|Publication number||US3349711 A|
|Publication date||Oct 31, 1967|
|Filing date||Dec 7, 1964|
|Priority date||Dec 7, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3349711 A, US 3349711A, US-A-3349711, US3349711 A, US3349711A|
|Inventors||Dickey Rex E, Julius Darigo, Reed David S|
|Original Assignee||Remington Arms Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (71), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
M 31, E J DARlQQ ET'AL 3 349 311.
' PROCESS Gr FURMING JACKETED PRGJECTILES Filed Dec. 7, 1.964-v Fig.3. A
FORM CORE FROM wI RE OEBLIRR CORE TUMBLING BARREL cLEA RINSE PICKLE RINSE COPPER STRIKE BARREL ELEOTRO DEPOSIT RINSE PIOKLE RINSE l I ORROSION INHIBITOR Imemms:
1 I JUHUS Darigo, Rex E. Dickey, DRY Devi 8. Reed. 603M \Tl fi A y ww. FORM BULLET I I I M Their ANomeys Oct. 31, 1967 DAmGo ET AL 3,349,711
PROCESS OF FORMING JACKETED PROJECTILES Filed Dec. 7, 1964 Sheets-Sheet 2 Inventors: Juiius Darigo, Rex E. Dickey, David 8. Reed;
G ya mm Theiv Afiorn eys United States Patent PROCESS OF FORMING JACKETED PROJECTILES Julius Darigo, Bridgeport, Rex E. Dickey, Huntington,
and David S. Reed, Shelton, Conn., assiguors t0 Remington Arms Company, Inc., Bridgeport, Conn.,
a corporation of Delaware Filed Dec. 7, 1964, Ser. No. 416,466 3 Claims. (Cl. 102-91) This invention relates to an improved small arms ammunition projectile and to the process of making the projectile. More specifically, the invention refers to a bullet made by electrodepositing a jacket onto a lead core, thereby eliminating jacket manufacture and tolerances inherent to jacket manufacturing and resulting in a low-cost accurate bullet.
It is an object of this invention to make an inexpensive small arms jacketed projectile whose performance characteristics equals or exceeds conventionally-made jacketed projectiles.
It is another object of this invention to provide an economical electrodepositing method of making a jacketed small arms projectile.
A further object is to make an economical, jacketed, small arms projectile with superior mushrooming characteristics on impact.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a very accurate jacketed bullet with excellent mushrooming qualities by a mass production method.
The need for and use of jacketed bullets is well known and need not be repeated here. Although electroplating of bullets has been considered in the past, these attempts were generally unsuccessful.
The patent to T. F. Werme, 2,336,143, issued on Dec. 7, 1943, concludes a discussion on electroplating bullets by stating that this method may be fairly regarded as unsatisfactory.
Werme discusses in the above cited patent the conventional method of making jacketed projectiles in the 1941- 1943 period and this method is still the conventional way of making jacketed bullets. Thus, a multiplicity of operations are necessary comprising first alternate drawings and annealings of a gilding metal jacket disc until it is formed in the shape of an elongated cup and then subsequently inserting a separately formed slug or core into the prepared jacket. In addition to the multi-operations and ex pensive equipment needed to make jacketed bullets under this process, the end product has certain undesirable deficiencies.
Thus, there is considerably more variation in the jacket thickness and concentricity with the conventional bullet than is experienced with electrodeposited jacketed bullets made by the present method.
Moreover, in the conventional jacketed bullets, there is no bonding between the metal cup jacket and the core so that upon impact, although the core may mushroom, the core and the jacket often become separated.
A plated bullet, made by the process explained below, and illustrated in FIGURE 1 has several important advantages over conventionally-made jacketed bullets. First, the lead core is entirely covered with a uniform thickness of copper, or other electrodepositable metal. There is no exposed soft lead nose to become damaged in handling or in use in automatic weapons.
By performing a limited amount of forming after the copper jacket is electrodeposited, a high degree of perfection in obtaining desired dimensions and shape can be achieved. In this respect, in most instances, it is important that the unplated bullet core should be approximately the same size and shape as the core in the finished plated bullet, otherwise shifting of the core inside the jacket during 3,349,711 Patented Get. 31, 1967 final forming may fracture the bond between the jacket and the lead core causing loose jackets. In some cases, the profile of the plated lead core can be changed substantially while retaining the bond between the jacket and the core.
A mechanical bond is achieved between the lead core and the copper jacket which is stronger than the lead core. This results in the copper jacket remaining attached to the lead core consistently upon impacting the target, thus providing more shock impact power. The barrel tumbling electrodepositing feature assists in this mechanical bonding and further results in a very uniform and tightly inherent layer of copper being deposited on the lead core, thus, insuring a more stabilized bullet.
As can be seen in FIGURE 4, there is some fingering penetration of the copper in the lead due to the surface discontinuities on the lead core into which the copper has plated. This fingering penetration of the copper in the lead core results in a mechanical bond between the lead core and the copper jacket which is stronger than the lead core. It should be appreciated that the constant tumbling of the bullets in the plating bath will result in the electrodeposited copper being impacted into the surface discontinuities of the lead core thus assisting in producing the strong bond between the core and the jacket.
The electrodeposited copper jackets are generally harder than the gilding metal jackets now in common use. Although there is an optimum desired thickness of copper plating, this thickness varies with the bullet use, the caliber of the bullet and its velocity. A thicker layer is required for mushrooming bullets, for bullets fired at high speeds and for larger caliber bullets. If the electrodeposited jacket is less than the optimum thickness for the particular mushrooming bullet caliber and velocity, the jacket will strip away from the core upon impact of the bullet. Of course, a too-heavy jacket will result in poor mushrooming qualities as well as raise the cost of making the bullet.
Additional advantages of the present barrel electrodepositing method over the conventional method mentioned above are the elimination of the following: (1) scrap loss, (2) scrap handling, (3) blank and cup, (4) washes and annealing, (5) all draws and trims, (6) bullet assembly, (7) all bullet jacket forming tools, and (8) the raw materials used to make bullet jackets. In addition, the present electroplating method reduces inventory and storage of bullet jackets.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIGURE 1 is a cross-sectional view of a jacketed bullet incorporating the present invention.
FIGURE 2 is a view taken on line 2-2 in FIGURE 1 and shows the front end of a jacketed bullet.
FIGURE 3 is a flow diagram illustrating the various steps in the present process.
FIGURE 4 shows a magnified cross-sectional view illustrating the finger penetration of the copper jacket in the lead core which provides a strong mechanical bond.
FIGURE 5 shows a magnified cross-sectional view of a jacketed bullet which had its lead core cannelured prior to electrodepositing the copper jacket.
FIGURE 6 shows a cross-sectional view taken on line 5-5 of FIGURE 5.
FIGURE 7 shows a side view of a projectile core which is knurled and slitted prior to electrodeposition of the jacket.
FIGURES 8, 8A, 8B, 8C, 8D and 8E show alternate forms of grooves which can be used in place of knurling.
FIGURES 9, 9A and 9B show a modified sequence of forming a circumferential reinforcing bead on an electrodeposited projectile core.
Bullet jackets can be formed from any material that can be electroplated and any type bullet core can be used providing it can be electroplated.
The initial steps to produce an electrodeposited jacketed bullet is to cut a lead wire into slugs and then swage the slugs, thus, forming profiled lead bullet cores. Obviously, other methods of forming bullet cores can also be used. As mentioned above, the profiled lead cores are the same weight and approximately the same size as the core of the ultimate jacketed bullet. The profiled lead cores are then tumbled and deburred, cleaned, rinsed, pickled, rinsed and then given a copper strike by tumbling the lead cores in a plating bath for a predetermined time until the lead cores are covered by a thin coating of copper over the entire surface of the core. This copper strike is necessary to prevent the main plating bath from becoming contaminated with lead. It has been found that when the main plating bath is contaminated with lead, the electrodeposited copper jackets tend to be brittle. The profiled lead cores entirely covered with a thin coating of copper are then continuously tumbled in the main plating bath until the required thickness of copper or other material is deposited thereon. This type of barrel plating is old and well known and it is not believed to be necessary to illustrate this step. It is, however, an important step in the process since it permits the small bullets to be continuously tumbled and plated, thus, providing a uniform layer around the entire periphery of the bullet.
After the necessary thickness of copper is deposited on the bullets, the bullets are rinsed, pickled, rinsed, a corrosion inhibitor added, and the bullets dried. The plated bullets are then fed to final forming dies Where they are formed to the desired configuration and dimensions and depending on the characteristics required, a front cavity and equally spaced nose cuts provided to assist mushrooming qualities of the bullets. The latter cavity and nose cuts are formed by a knockout pin which knocks the formed bullet out of the final forming dies. A proper cannelure can be formed on the plated and formed projectile as desired.
A variation in the process mentioned above may be desirable in order to satisfy certain requirements for specific bullets, etc. In other words, it may be desirable to give a certain bullet, e.g., a 6 mm. bullet, a particular mushrooming effect at a specific distance, e.g., at 100 yards. There are various procedures that can be used in this method to vary the mushrooming qualities of a bullet.
One method which is believed to be novel is to cannelure the lead core prior to electrodepositing the copper jacket onto the profiled lead core. This method provides the forming of a controllable groove on the core into which copper deposits, thus, providing a positive locking means by which the copper jacket is held onto the lead core thus aiding in preventing relative movement of the jacket and the core.
Another procedure which can be used to vary the mushrooming qualities of a bullet is to make longitudinally extending grooves on the impact end of a projectile core prior to plating the projectile. Thus, transverse cannelures as well as longitudinal grooves can be formed in the lead projectile core prior to plating of the projectile core. The copper is deposited over the entire surface of the core including the grooves in the cores.
After the copper is deposited over the core, a cannelure can be provided to the plated core over the cannelure previously formed in the core with the result that the deposited copper in the lead cannelure is forced inwardly to provide a deeper shoulder and a more effective locking action.
The plated projectile core with the longitudinal grooves formed in the core can also be provided with unoriented slits (i.e., with the core slits) to assist in opening up the front end of the projectile upon impact.
FIGURE 1 shows a jacketed bullet 10 made according to the present invention. The bullet core 12 is formed of lead or other deformable metal and the plated jacket 14 made of a second electroplatable metal, preferably copper. A conical indent or cavity 16 and equally spaced nose cuts 18 are formed at the bullet nose to aid in mushrooming. A cannelure 20 is shown although this refinement may not be absolutely necessary to satisfactory performance.
It can be seen that the lead core 12 is entirely covered with the copper jacket 14 so that no lead is exposed. Upon impact, the cavity 16 and the nose cuts 18 assist in opening up the front end of the jacketed bullet 10 and exposing the lead core. The front end of the soft lead core 12 will then deform and peel back to form a mushroom type head having a much greater impact area than the original projectile. Since the mechanical bond between the lead core and the copper jacket (see FIGURE 3) is stronger than the lead core, the jacket does not become dislodged from the lead core, thus, keeping the bullet together as a unit.
The mechanical bond between the copper jacket and lead core is best seen in FIGURE 4. This figure shows a lead core 12 and an electrodeposited copper jacket 14. The interface 22 between the lead core and the copper jacket 14 includes a plurality of recesses 24 or surface discontinuities on the outer peripheral surface of the lead core. These recesses 24 become filled with electrodeposited copper and form fingers of copper 26 penetrating into lead, thus, forming a strong bond between the two materials.
FIGURE 5 shows a cross-sectional view of a jacketed projectile made under this invention where the lead core 12 was knurled prior to having the profiled lead core plated. The figure shows an exaggerated groove 28 formed by knurling in which copper Was deposited to form an abutment 30 which acts as a lock to hold the copper jacket 14 to the lead core 12.
FIGURE 6 shows a magnified cross-sectional view of the lead core 12 and the copper jacket 14 in the area where the lead core was knurled prior to plating and copper was deposited in the grooves 28 to form abutments 30. These abutments which are integrally formed with the copper jacket aid in preventing longitudinal as well as rotational movement of the jacket relative to the lead core.
FIGURE 7 shows a side view of a projectile core 32 made of lead or other suitable metal which is provided with a transverse knurl 34 and longitudinal grooves 36 prior to electrodeposition of a copper or other suitable metal jacket. After plating, a layer of copper is electrodeposited on the core and increased thicknesses are deposited in the grooves (knurling, grooves, etc.) formed in the lead core.
FIGURES 8, 8A, 8B, 8C, 8D, and 8E show various possible grooves 34a, 34b, 34c, 34d, Me, and 34 which can be used on projectiles, either on the core or on the finished projectile.
The grooves are important, of course, to hold the electrodeposited jacket of copper onto the lead core, as well as to provide a sto for the metal jacket as it mushrooms back upon impact.
It has been found that the grooves 36 or nose cuts cause cleavage of copper plate at these lines when the jacket is deposited onto the core. These cleavages weaken the jacket at these points and tend to rupture upon impact of the projectile. If the mushrooming characteristics of the projectile are not satisfied by the weakened jacket, additional slits or nose cuts can be made to the outside of the plated projectile. These outer slits need not be oriented with the grooves in the core in order to be eifective.
FIGURES 9, 9A, and 9B show a sequence of the initial- 1y formed lead core 38, the plated lead core 40 and the finished bullet 42. It can be seen from this sequence that the profile of the plated lead core is changed to a greater degree than the other modifications in the forming of the plated core into the finished bullet. In this instance, the forming changed the profile of the front cylindrical portion 44 into a tapered ogival portion 46 with a reinforcing bead 48. This reinforcing head or fold provides an excellent lock between the core and the jacket and also functions to limit the mushrooming of the projectile to the forward portion of the projectile.
The reinforcing bead 48 is stronger than the groove which would be formed by either grooving the core prior to plating or forming the groove on a tapered plated core.
The uniformity of the jacket and the mechanical bond which prevents any relative movement between the lead core and the jacket are factors which result in very substantial improvements in accuracy of the jacketed bullet.
What is claimed is:
1. A jacketed projectile comprising a profiled, deformable, metal core, groove means in desired locations on the peripheral surface of said projectile core, an electrodeposited layer of a second deformable metal which covers the entire periphery of the core including increased metal thickness at said groove means, said increased metal thickness formed at said recess means providing a positive lock between the deformable projectile core and the electrodeposited jacket, said electrodeposited layer being attached to the core by a mechanical bond which has a higher tensile strength than said core.
2. A jacketed projectile as defined in claim 1 wherein said groove means extend in a longitudinal direction at the impact end of the projectile core, said increased thickness of electrodeposited metal formed at said groove means defining weakened portions of said electrodeposited jacket which aids in initiating mushrooming of the projectile upon impact.
3. A jacketed small arms projectile comprising an inner core of lead profiled to its approximate finished dirnensions and having an ogive at its front end, a uniform jacket of a deformable metal electrodeposited on the entire periphery of said inner lead core and attached thereto by a mechanical bond which has a higher tensile strength than said inner core, slit means in the electrodeposited jacket adjacent to the tip of the ogive adapted, upon impact of the projectile, to open up the front end of the projectile and facilitate further impact expansion of the projectile, said slit means being formed in said jacket after the inner core and jacket have been formed to its accurate and desired final dimensions.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 270,101 1/ 1883 Nordenfelt 102-92.5 1,099,298 6/1914 Hoagland 102-91 1,633,168 6/1927 Dickerman 102-91 1,892,759 1/1933 Woodford 102-92.5 X 1,916,465 7/1933 Dawson 102-92.5 X 2,045,964 6/ 1936 Rinkel 102-91 3,143,966 8/1964 Burns et al. 102-91 FOREIGN PATENTS 105,415 4/1917 Great Britain. 278,448 10/ 1927 Great Britain.
BENJAMIN A. BORCHELT, Primary Examiner. ROBERT F. STAHL, Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US270101 *||Jan 2, 1883||Tiioksten nokdenfelt|
|US1099298 *||Feb 24, 1914||Jun 9, 1914||Union Metallic Cartridge Company||Mushroom-bullet.|
|US1633168 *||Feb 4, 1922||Jun 21, 1927||Remington Arms Co Inc||Mushrooming bullet|
|US1892759 *||Mar 19, 1930||Jan 3, 1933||Remington Arms Co Inc||Ammunition|
|US1916465 *||Apr 8, 1929||Jul 4, 1933||Western Cartridge Co||Process and apparatus for electroplating projectiles|
|US2045964 *||Feb 25, 1935||Jun 30, 1936||Berlin Karlsruher Ind Werke Ag||Casing projectile|
|US3143966 *||Oct 2, 1959||Aug 11, 1964||Olin Mathieson||Expanding bullet|
|GB105415A *||Title not available|
|GB278448A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3837057 *||Mar 6, 1972||Sep 24, 1974||Oerlikon Buehrle Ag||Method for securing a projectile in a sabot|
|US4193348 *||Feb 15, 1978||Mar 18, 1980||Olin Corporation||Projectile for centerfire pistol and revolver cartridges|
|US4336756 *||Aug 16, 1978||Jun 29, 1982||Hornady Manufacturing Company||Jacketed bullet and method of manufacture|
|US4352225 *||Jun 27, 1980||Oct 5, 1982||Hornady Manufacturing Company||Jacketed bullet and method of manufacture|
|US4387492 *||Oct 2, 1980||Jun 14, 1983||Omark Industries, Inc.||Plated jacket soft point bullet|
|US4398467 *||Dec 5, 1980||Aug 16, 1983||The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland||Explosive fragmentation devices with coiled wire progressively varied|
|US4485742 *||Jun 5, 1981||Dec 4, 1984||Mamo Anthony C||Firearm bullet|
|US4610061 *||Jun 10, 1985||Sep 9, 1986||Olin Corporation||Low velocity expanding projectile|
|US4655140 *||Apr 18, 1985||Apr 7, 1987||Schirnecker Hans Ludwig||Projectile, for example for hunting purposes, and process for its manufacture|
|US4734179 *||Nov 21, 1986||Mar 29, 1988||Trammel Gary L||Bullet plating carousel|
|US4829906 *||Sep 8, 1987||May 16, 1989||Kaswer Stanley W||Cutting bullet|
|US4856160 *||Feb 16, 1988||Aug 15, 1989||Olin Corporation||Bullet with reverse taper interlock jacket and method of manufacturing the bullet|
|US5079814 *||Nov 13, 1990||Jan 14, 1992||Blount, Inc.||Method of manufacturing a hollow point bullet|
|US5101732 *||Apr 2, 1991||Apr 7, 1992||Olin Corporation||Full metal jacket hollow point bullet and method of making a full metal jacket hollow point bullet|
|US5208424 *||Apr 2, 1992||May 4, 1993||Olin Corporation||Full metal jacket hollow point bullet|
|US5385100 *||Nov 19, 1993||Jan 31, 1995||Olin Corporation||Upset jacketed bullet|
|US5385101 *||Nov 1, 1993||Jan 31, 1995||Olin Corporation||Hunting bullet with reinforced core|
|US5528988 *||Oct 6, 1993||Jun 25, 1996||Boliden Mineral Ab||Shot pellets for wild game hunting and a method for its manufacture|
|US5528990 *||May 26, 1995||Jun 25, 1996||Olin Corporation||Oxide coated jacketed bullet|
|US5544398 *||May 2, 1994||Aug 13, 1996||Olin Corporation||Method of making a coated bullet|
|US5597975 *||Oct 4, 1995||Jan 28, 1997||Mcgean-Rohco, Inc.||Mechanical plating of small arms projectiles|
|US5852255 *||Jun 30, 1997||Dec 22, 1998||Federal Hoffman, Inc.||Non-toxic frangible bullet core|
|US5894645 *||Aug 1, 1997||Apr 20, 1999||Federal Cartridge Company||Method of forming a non-toxic frangible bullet core|
|US5917143 *||Aug 8, 1997||Jun 29, 1999||Remington Arms Company, Inc.||Frangible powdered iron projectiles|
|US6244187||Jul 1, 1999||Jun 12, 2001||Federal Cartridge Company||Increased velocity-performance-range bullet|
|US6317946||Mar 8, 1999||Nov 20, 2001||Harold F. Beal||Method for the manufacture of a multi-part projectile for gun ammunition and product produced thereby|
|US6551376||Apr 21, 2000||Apr 22, 2003||Doris Nebel Beal Inter Vivos Patent Trust||Method for developing and sustaining uniform distribution of a plurality of metal powders of different densities in a mixture of such metal powders|
|US6607692||Dec 31, 2001||Aug 19, 2003||Doris Nebel Beal Intervivos Patent Trust||Method of manufacture of a powder-based firearm ammunition projectile employing electrostatic charge|
|US6626114||Apr 19, 2002||Sep 30, 2003||Doris Nebel Beal Intervivos Patent Trust||Projectile having a disc and multiple cores|
|US6640724||Aug 4, 1999||Nov 4, 2003||Olin Corporation||Slug for industrial ballistic tool|
|US6691623 *||Jan 7, 1999||Feb 17, 2004||Ra Brands, Llc||Frangible powdered iron projectiles|
|US6892647||Oct 6, 2000||May 17, 2005||Ra Brands, L.L.C.||Lead free powdered metal projectiles|
|US6935243 *||Mar 3, 2003||Aug 30, 2005||Olin Corporation||Bullet|
|US7127996 *||Jul 6, 2004||Oct 31, 2006||Karl Muth||Dimpled projectile for use in firearms|
|US7162942||Jul 21, 2005||Jan 16, 2007||Olin Corporation||Bullet|
|US7210411 *||Mar 16, 2004||May 1, 2007||Bae Systems Plc||4.6 mm small arms ammunition|
|US7322297 *||Oct 24, 2006||Jan 29, 2008||International Cartridge Corporation||Cannelured frangible projectile and method of canneluring a frangible projectile|
|US7543535 *||Jun 9, 2005||Jun 9, 2009||Wilhelm Brenneke Gmbh & Co. Kg||Rifle bullet for hunting purposes|
|US7934455 *||Oct 12, 2006||May 3, 2011||Udo Winter||Sub-caliber projectile|
|US8789470 *||Feb 6, 2012||Jul 29, 2014||Olin Corporation||Segmenting slug|
|US9188414||Feb 15, 2013||Nov 17, 2015||Ra Brands, L.L.C.||Reduced friction expanding bullet with improved core retention feature and method of manufacturing the bullet|
|US9329009||Mar 17, 2014||May 3, 2016||Vista Outdoor Operations Llc||Manufacturing process to produce programmed terminal performance projectiles|
|US9360284||Mar 15, 2014||Jun 7, 2016||Vista Outdoor Operations Llc||Manufacturing process to produce metalurgically programmed terminal performance projectiles|
|US9366512||Jan 5, 2015||Jun 14, 2016||Ra Brands, L.L.C.||Multi-component bullet with core retention feature and method of manufacturing the bullet|
|US9383178||Feb 5, 2015||Jul 5, 2016||Sig Sauer, Inc.||Hollow point bullet and method of manufacturing same|
|US9395163 *||Jan 9, 2015||Jul 19, 2016||Randy R. Fritz||Hollow slug and casing|
|US9488453 *||Aug 7, 2012||Nov 8, 2016||Ruag Ammotec Gmbh||Structuring of the ogive surface of a projectile|
|US9534876||May 28, 2014||Jan 3, 2017||Ra Brands, L.L.C.||Projectile and mold to cast projectile|
|US9562754 *||Sep 29, 2015||Feb 7, 2017||Vista Outdoor Operations Llc||Muzzleloader systems|
|US20030213396 *||Mar 3, 2003||Nov 20, 2003||Dippold Jack D.||Bullet|
|US20040244630 *||Mar 16, 2004||Dec 9, 2004||Derek Booth||4.6mm small arms ammunition|
|US20050000385 *||Mar 16, 2004||Jan 6, 2005||Derek Booth||5.56 Small arms ammunition|
|US20060005731 *||Jul 6, 2004||Jan 12, 2006||Karl Muth||Dimpled projectile for use in firearms|
|US20060042456 *||Aug 13, 2003||Mar 2, 2006||Bismuth Cartridge Company||Method of making a frangible non-toxic projectile|
|US20060090665 *||Jul 21, 2005||May 4, 2006||Olin Corporation||Bullet|
|US20070006770 *||Jun 9, 2005||Jan 11, 2007||Klaus Herrlinger||Rifle bullet for hunting purposes|
|US20070144395 *||Oct 24, 2006||Jun 28, 2007||International Cartridge Corporation||Cannelured frangible projectile and method of canneluring a frangible projectile|
|US20090151593 *||Oct 12, 2006||Jun 18, 2009||Udo Winter||Sub-Caliber Projectile|
|US20090308275 *||Jun 5, 2009||Dec 17, 2009||Ake Nilsson||Projectile for fire arms|
|US20120199035 *||Feb 6, 2012||Aug 9, 2012||Frank Ben N||Segmenting slug|
|US20140318405 *||Aug 7, 2012||Oct 30, 2014||Ruag Ammotec Gmbh||Structuring of the ogive surface of a projectile|
|US20150192394 *||Jan 9, 2015||Jul 9, 2015||Randy R. Fritz||Hollow Slug and Casing|
|US20160091289 *||Sep 29, 2015||Mar 31, 2016||Vista Autdoor Operations Llc||Muzzleloader systems|
|USD737874||Nov 26, 2013||Sep 1, 2015||Sig Sauer, Inc.||Skiving punch|
|DE2905797A1 *||Feb 15, 1979||Aug 30, 1979||Olin Corp||Geschoss fuer feuerwaffen und verfahren zu seiner herstellung|
|EP0010845A1 *||Sep 10, 1979||May 14, 1980||Bangor Punta Corporation||Plastics coated ammunition and method of manufacture|
|EP0908695A1||Mar 5, 1993||Apr 14, 1999||Olin Corporation||Full metal jacket hollow point bullet|
|WO1993020402A1 *||Mar 5, 1993||Oct 14, 1993||Olin Corporation||Full metal jacket hollow point bullet|
|WO1994025818A1 *||Apr 11, 1994||Nov 10, 1994||Olin Corporation||Hunting bullet with reinforced core|
|WO1999008063A1 *||Jul 31, 1998||Feb 18, 1999||Remington Arms Company, Inc.||Frangible powdered iron projectiles|
|WO2000037878A1 *||Dec 23, 1999||Jun 29, 2000||Beal Harold F||Small bore frangible ammunition projectile|
|U.S. Classification||102/509, 86/55, 102/514|
|International Classification||F42B12/00, F42B12/80|