed position thereof upon an open mesh bag.
The bag closure structure in the emibodiment thereof illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2 is designated in its entirety with the numeral 10, and may be considered to comprise a main body part or section 11 and a bagengaging gripper section 12. The main body part 11 has an inclined side wall that converges inwardly from a relatively wide mouth 13 to a smaller neck 14; and in a more particular reference, the main body part 11 has a frusto-conical configuration in which the lower plane or base of the frustum defines the mouth 13 and the upper plane or top of the frustum defines the neck 14. In the specific form shown, the main body part is perimetrically continuous, and it has a hollow, funnel-shaped interiorextending from the mouth 13 to the neck 14 thereof.
The bag-engaging gripper structure 12 comprises a plurality of fingers or prongs 15 projecting from the neck 14. Each of the fingers extends along or in the general direction of the conical wall section of the main body 11, and together, such fingers form the discharge tube of the aforementioned funnel. In the particular structure shown there are six such fingers angularly spaced-from each other, as illustrated best in FIGURE 1. Each finger 15 varies in width, converging inwardly from a relatively the direction of permissible movement of the Y wide base at the neck 14 to a restricted tip at its free end. Further, the fingers 15 are flexible and together define an opening, denoted 16 in FIGURE 1, which is variable in extent from a maximum cross-sectional area corresponding essentially to that of the neck 14 to a minimum cross sectional area, such as that shown in FIG- URE 1, defined by the innermost or unflexed position of the fingers (which minimum area might well be equal to zero, or less than zero in those instances where the fingers overlap or cross each other at their outer free ends).
The bag-engaging gripper structure 12 defined by the fingers 15 may be formed integrally with the body part 11, and in this event, the material from which the body part and fingers are formed can be the same. It is anticipated that such unitary construction of the bag closure usually will be adopted because in addition to the fingers 15 being flexible, the body part 11 is flexible so that .it can be inverted or turned inside out (as is evident by comparing FIGURES 3 and 5 and as indicated in FIG- URE 4), as will be described hereinafter. In this respect, the bag closure structure may be formed in its entirety of a material having the property of being sufliciently pliant or flexible that the fingers are bendable outwardly to permit a collapsed section of a mesh bag to pass therethrough in a direction from the mouth 13 to the neck 14, and also sufiiciently pliant that the entire structure is invertible. At the same time, however, such material must have the property of being sufficiently stifi that the fingers are not readily bendable inwardly and the entire structure is not inadvertently invertible.
The closure structure 10, as has been indicated hereinbefore, is especially suited for use with flexible containers such as open-mesh bags, an example of which is illustrated in FIGURE 3 and is denoted with the numeral 17. The bag 17 may be of completely conventional form and, accordingly, is made of a plurality of strands or cords 18 interwoven one with the others and interconnected at spaced-apart points 19 to form a network having open areas or interstices 20 which predominate in terms of the total area of the bag. The mesh wall of the bag is circumferentially continuous and, therefore, is generally of tubular configuration. The bag is closed at its bottom end as by means of a strip of material 21 folded into a U-shape to receive the mesh between the folds thereof. The closure strip 21 is permanently secured to the mesh as by stitching 22. Thus, the bag at its lower end is permanently closed and it is adapted to receive therewithin one or more of a variety of products which, quite often, are produce products such as potatoes, onions, oranges, grapefruits, etc., as indicated by the articles 23 shown within the bag in FIGURE 3.
Such a bag is quite flexible and can be collapsed or compressed to the extent that it is readily inserted through the opening 16 defined by the various fingers 15, although the opening 16 may expand somewhat in cross-sectional area as the collapsed bag section is inserted therethrough. Some expansion of the opening is almost certain during movement of the bag therethrough, particularly if the collapsed bag section is stiffened with the finger of a hand and both finger and bag section inserted through the opening at the same time. In this event, the rigidity of the digit will cause the fingers 15 to bend outwardly, thereby enlarging the cross-sectional area of the opening 16.
Quite evidently, the collapsed bag section is displaced relative to the closure structure 10 inwardly therethrough from the enlarged mouth 13 toward and through the restricted neck 14. Since the flexible fingers 15 extend generally in the direction of such movement, they do not significantly resist movement of the bag section therepast. Accordingly, the closure structure 10 is readily movable downwardly along the collapsed or gathered section of the bag, as shown in FIGURE 3, toward the bottom closure 21 thereof. The closure structure is adjustably positionable along the bag in the sense that it can be located at any desired position therealong and forms a closure for the bag thereat. Such movement of the closure structure 10 relative to the bag will continue in the usual instance until the closure structure substantially abuts the articles 23 contained within the bag.
Movement of the closure structure 10 in the opposite or reverse direction relative to the bag is resisted by the fingers 15 which are oriented so as to point toward or in the direction of such reverse movement. More particularly, as a consequence of this orientation of the fingers together with the inward bias thereof, one or more of the fingers projects into the interstices of the open-mesh bag and positively resists continued relative movement between the bag and closure structure in such reverse or opposite direction. This interengagement of the fingers 15 and strands 18 resulting from insertion of the fingers through certain of the bag interstices is indicated particularly in FIGURE 3 in association with the position of the closure structure 10 shown in full lines.
Whenever it is desired to remove the closure structure 10 from the bag 17, the direction of permissible movement between the closure structure and bag is selectively reversed by inverting the closure structure from the bagclosing position thereof illustrated in FIGURE 3 to the bag-opening position shown in FIGURE 5. As indicated hereinbefore, theclosure structure 10 is sufiiciently flexible to permit such inversion thereof" (i.e., turning the closure structure inside out) although it is also sufiiciently stiff to prevent inadvertent inversion thereof. Accordingly, a positive turning force must be properly applied to the closure structure to effect inversion thereof.
In order to invert the closure structure, it is deformed inwardly and downwardly adjacent the neck 14 thereof toward the mouth 13. Although such deformation may be effected concurrently at more than one location, it may be easier manually to displace the neck portion inwardly and downwardly at but one location, and when about one-half, or slightly more, of the structure is so turned inwardly, the complete inversion follows much as a matter of course due to the resiliency of the structure. Although there are perhaps any number of grips and manual deforming techniques which may be followed to effect inversion of the closure structure, a typical procedure is depicted in FIGURE 4.
Referring thereto, it is seen that one portion of the closure structure is gripped between fingers of a hand (the right-hand, for example) and another portion, which may be diametrically oriented with respect to the aforementioned portion or located anywhere between such extreme portions, is gripped by fingers of the other hand and the structure rolled inwardly and downwardly adjacent the neck 14, as indicated in FIGURE 4 with the numeral 24. This rolling motion is continued until the closure structure has been completely inverted and the direction of orientation thereof has been changed from the bag-closing disposition illustrated in FIGURE 3 into the bagopening disposition shown in FIGURE 5.
Following such inversion of the closure structure, the prongs or fingers 15 thereof are again oriented along or in the direction of intended movement of the closure structure relative to the bag 17 and simply slide over the bag as it passes through the closure structure from the mouth 13 thereof toward the neck 14. Consequently, the closure structure is readily removed from the bag, whereupon access thereto is afforded.
Clearly, then, the direction of permissible movement of the closure structure relative to the bag is always fromthe mouth 13 toward the neck 14 and not in a direction opposite thereto because an attempt to enforce upon the closure structure and bag relative movement in such opposite direction will cause the fingers 15 to enter the interstices of the bag, whereupon further relative movement therebetween is positively constrained. However, the direction of permissible movement of the closure structure is selectively determined quickly and easily by inverting the closure structure which is readily accomplished, as described hereinbefore, with the closure structure in position upon the bag even when located in adjacency with articles contained therein.
The modified embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGURES 7 through 9 is the same in substantially all essential particulars as the embodiment of the closure structure 10 heretofore described, and in view of this, there is a consequent correspondence of the elemental components as between such two embodiments, wherefore the primed form of the same numerals used in FIG- URES 1 through 6 are employed to designate the respectively corresponding components in the embodiment of FIGURES 7 through 9. Accordingly, the modified closure structure is denoted in its entirety with the numeral 10 and it has a main body part or section 11, a bag-engaging gripper section 12', a wide mouth 13', and a smaller neck 14. As in the prior embodiment, the main body part 11' has a frusto-conical configuration and it defines a hollow, funnel-shaped interior extending from the mouth 13 to the neck 14 thereof.
The bag-engaging gripper structure 12' is equipped with a plurality of angularly spaced fingers or prongs 15' each of which is somewhat wedge-shaped in the particular form shown and converges from a relatively wide base merging with the outer side wall of the main body part 11' toward a narrower free. end adapted in certain instances to project through an interstice of a bag 17' as shown in FIGURE 9. In the form illustrated, the fingers 15' are located at the restricted neck 14' but could be moved downwardly along the body part 11' so as to be somewhat remote from the neck. The fingers 15' project generally away from the wall of the main body part 11, but the exact angle of disposition is not critical although the most advantageous position is one in which the fingers are generally freeof the opening through the neck 14 when the closure structure is in the invertible condition shown in FIGURE 8 and converge toward each other when the closure structure isin the invertible condition shown in FIGURE 9 to the extent that the fingers enter the interstices 20. in a bag 17' without special attention being required to enforce such interengagement.
As explained heretofore, the closure structure is invertible between the position thereof shown in FIGURE 8, which may be termed the open position, and the alternate position thereof shown in FIGURE 9, which may be termed the closed position. In contra-distinction with the embodiment heretofore considered, the closure structure 10' when in its open position shown in FIG- URES 6 through 8 is characterized by having the fingers 15' thereof projecting outwardly and away from the opening defined by the neck 14'.. Accordingly, such opening is unobstructed and the closure structure 10' when positioned upon a collapsed section of the bag 17' is movable therealong in either direction, as indicated by the arrows in FIGURE 8. However, when the closure structure 10' is inverted into the closed position thereof, shown in FIGURE 9, the fingers 15 extend inwardly toward the longitudinal center line through the frusto-conical body portion 11 of the closure structure and, accordingly, the fingers project over the opening through the neck 14. Evidently, then, the fingers 15' are conditioned for projection into the interstices-of the bag 17', and in cooperation with the cords 18' thereof prevent relative movement between the bag and closure in one direction, namely (as viewed in FIGURE 9) upward movement of the closure structure relative to the bag.
Nevertheless, in such closed position of the closure structure 10' it is movable relative to the bag in the opposite longitudinal direction and, therefore, as in the case of the embodiment heretofore described, the closure structure may be said to have a direction of permissible movement relative to the bag and a direction opposite thereto in which movement is inhibited because of the cooperative interengagement of the fingers 15' with the mesh bag 17'. The closure structure 10' can be inverted between the open and closed positions thereof, respectively illustrated in FIGURES 8 and 9 in the same manner as the closure structure 10, as heretofore described, and inversion into its open position is required before the closure structure can be removed from the bag 17.
It is possible to insert a collapsed section of the bag 17' through the closure structure 10 when it is in its closed position, but such insertion is not accomplished as readily as in the case of the prior embodiment because of the relative stiffness of the fingers 15. That is to say, the fingers 15 are relatively thin in cross section in the direction of fiexure (i.e., outwardly) which permits insertion of a bag 17 therebetween; but in the case of the fingers 15, they are relatively Wide in the direction of such fiexure and, therefore, tend to resist flexing to a greater extent than the fingers 15. In the form shown, the fingers 15' define an opening 16 therebetween when the closure structure 10' is in its closed position, although as in the case of the prior embodiment, the opening 16' may vary between negative and various positive values depending upon any particular structural design.
Evidently, then, in each embodiment of the invention the closure structure is selectively invertible between a locked or closed position in which it closes the otherwise open end of a bag and a release or openposition to enable the closure structure to be removed from engagement with such bag. In the case of the closure structure 10, such inversion changes the direction of permissible movement of the closure structure relative to a bag upon which it is mounted, and in the case of the closure structure 10', inversion changes the condition thereof from closed to open position, and when in such latter condition, the closure structure may be moved in either direction relative to the bag. As concerns either of the closure structures, a plurality thereof may be stacked one within another in nesting relation for convenience in storage and shipment thereof, but the closure structure 10 is somewhat more susceptible to being stacked in close juxtaposition than the closure structure 10 although in the closed position of the latter an acceptable stack can be formed.
Although size and relative dimensions of the closure structure are not critical, within reasonable limits, a specific example of a closure structure in terms of its dimensions may be helpful. Accordingly, a specific closure structure in accordance with the embodiment of FIGURES 1 through 5 which has worked quitesatisfactorily has inner diameters at the mouth 13 and neck 14 thereof of about 1 /2 inches and of an inch, respectively, and a distance between the mouth and neck along the conical side wall of about /8 of an inch. The length of each finger 15 from the tip thereof to the neck 14 is about of an inch; and the wall thickness of such structure is about 0.055 of an inch, but this thickness could well vary in the range of about plus or minus 0.020 of an inch depending upon the degree of flexibility of the material used and the size of the closure structure.
As indicated hereinbefore, the closure structure maybe made of any material, plastic or otherwise, which permits selective inversion of the structure. By way of example, any of several well known synthetic resin plastic materials may be employed which have the aforementioned characteristics, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, and combinations thereof. As a matter of fabrication convenience, a plastic material susceptible of being used in a conventional injection molding operation is advantageous. As heretofore indicated, the open-mesh bag can be of any conventional type whether formed of plastic, fabric or other materials, and articles packaged therein may take any form and, for example, in addition to the exemplary produce previously specified, products such as marbles, balls and other toys could be contained therein. Further,
the bag could be closed at both ends by a closure structure as Well as being closed just at one end thereof by such structure, as shown in the drawings.
While in the foregoing specification embodiments of the invention have been disclosed in terms of closure structures per se, a package incorporating the same, and a method of positioning the closure structure upon a bag, all in considerable detail for purposes of making a complete disclosure of the invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that numerous changes may be made in such details without departing from the spirit and principles of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A bag closure, comprising a main body part having side wall structure converging inwardly from a relatively large mouth to a smaller neck dimension to pass a gathered section of a bag or the like therethrough, and bag-engaging gripper structure extending from said neck and being effective to permit relative movement between said bag closure and such bag section in one direction and to prevent relative movement therebetween in the opposite direction, said main body part being invertible to enable the direction of permissible relatve movement between said bag closure and such bag section to be selectively reversed while such bag section is extended through said neck, whereby said bag closure is adjustably positionable along such bag section and defines a releasable closure therefor.
2. The bag closure of claim 1 in which said main body part is generally frusto-conical and the neck thereof is generally an annulus.
3. A bag closure, comprising a main body part having side wall structure converging inwardly from a relatively large mouth to a smaller neck dimensioned to pass a gathered section of an open-mesh bag or the like therethrough, and bag-engaging gripper structure extending from said neck and being effective to project through interstices of such bag section to prevent relative movement between said bag closure and such bag section in one direction but permitting relative movement therebetween in the opposite direction, said main body part being flexible and invertible to enable the direction of permissible relative movement between said bag closure and such bag section to be selectively reversed while such bag section is extended through said neck, whereby said bag closure is adjustably positionable along such bag section and defines a releasable closure therefor.
4. The bag closure of claim 3 in which said bag-engaging gripper structure comprises a plurality of fingers extending from said neck.
5. A bag closure, comprising a main body part having side wall structure converging inwardly from a relatively large mouth to a smaller neck dimensioned to pass a gathered section of an open-mesh bag or the like therethrough, and a plurality of fingers extending from said neck in a direction generally away from said mouth and being effective to project through interstices of such bag section to prevent relative movement between said bag closure and such bag section in one direction but permitting relative movement therebetween in the opposite direction, said bag closure being flexible and invertible to enable the direction of permissible relative movement between it and such bag section to be selectively reversed while such bag section is extended through said neck and also being sufficiently stiff to substantially obviate inadvertent inversion, whereby said bag closure is adjustably positionable along such bag section and defines a releasable closure therefor.
6. The bag closure of claim 5 in which said main body part and fingers are integrally formed, and said fingers at the juncture thereof with said neck being angularly spaced.
7. The bag closure of claim 6 in which each of said fingers has a relatively wide base at the juncture thereof with said neck and tapers therefrom to a reduced width at its free terminal end.
8. The bag closure of claim 6 in which said bag closure is funnel-shaped with said main body part being gen erally frusto-conical.
9. In a method of closing an end of an open-mesh bag containing at least one article therein, the steps of: providing a generally funnel-shaped bag closure comprising a main body part having a relatively large mouth and a smaller neck spaced therefrom, and comprising also a plurality of fingers extending from said neck in a direction generally away from said mouth, said bag closure being effective to prevent relative movement in one direction between it and such bag upon which it is positioned and to permit relative movement therebetween in the opposite direction and being flexible and invertible to enable the direction of permissible relative movement between it and such bag to be selectively reversed while the bag closure is positioned upon such bag; gathering a section of h open-mesh bag preparatory to mounting said bag closure thereon; inserting said gathered bag section into the mouth of said bag closure and through the neck thereof; and sliding said bag closure in one direction along said bag toward such articles therein to enable said fingers to project through interstices of such bag to prevent relative movement between said bag closure and bag in the opposite direction except upon inversion of the bag closure to reverse such direction of permissible movement.
10. The method of claim 9 and further including the step of inverting said bag closure to change the direction of permissible movement thereof relative to such bag; and then sliding said bag closure along such bag in the direction of such changed permissible movement to remove said bag closure from the bag and thereby open the aforementioned end thereof.
11. A package, comprising: an open-mesh bag containing at least one article therein and having an end adapted to be releasably closed, said bag being gathered along a section thereof adjacent said end; and a bag closure circumjacent said bag along said gathered section, said bag closure comprising a main body part having a generally funnel-shaped side wall structure converging inwardly from a relatively large mouth to a smaller neck with said mouth being oriented closest to such article and comprising also a plurality of fingers extending from said neck in a direction generally away from said mouth and at least one of said fingers projecting through an interstice of such bag and thereby preventing movement of said bag closure relative to said bag in a direction away from such article therein, said bag closure being flexible and invertible to enable the direction of permissible relative movement between it and such bag to be selectively reversed, whereby said bag closure can be removed from closing relation with such bag to open the same.
12. A bag closure, comprising a main body part having side wall structure converging inwardly from a relatively large mouth to a smaller neck dimensioned to pass a gathered section of a bag or the like therethrough, said main body part being invertible between alternate positions with such a bag section extended through said neck, and bag-engaging gripper structure extending from said body part and being effective in one of the alternate positions thereof to prevent relative movement between said bag closure and such bag section in one direction so as to maintain such bag in a closed condition, said bag-engaging gripper structure in the other alternate position of said main body part being ineffective to prevent relative movement between said bag closure and such bag se tion in the aforesaid one direction so as to enable such bag to be opened by removal of said bag closure therefrom.
13. The bag closure of claim 12 in which said bagengaging gripper structure comprises a plurality of fingers adapted to project through interstices provided in an openmesh bag or the like.
stices in such bag to prevent relative movement between 5 said bag closure and such bag in one direction and an open position in which said fingers are oriented in an outwardly diverging direction with respect to said neck so as to permit relative movement between said bag closure and bag in such one direction and also in a direction 1 opposite thereto.
15. The bag closure of claim 14 in which said main body part is generally frusto-conical and the neck thereof is generally an annulus.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,112,477 3/ 193,8 Brownfield 2296 3,170,213 2/1965 Thomas 24-255 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,353,431 1/1964 France.
384,453 2/ 1965 Switzerland.
JOSEPH R. LECLAIR, Primary Examiner.
DAVID M. BOCKENEK, Examiner.
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|U.S. Classification||206/525, 24/30.50R, 383/71, 383/117, 24/30.50S|