|Publication number||US3349539 A|
|Publication date||Oct 31, 1967|
|Filing date||Dec 24, 1964|
|Priority date||Dec 24, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3349539 A, US 3349539A, US-A-3349539, US3349539 A, US3349539A|
|Inventors||Cheskin David B|
|Original Assignee||Cheskin David B|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (2), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
D. B. cHEsKlN /NVE/VTOR' Dov/'d B. Chas/r/'n Figur@ Oct. 31., 195.7
CONSTRUCTION 0F Two-WAY COMPOSITE BILDING SYSTEM viff/gane 3 United States Patent O 3,349,539 CNSTRUCTION OF TWO-WAY CQMPOSTE BUILDING SYSTEM David B. Cheskin, 407 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, Ill. 60605 Filed Dec. 24, 1964, Ser. No. 420,999 4 Claims. (Cl. 52-741) The present invention is directed to a method and means for constructing a building structure which is a composite of steel framing sections and reinforced concrete. More specifically, the improvement is directed to the means for the rapid erection and construction of a composite steel and concrete system which eliminates much of the customary forming, shoring labor and placement of reinforcement.
In the usual construction and erection methods for buliding with concrete floor slabs there is a connecting arrangement of reinforced concrete for providing beams and columns and/or the use of steel sections to provide beams and columns. However, in effecting the placement of the concrete for the reinforced beam and column sections and for oor slab sections in such constructions, there is the need of full and complete formwork as well as the need for supporting shoring for most of the horizontal beam and panel portions and concrete columns. As a result, the erection costs can be high and particularly so in areas where field erection labor is costly. ln additon, it may be pointed out that usual reinforced concrete constructions or typical composite systems do not utilize the full possibilities of the concrete so as to minimize the quantity of stee-l needed.
It is the principal object of the present invention to provide prefabricated shear-head sections of steel framing members which can be attached to each column at each floor level, certain specially designed girder sections which connect with the shear-head sections to form a skeletal floor framing arrangement, and intermediate concrete supporting decking that in turn is supported from the lower portions of the steel framing sections to thereby eliminate a major portion of the usual forming and shoring.
It is also an object of the present invention to make use of the prefabrication of the main girder sections that connect With the shear-head sections and in such prefabrication to use two light weight steel framing members for each section that are spaced apart to accommodate concrete and effect the formation of a resulting composite girder with a T configuration.
Where there can be prefabrication of principal framing members and the assembly of these steel sections into a skeletal framing system, there is initiated a quick laborsaving start in the overall building construction. Further, Where such erected prefabricated steel sections can then be used to hold rigid planking or decking that will span between flanged portions of such sections there will be a quick placement of reinforcing bars and concrete in the composite construction, with but a minimum of forming and shoring. Y
Broadly, the resent improved method of constructing a two-way composite system embodies the steps of placing two-Way rows of spaced columns, connecting to each of said columns at each floor level a laterally extended shearhead section, each shear-head section having cantilevering steel framing members that are fabricated and positioned to extend diagonally with respect to the rows of columns, placing lines of steel girder sections in a two directional manner and in a parallel arrangement on each side of the two-way rows of columns on each floor level to bound and to form rectangularly shaped intermediate floor panl sections, connecting the ends of the girder sections to the A ends of the diagonally extending framing members of each shear-head section at each oor level, fabricating and erecting each of said girder sections to have spaced apart steel framing sections whereby to provide space for reinforced concrete girder portions therebetween, placing two directional reinforcing bars across each shear-head section, also placing fioor reinforcing bars across the top portions of the girder sections and across the spans of the intermediate door panel sections, also placing concrete supporting bottom decking under the shear-head sections, the girder sections and the intermediate floor panel sections and then pouring concrete around and over said reinforcing bars and said steel framing members to provide a resulting two-way composite steel and reinforced concrete structure.
ln another embodiment for carrying out the construction of the composite system, there may be additonal horizontal steel framing members bounding each of the shearhead sections around each column at each floor level, with such framing members connecting between the ends of the two-way lines of girder sections straddling the rows of co1- umns, `whereby there are resulting side framing members for each of the shear-head sections and an elimination of the need of temporary form-work therearound in placing the reinforced concrete at each shear-head zone.
In still another modification, there may be one or more intermediate steel beam members or composite members positioned across each of the floor panel sections, particularly where the floor areas are relatively large and would otherwise be rather deep so as to require a considerable quantity of reinforcing bars and concrete.
In a preferred erection system, prefabricated steel framing members are used for forming the diagonally positioned cantilevering beam members for each of the shearhead sections as well as for each of the girder sections having the spaced apart steel framing members. Thus, skeletal steel framing may be erected for each floor level in a rapid manner by first connecting diagonally positioned beam members for the shear-head sections to the spaced columns and then connecting the girder sections to the ends of such cantilevering members at the corners of the shear-head sections. Subsequently, intermediate composite or steel beam members may be put in place to encompass and/or to divide intermediate floor panel sections. Following this, there is a placement of the desired design quantitites of reinforcing bars in respectively, the girder sections, the shear-head sections, and the oor panel sections.
There are various forms of decking which can be used in the erection system as well as various way-s of attachment to the steel sections. For example, a permanently positioned plate can be welded, bolted or otherwise attached across the spaced bottom flanges of the girder members or, conversely, temporary planking can be held up against the bottom flanges of the girder members by shoring. However, in order to eliminate shoring in accordance with present erection systems, there may be used various types of corrugated or ribbed sheeting placed between the spaced steel framing members of the girder sections as well as between steel framing members encompassing the shear-head areas ,at each of the spaced columns. Such bottom decking is preferably maintained in place after the concrete is poured around the bars and between framing sections although means may be used to remove it after the concrete sets. rIlhe temporary or leftin-place decking may be of various materials including aluminum, sheet-steel, plastic, fiberglass, etc.
Reference to the accompanying drawing .and the following description thereof will serve to further clarify the improved method of constructing a composite building sy-stem as well Ias point out additional advantageous features in connection therewith.
FIGURE 1 of the drawing isa diagrammatic plan view 3 of a portion of a two-way composite oor framing systern, without showing the concrete itself.
FIGURE 2 of the drawing illustrates one embodiment of a prefabricated girder, section with spaced apart steel members, to be utilized in framing a two-way girder arrangement straddling the rows of columns.
FIGURE 3 of the drawing is a sectional elevational view through a column shear-head section, as indicated by the line 3-3 in FIGURE l.
FIGURE 4 of the drawing is .a sectional view through a girder section as indicated by line 4 4 in FIGURE 1.
FIGURE indicates, in a plan view, one method for making connections between the ends of the prefabricated girder sections and the ends of the cantilevering framing members in a shear-head section.
FIGURE 6 indicates diagrammatically the connection of a diagonally positioned shear-head framing member with a steel H-column member `and the use of concrete fireproong around the latter, in lieu of a reinforced concrete column construction.
Referring now particularly to FIGURE 1 of the drawing there are shown columns 1 which in turn are placed in a two-way row system along rows A and B to form desired spacings therebetween in a grid pattern. Each of the columns 1 are indicated as being of reinforced concrete with design quantities of vertical reinforcing bars. Such columns may be poured in place or precast and raised into place at the time of initiating building construction. After erecting the columns 1 in the spaced rows, there are placed the diagonally extending beam members 2, although in an alternative design, the shear-head beams may be cast into position .as part of precast columns. The beams 2 connect to and extend diagonally from each column 1 in a manner to provide for carrying all of the oor loadings directly into the columns. Preferably, the cantilevering beam members 2 are fabricated such that they have spaced apart steel framing members that are in turn on the diagonal with respect to the two-way rows A and B whereby they may connect with the ends of girder sections 3 that .are two-directional and parallel with the two-way rows of columns. In one specific connection means, the ends of the framing members 2 may be provided with end connection plates 4 which in turn connect with plates 5 across the ends of the girder sections 3.
As best shown in FIGURES 2 and 5 of the drawing, each of the girder sections 3 shall comprise at least two spaced apart, relatively deep, framing members 6 and 7. The ends of members 7 may be welded or otherwise connected to the bent end portions of 6 at points near the end plates 5. FIGURE 5 shows, in an enlarged plan view, the end plates 5 of each of two different girder sections 3 connecting with an end plate 4 that is in turn connected across the spaced .apart steel framing members of a cantilevering beam 2. Suitable spacer members 8 are shown bolted between the bent portions of members 6 at the corner junctures between girder sections 3. Also a spacer member 9 is shown bolted between beam members 2 of the shear-head framing `at each column 1. Such spacer members may, of course, be welded or otherwise connected between their respective framing members. Still further, in order to provide spacer means, between girder members 3 and to provide a vertical concrete retaining member at each corner of the shear-head zone, there are provided bent plate or channel members 22 between the bends of adjacent members 6.
Referring again to FIGURE 1, there are shown horizontally positioned beam members 10 which encompass each shear-head section E around each column 1 at each floor level. As shown in FIGURES 1 and 2, the lateral steel framing members 10 connect between each of the opposing framing members 7 of parallel and adjacent girder sections 3. However, as indicated in FIGURE S of the drawing, there may be suitable stub end members 11 with end connection plates 12 that are lixedly connected to the side web sections of framing members 7.
The latter construction is preferred where the girder sec' tions 3 are prefabricated and made ready for a rigid connection with shear-head framing members 2 and 10. Also, where the stub members 11 are utilized, it is preferable that the cross beam members 10 be provided with end plates 13 for effecting a rapid bolted connection with plates 12 on stub members 11.
Referring again to FIGURE 1 of the drawing, it will be noted that the girder members 3, by straddling the center lines A and B of the two-way row of columns 1 will form floor panel sections C and D. The central oor panel sections C may be crossed with one or more intermediate composite girders, or steel beam members such as 13, so as to reduce the size of reinforced concrete oor slab sections Where the spans between opposing girder sections 3 is relatively large. The floor panel sections D which extend in a two-way manner along the line of columns will, of course, be relatively long narrow panel sections similar in width to shear-head sections E bounded by the framing members 10 and including the diagonally extending framing members 2.
Referring now more particularly to FIGURES 1, 3 and 4 there are shown typical reinforcing bar arrangements for each of the reinforced concrete sections being used in combination with the steel framing. Preferably each shear-head section E is provided with top reinforcing bars 14 between framing members 10 as best shown in FIGURE 3 of the drawing. Also, some temperature steel or reinforcing bars 15 may be provided along the bottom portion of the section. Thus, concrete may be poured around the top and bottom reinforcing bars as well as around steel framing members 2, and between framing members 10, to provide a deep strong reinforced section capable of transmitting heavy shear loadings to a column 1 and to take compression forces to balance the top reinforcing.
There may be temporary planking or formwork directly below the flanges of the framing members 10 to support the placement of concrete and the shear-head section E, with such form work being held by suitable vertical shoring members. However, preferably self-supporting corrugated sheets or other forms of rigid decking is utilized under each shear-head section E to support the concrete during the pouring stages. In FIGURE 3, there are shown angle members 16 attaching to the lower portions of each framing members 10 in a spaced manner suitable for holding horizontal decking 17. The angles 16 may be either xedly attached or removably bolted to the beam members. As indicated hereinbefore, such decking may comprise corrugated sheet metal, aluminum, berglas, plastic, and the like. Such decking may be notched to encompass the periphery of columns 1. FIG- URE 3 also indicates diagramatically the use of vertical reinforcing bars 18 and ties 19 in a reinforced concrete type of construction for columns 1. FIGURE 4 of the drawing shows, where desired or needed, bottom reinforcing bars 20 and top reinforcing bars 21 to be used in combination with the conrete being placed between framing members 6 and 7 of a girder section 3. Thus, the total available strength for each of the lgirder sections 3 comprises the combination of framing members 6 and 7 and the intermediate concrete T-member that is formed between said framing members and a portion of the concrete slab extending over 6 and 7 on each side of the girder section 3. Actually, reinforcing bar members 23 will extend across the long narrow slab sections D as well as across the central slab sections C to thus traverse any reinforcing bars 21 and the girder sections 3. As shown in both FIGURES 1 and 4, there may be twoway reinforcing in the oor slab sections C and D by the placement of reinforcing bars 24 at substantially right angles to primary reinforcing bars 23. Optionally, the two-way reinforcing may be designed for panel sections C for uniform placement in a two-way manner particularly since panel sections D extend in two dilerent directions and are at each edge of the panels C.
FIGURE 4 shows a bottom plate 25 Welded to the lower flanges of framing members 6 and 7 so as to provide a bottom concrete supporting plate. However, such plate 25 may be removably held in place by the side framing members 6 and 7 so as to be temporarily held in place, or shoring can be placed at the time of pouring the concrete. FIGURE 4 also indicates diagrammatically the use of lateral separator members 26 between web sections of framing members 6 and 7 and, if desired, such separator means may be used to advantage in supporting the longitudinal reinforcing steel within the girder section. In both FIGURES 3 and 4, there is shown the use of decking members 27 and 28 below the concrete door portions of panel sections D and C. Decking 27 may be supported by the top flange portions of opposing framing members 7 in connection with panel D, while decking 28 may extend between the top flange portions of framing members 6 as well as across intermediate beam members, such as 13, in order to support the concerte of the central floor panel sections C. Preferably, the decking is left in place, yalthough provision may be made for removing it after the setting of the reinforced concrete sections. For example, typical forms of hangers may be attached to the steel framing members to removably hold the decking andv it is not deemed necessary to show such an arrangement.
In FIGURE 6 of the drawing there is indicated a modied type of vertical column in that a steel H-column section 1 together with bent connection plates 29 provide for the connection of shear-head framing members 2. This construction may be used as an alternate to the reinforced concrete construction for the column 1 being indicated in FIGURES 1 and 3 of the drawing. Still other modifications may comprise a composite of angles, channels, or both, pipes and tubing, etc., to form a desired column. Also, if desired, a reprooiing layer of concrete 30 may be used to encase the steel framing members in the column.
From the foregoing description and by Way of summary, it will be seen that by using the present composite construction, including prefabrication of steel framing sections, that there is a resulting rapid and economical building erection system. A rst step provides for the erection of the columns 1 in a two-way row pattern and then the connection of shear-head beams 2 to the eolumns at each floor level (where such beams are not parts of precast reinforced `concrete or of prefabricated steel columns). A next step embodies the connection of the two-Way lines of girder sections 3 which then results in a skeletal oor framing. Intermediate steel beam members such as and 13 will follow. Subsequently, there may be the placement and attachment of the horizontal decking between steel framing members to provide for holding concrete during the pouring stages. Required reinforcing bars will then be placed in the girder sections and across panels sections C, D and E. Temporary shoring may be used under the central portions of girders; however, no other shoring should be necessary in erecting the present composite system and forming may be entirely eliminated except where it is desired to use cast-in-place columns.
yI claim as my invention:
1. A method of constructing and framing a building structure with a two-way composite system of steel framing sections and reinforced concrete, so as to eliminate forming and to employ a minimum of shoring for the concrete, which comprises the steps of placing two-way rows of spaced columns, connecting to each of said columns at each oor level a laterally extending shear-head section having cantilevering steel framing members fabricated and positioned to extend diagonally with respect to said rows of columns `from their respective columns, then positioning parallel lines of girder sections in a two-directional manner spaced from and parallel with the two-way rows of columns to form rectangular intermediate iloor panel sections at each floor level between the two-way rows of columns as well as central oor panel sections and connecting the ends of said girder sections to the ends of said cantilevering framing members, fabricating and erecting each of said girder sections to have spaced apart steel framing members to provide for the placement of concrete therebetween, placing twodirectional reinforcing bars across each shear-head section and the diagonally positioned cantilevering members thereof, placing loor reinforcing bars across said intermediate and said central oor panel sections and said girder section, placing concrete supporting bottom decking under said shear-head sections, said girder sections and said floor panel sections, and then pouring concrete around and over said reinforcing bars and over the steel framing members to provide a resulting two-way composite steel and reinforced concrete structure.
2. A method ofV constructing and framing a building structure with a two-way composite system of steel framing sections and reinforced concrete, so as to eliminate forming and to employ a minimum of shoring for the concrete, which comprises the steps of placing two-way rows of spaced columns, connecting to each of said columns at each floor level a laterally extending shearhead section having cantilevering steel framing beam members fabricated Yand positioned to extend diagonally with respect to said rows of columns from their respective columns, then positioning parallel lines of girder sections in a two-directional manner spaced from and parallel with the two-way rows of columns and connecting such sections with the ends of said cantilevering steel framing members at each oor level and for each corner of each shear-head section, such girder sections forming rectangular intermediate floor panel sections and central floor panel sections, extending a beam member between the end portions of each girder section in a twodirectional manner to bound each of said shear-head sections, fabricating and erecting each of said girder sections with spaced apart steel framing members to provide for the placement of concrete therebetween, placing twodirectional top reinforcing bars across each said shearhead section and the diagonally positioned cantilevering steel beam members thereof, placing desired reinforcing bars across said intermediate and said central floor panel sections and 4across the tops of said steel framing members bounding such sections, attaching concrete supporting decking to the lower portions of the steel framing members of each of said shear-head sections, and to the bottom portions of said girder sections to provide decking under said shear-head sections and said girder sections and attaching concrete supporting decking to the top portions of said girder sections to provide decking under said oor panel sections, and then pouring concrete around and over said reinforcing bars and over the steel framing members to provide a resulting two-way composite steel and reinforced concrete structure.
3. The method of claim 1 further characterized in that said columns are Prefabricated with shear-head beam members cantilevering therefrom at spaced distances for each floor level, and such Prefabricated columns are erected in -a two-way row manner with shear-head beam members positioned to extend diagonally therefrom With respect to said two-way rows of columns whereby their ends may connect with thev two-way lines of girder sections.
4. The method of constructing a two-way composite system of claim 2 further characterized in that each of said cantilevering steel framing members of said shearhead sections are fabricated of spaced apart steel beam members that also have portions thereof encompass a portion of column from which it projects and the total of said cantilevering members thus provide an encirclement of said column at each oor level.
(References on following page) 7 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2/ 1902 KnOChe f ,5,2-2753 7/1911 Eisen 2 5,2 283 3/1914 AndrSon, r 5,2*260 5 11/1917 Norcross '52- 260 4/1923 Davidson 52-,251 10/1932 Hilpert et a1 52-250 i8 Strehan 4-, 52-,260 `Ciarlini v v 5,2-289 -Cheskin 52-260 Cheskin 5.2-252 Henderson 52-252 DAVID I. WILLIAMOWSKY, Primary Examiner.
J. L. RIDGILL, IR., Assistant Examiner.
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4211045 *||Dec 7, 1977||Jul 8, 1980||Kajima Kensetsu Kabushiki Kaisha||Building structure|
|US4333285 *||Aug 8, 1979||Jun 8, 1982||Kajima Kensetsu Kabushiki Kaisha||Building structure|
|U.S. Classification||52/745.2, 52/251, 52/660|