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Publication numberUS3349612 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 31, 1967
Filing dateAug 13, 1964
Priority dateAug 13, 1964
Publication numberUS 3349612 A, US 3349612A, US-A-3349612, US3349612 A, US3349612A
InventorsSherman Charles I
Original AssigneePerrine Cutler Ridge Bank
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Silhouette coin grader
US 3349612 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 31, 1967 c, SHERMAN 3,349,612

SILI-IOUETTE COIN GRADER Filed Aug 13, 196 4 2 Sheets-Sheet l IIIIIIIIIIIJI 'IIIIIIIIIIII INVENTOR.

Army/W5 Oct;31, 1967 I l. SHERMAN SILHOUETTE COIN GRADER Filed' Aug. 13, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. CHAIPQSS Sx/fe m United States Patent 3,349,612 SILHOUETTE COIN GRADER Charles I. Sherman, Miami, Fla., assignor to Perrine- Cutler Ridge Bank, Perrine, Fla., a state banking corporation Filed Aug. 13, 1964, Ser. No. 389,258 6 Claims. (Cl. 73l63) This invention relates to numismatic coin grading and apparatus therefor.

Generally, in the field of numismatics, coins are separated into grades based upon the condition of the coin with respect to wear. There are, generally, six principal grades as follows:

G Good.

VG Very good.

F Fine.

VF Very fine.

XF Extremely fine.

AU About uncirculated. Rarer coins may have two additional grades as follows:

FR Fair.

Abt. G About Good.

As a general rule, certain portions of any given circulated coin will wear first, leaving the rest of the coin in more nearly its original form and condition and in grading coins the grade will be determined by the amount of wear at these certain portions on any given coin.

For instance, in grading a Morgan dollar, specific points of Wear are given consideration. On the obverse the word LIBERTY on the headband of the portrait of Liberty which appears on the coin is one point of wear. The next point of wear is the hair above Libertys forehead and the third point of wear is the ear of Liberty. On the reverse the feathers on the eagles wings are one point. The feathers on the eagles breast are another point and the eagles Wing tips, one other.

In this particular coin, the scribed as follows:

Ggood.-There will be a complete LIBERTY on the headband. The rest of the coin on both obverse and reverse will be worn considerably, but all lettering and date will be plain.

VG-very goocL-On the obverse, the hair above the forehead on Libertys head will show considerable wear, and the rest of the hair details will be worn. On the reverse, the eagles breast will be worn smooth and about half of eagles wing tips will be worn smooth.

F-fine.'About half of the hair lines from the top of Libertys head to the ear must show on the obverse, and the hair above the forehead will be outlined but worn. The ear must show distinctly.

VF-very fine.About two-thirds of the hair lines from the top of the forehead to the ear of Liberty must show very plainly and the ear must be well defined on the obverse. On the reverse the feathers on the eagles breast will show plainly except at the very center.

XF-extremely fine.0n the obverse, all hair lines will be-very plain though showing some wear. The ear must be bold with the lines raised. On the reverse the wing tips of the eagle and the eagles breast will show some wear, but all details will be very plain.

AU--ab0ut uncirculated.On the obverse only a trace of wear will show on the hair above the eye and above the forehead of Liberty. On the reverse only a trace of wear will show on the eagles breast and wing tips.

There are numerous books on coin grading with descriptive text and sometimes photographs to guide in coin grading. The various points of wear of a coin and grades may be briefly dethe extent of wear and the proper grading because of the wear are described.

In each instance, the grading involves judgment and opinion and it is difiicult to arrive at agreements as to the exact grade even when both parties to a transaction are together and have the coin for consideration. When the sale of coins is handled by mail, the problem of grading is very diflicult in that the seller will estimate high and the buyer low.

The object of the present invention is to standardize grading and obviate the aforementioned difficulties, particularly when transactions are carried out by mail, by providing an easily applied standard grading procedure to the coins.

Another object of the invention is to provide coin grading means which can be employed as a standard and agreed upon in advance which are simple and easy to employ and greatly facilitate numismatic coin grading.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the following specification.

For the purpose of illustrating the invention, there are shown in the accompanying drawings forms thereof which are presently preferred since they give desirable and satisfactory results. It will be understood, however, that instrumentalities of which the invention consists may be variously arranged and organized and that the invention is not limited to the specific arrangement and organizations of the instrumentalities as herein described and shown in the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective exploded view illustrating the invention and its manner of assembly and use.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing the parts assembled and in use.

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the slide which forms part of the invention and is used for grading the obverse side of the coin.

FIG. 4 is a plan view partly broken away showing how the coin is disposed when graded.

FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 55 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 6 is a view of a second slide partially broken away showing the slide used for grading the reverse'of the coin.

FIG. 7 is a View of a slightly modified form of the base employed for grading many coins, and

FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken on the line 88 of FIG. 7.

The invention consists generally in a base having a flat face which has a square recess of a size to fit and receive the coin-holder 3 containing coin to be graded with one side thereof substantially flush with said face.

There is also provided a slide adapted to rest upon and be moved across the flat face of the base. This slide has a plurality of apertures or windows therein and in the preferred form of the invention each of these is of the size of the coin to be graded. One aperture is provided for each grade.

There is a transparent sheet fastened across each window or aperture in the slide. There are lines or markings on each transparent sheet reproducing certain design features which first show wear on the coin to be graded, and positioned on the sheet with reference to the window or aperture so that when the window or aperture is placed in registration with the coin to be graded disposed in the recess in the base, these lines or markings will register with the design features on the coin.

Each window or aperture represents a grade of the coin and the line reproduced on each window or aperture generally represent the design features which will stand out well and which are not excessively worn in the grade represented by this window or aperture. Thus, for instance, for the highest grade, the lines will represent the design features to be found on the coin of this grade. For the next lower grade, the lines will be generally the same except that those on the first window or aperture which represent design features which would be worn are eliminated. This procedure is followed with each succeeding window or aperture so that the lines corresponding to the design features of the coin reproduced on any window or aperture represent design features which will be found on the coin of this grade whereas the portions of the window or aperture which fall into registry with the worn portions of the coin will be free from lines.

In practice, of course, the lines to be reproduced on any window or aperture of any slide have to be determined and agreed upon by experts or by the trade. The slides can thus be provided for purchasers and sellers and may be used to determine grades of coins by matching with the window or apertures and the lines reproduced thereon.

The specific grader shown in the drawings consists of a base 1 having a fiat face 2. A square recess for receiving the coin-holder is provided in the base. A coin-holder 3 having a central opening 4 of a size and shape to fit and receive the coin to be graded which is indicated at 5. The holder 3 which is square in form may be fitted in a recess 6 of appropriate shape so that the coin is supported with its side substantially flush with the fiat face 2 of the base. A pair of slides 7 and 8 are provided for each coin to be graded. These slides are adapted to lie on the face 2 and to be moved thereacross. One slide 7 is provided for grading the obverse of the coin and the other slide 8 for the reverse. Each slide is provided with a series of windows or apertures 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 each of which is of the size of the coin to be graded and is adapted to be placed in register therewith.

To assist in positioning the slides on the base 1, I provide a pair of raised guides or walls 15 which extend upwardly from each side of the base. These walls are placed apart a distance equal to the width of each slide so that when the coin is in place the slide may be moved longitudinally of the base 1 over the face 2 to bring selected apertures or windows into register with the coin. The guides 15 assist in registry which must, however, be accomplished in the other direction by moving the slide longitudinally.

Fastened across each of the apertures or windows 9-14, is a transparent sheet 16 which may be of cellophane, Mylar or any other suitable transparent material. On each sheet 16 there are lines or markings 17 which are reproductions of the design features 18 appearing on the coin.

Adjacent each window or aperture occur appropriate initials 19 to indicate the grade of coin represented by the lines on the transparent sheet as, for instance, G for Good, VG for Very Good and so forth as indicated above.

The aperture and transparent sheet representing the highest grade, as indicated in the aperture 14, FIG. 3, has a plurality of lines 17 which represent the portions of the design features on the coin which are not worn or obliterated. The aperture 13 in FIG. 3 which represents the next lower grade has lines representing substantially the same design features. However, some of the lines of the transparent sheet representing the highest grade 14 will be eliminated in the transparent sheet representing the next lower grade 13 thus illustrating and showing the degree of wear on the design features of the next lower grade 13 as compared to the degree of wear on the design features of the highest grade 14. This is illustrated in FIG. 3, for instance, where certain lines 20 appear which are omitted from the transparent sheet covering the aperture 13. The next lower grade represented by the aperture 12 in FIG. 3 has fewer lines than the transparent sheet at the aperture 13. The omitted lines represent the portions which would be worn on the next lower grade of coin. This proceeds progressively until the aperture 9 where the transparency has the fewest lines.

In the form of invention illustrated, the Morgan dollar mine practically 4 is shown and it will be noted that the word LIBERTY indicated at 21 shows well even on the low grade, 9 whereas, however, the other lines which appear on the other grades are not reproduced on the transparent sheet.

In the slide for the reverse the aperture 22, shown in FIG. 6, has the transparency representing the grade Good with considerable wear throughout the coin. -On the other hand, the aperture 23 representing the grade About Uncirculated has, as pointed out above, most of the lines representing the feathers in the eagles breast, wings and wing tips.

As pointed out above, the exact lines to reproduce on each transparency will be determined by agreement or by experts. The lines will represent the portions of the design features of each type coin which first show wear and which will be illustrated in the various grades while the worn portions of each grade will not be reproduced, thus when any one of the transparencies is placed in register with the coin in the recess in the base 1, it will be possible to determine whether the design features extend beyond the lines and thus accurately determine the grade of the coin. The slide may be-moved to bring different apertures in register with the coin and the slide may be moved slightly in order to check and double check the grading.

The lines reproduced will, of course, be made from dies or stamps so that all for a given coin will be uniform.

Each of the holders 3 should have a mark or arrow as shown at 24 for positioning the coin centered in the holder. This should preferably be disposed so as to center the date of the coin, as shown in FIG. 4. This will thus bring all parts of the coin into register with the lines reproduced on the transparent sheets on the windows.

In use, the coin in the holder, is placed in the recess. The viewer can then move the slide along and can deterat a glance Whether the coin has higher or lower points of wear than the imprint. It will be possible to select the window which most accurately corresponds with the coin below it although a considerable area of the window will be clear for viewing. The panel can thus be moved slightly for careful observation and may be tilted if desired.

In grading any coin, two slides would be ample for most convenient grading, one having the obverse and the other the reverse although it will be appreciated that the slides might be made longer and one slide might contain both obverse and reverse. It would also be possible to have a plurality of transparencies which could be placed successively over the coin in the holder and properly centered.

It would, of course, be necessary to provide suitable transparencies for each coin to be graded.

It would also be possible to provide, as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, a holder having a plurality of recesses as 25 for a half-dollar, 26 for a dime, 27 for a cent, 28 for a nickel, 29 for a quarter and 30 for a dollar. Such recesses could be formed as indicated at 31 to support the side of the coin flush with the flat face 2 while an opening 32 could be provided to simplify removal of the coin from the recess for reversal or other purposes.

Adjacent each recess in the base will be a suitable mark opposite which a given portion of the face of the coin, such as for instance, the date, will be positioned when the coin is placed in the recess. The coin will thus be oriented for easy matching with the slides. Means are provided on the base for positioning the slide accurately with respect to the aperture.

It will be appreciated that the parts of the invention may be made of various materials. Cardboard is very satisfactory for forming the base and slides, while Mylar or cellophane is a satisfactory transparent sheet for use at the apertures or windows. Other materials such as woods, metals or plastics could be employed.

It will be appreciated that the apparatus provided here for grading coins is entirely new and provides a method by which one could quickly and accurately determine the grade of coins. The transparent sheet with the reproduction of portions of the design features will instantly pinpoint the areas of wear in a manner which no other grading permits and will permit actual superimposition on the points of wear directly on or above the coin being graded, thus eliminating, to a great extent, the necessity for the exercise of judgment on the part of the grader and permitting accurate transaction of numismatic sales in widely separate areas.

The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or the essential attributes thereof. It is, therefore, desired that the present embodiments be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, reference being had to the appended claims rather than to the foregoing description and drawings to indicate the scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A standardized numismatic coin grader comprising a base having a flat face having a recessed portion of a size to fit and receive the coin to be graded with one side thereof substantially flush with said face and a slide adapted to rest upon and be moved across said flat face, said slide having a plurality of apertures therein each of the size of the coin to be graded and having a transparent sheet thereacross, each sheet having markings thereon reproducing some of the design features of the coin to be graded and positioned to register with such design features on the coin to be graded when said aperture is placed in register with a coin disposed on said base, said markings representing the portion of the design features on said coin which would be present in a coin of the numismatic grade corresponding to that sheet, said sheet being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such a grade, the markings on each sheet representing the portions of the design features which would be present on a coin of a grade corresponding to said sheet and being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such grade, each of said sheets differing from the other sheets and representing a different grade whereby a sheet may be superimposed on a coin with the marks on the sheet in register with the corresponding design features on the coin to thereby focus on and permit inspection of the areas of wear and positioning means to engage said slide and assure register of the apertures therein with the coin in said holder as the slide is moved to view the coin through different apertures and means on said base adjacent said coin holding means to indicate a point of reference adjacent which a selected portion of the design of the coin in the holder is to be positioned.

2. A standardized numismatic coin grader comprising a base having a fiat face having a recessed portion of a size to fit and receive the coin to be graded with one side thereof substantially flush with said face and a slide adapted to rest upon and be moved across said flat face, said slide having a plurality of apertures therein each of the size of the coin to be graded and having a transparent sheet thereacross, each sheet having markings thereon reproducing some of the design features of the coin to be graded and positioned to regitser with such design features on the coin to be graded when said aperture is placed in register with a coin disposed on said base, said markings representing the portion of the design features on said coin which would be present in a coin of the numismatic grade corresponding to that sheet, said sheet being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such a grade, the markings on each sheet representing the portions of the design features which would be present on a coin of a grade corresponding to said sheet and being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such grade, each of said sheets differing from the other sheets and representing a different grade whereby a sheet may be superimposed on a coin with the marks on the sheet in register with the corresponding design features on the coin to thereby focus on and permit inspection of the areas of wear and positioning means to engage said slide and assure register of the apertures therein with the coin in said holder as the slide is moved to View the coin through different apertures.

3. A standardized numismatic coin grader comprising a base having a flat face having means to receive the coin to be graded with one side thereof substantially flush with said face and a slide adapted to rest upon and be moved across said flat face, said slide having a plurality of apertures therein each of the size of the coin to be graded and having a transparent sheet thereacross, each sheet having markings thereon reproducing some of the design features of the coin to be graded and positioned to register with such design features on the coin to be graded when said aperture is placed in register with a coin disposed on said base, said markings representing the portion of the design features on said coin which would be present in a coin of the numismatic grade corresponding to that sheet, said sheet being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such a grade, the markings on each sheet representing the portions of the design features which would be present on a coin of a grade corresponding to said sheet and being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such grade, each of said sheets differing from the other sheets and representing a different grade whereby a sheet may be superimposed on a coin with the marks on the sheet in register with the corresponding design features on the coin to thereby focus on and permit inspection of the areas of wear and positioning means to engage said slide and assure register of the apertures therein with the coin in said holder as the slide is moved to view the coin through different apertures.

4. A standardized numismatic coin grader comprising a base having a flat face having a recessed portion of a size to fit and receive the coin to be graded with one side thereof substantially flush with said face and a slide adapted to rest upon and be moved across said flat face, said slide having a plurality of apertures therein each of the size of the coin to be graded and having a transparent sheet thereacross, each sheet having markings thereon reproducing some of the design features of the coin to be graded and positioned to register with such design features on the coin to be graded when said aperture is placed in register with a coin disposed on said base, said markings representing the portion of the design features on said coin which would be present in a coin of the numismatic grade corresponding to that sheet, said sheet being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such a grade, the markings on each sheet representing the portions of the design features which would be present on a coin of a grade corresponding to said sheet and being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such grade, each of said sheets differing from the other sheets and representing a different grade whereby a sheet may be superimposed on a coin with the marks on the sheet in register with the corresponding design features on the coin to thereby focus on and permit inspection of the areas of wear.

5. A standardized numismatic coin grader comprising a base having a flat face having means to receive the'coin to be graded vw'th one side thereof substantially flush with said face and a slide adapted to rest upon and be moved across said flat face, said slide having a plurality of apertures therein each of the size of the coin to be graded and having a transparent sheet thereacross, each sheet having markings thereon reproducing some of the design features of the coin to be graded and positioned to register with such design features on the coin to be graded when said aperture is placed in register with a coin disposed on said base, said markings representing the portion of the design features on said coin which would be present in a coin of the numismatic grade corresponding to that sheet, said sheet being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such a grade, the markings on each sheet representing the portions of the design features which would be present on a coin of a grade corresponding to said sheet and being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of wear for such grade, each of said sheets differing from the other sheets and representing a different grade whereby a sheet may be superimposed on a coin with the marks on the sheet in register with the corresponding design features on the coin to thereby focus on and permit inspection of the areas of wear.

6. A standardized numismatic coin grader comprising a holder having a plurality of apertures therein, each provided with a transparent sheet thereacross, each sheet having markings thereon reproducing some of the design features of the coin to be graded and adapted to be positioned to register with such design features on the coin for grading the same, the markings on each sheet representing the portions of the design features which would be present on a coin of a grade corresponding to said sheet and being free from such markings in the area corresponding to the areas of Wear for such grade, each of said sheets differing from the other sheets and representing a different grade whereby a sheet may be superimposed on a coin with the marks on the sheet in register with the corresponding design features on the coin to thereby focus on and permit inspection of the areas of wear.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,198,053 9/1916 Porter 33-1 2,202,683 5/1940 Baesgen et a1 33-174 2,720,028 10/ 1955 Wolf 331 LOUIS R. PRINCE, Primary Examiner. W. A. HENRY, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1198053 *Apr 6, 1915Sep 12, 1916Porter Counterfeit Detector CompanyMethod of detecting counterfeit articles.
US2202683 *Apr 19, 1938May 28, 1940Messerschmitt Boelkow BlohmTesting of accuracy of workpiece dimensions
US2720028 *Feb 21, 1952Oct 11, 1955Wolf Robert DInspector's checking overlay
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3728795 *Nov 8, 1971Apr 24, 1973Von Camber PCoin degree finder
US4134209 *Apr 10, 1978Jan 16, 1979Innovation Enterprises, Inc.Device and method for measuring coin die rotation error
US4899392 *Dec 3, 1987Feb 6, 1990Cing CorporationMethod and system for objectively grading and identifying coins
US5133019 *Feb 1, 1990Jul 21, 1992IdentigradeSystems and methods for illuminating and evaluating surfaces
US5220614 *Feb 22, 1991Jun 15, 1993Professional Coin Grading Service, Inc.Automated coin grading system
US8661889Jul 14, 2010Mar 4, 2014Duane C. BlakeAURA devices and methods for increasing rare coin value
US20110126618 *Jun 2, 2011Blake Duane CAURA devices and methods for increasing rare coin value
Classifications
U.S. Classification73/163, 33/542
International ClassificationG07D5/00, G01N3/56, G07D5/08
Cooperative ClassificationG07D5/08, G07D5/00, G01N3/56
European ClassificationG07D5/00, G07D5/08, G01N3/56