US 3350819 A
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Nov. 7, 1967 J PQLIDQRO ET AL 3,350,819
VENTILATING SKYLIGHT WITH TWO SIMULTANEOUSLY OPERATED CLOSURES Filed March 11, 1965 /I O Fig INVENTORS. JOHN E. POLIDORO EDWARD C. ELLY ATTO RN EY United States latent Office 3,350,819 Patented Nov. 7, 1967 3,350,819 VENTILATING SKYLIGHT Wl'lfi-I TWO SIMUL- TANEOUSLY OPERATED CLOSURES John E. Polidoro, 10813 Pedriclr Road, Philadelphia, Pa.
19154, and Edward C. Kelly, 7909 Michener Ave,
Philadelphia, Pa. 19150 Filed Mar. 11, 1965, Ser. No. 439,044 11 Claims. (Cl. 52--1) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A skylight construction including duct means having an opening at the bottom and an opening adjacent the top, a closure member movable in a straight vertical path into and out of closed position again t the bottom opening and a pivoted closure member pivotally movable into and out of closed position against the top opening, the two closure members being movable simultaneously into their respective closed and open positions. An actuating means such as a motor or the like is provided to effect the simultaneous opening and closing movements of the two closure members which are connected by linkage to provide the simultaneous action. An electrical switch, which may be operated by a light switch, a thermostat, a humidistat or any similar sensing means, actuates the motor.
This invention relates to skylights for buildings, and it particularly relates to skylights having vent means for venting a room in the building to atmosphere.
Many buildings, both industrial and domestic, have inside rooms which are not bounded by an exterior Wall of the building and, therefore, cannot be equipped with windows. This is especially common in so-called row-type homes where a room, usually a bathroom, is located within the central portion of the house.
In order to provide light and air to such inside room, it has been the general practice to provide a skylight, which consists of a duct or well leading from an aperture in the ceiling of the room to a position above the roof of the building. This duct is provided with a transparent or translucent upper portion. In this upper portion, above the roof, is also provided a hinged panel or door which can be opened or shut to let in or keep out the air.
Heretofore, it has been the general usage to attach a roller and chain to the hinged panel. The chain projects downthrough the aperture in the ceiling of the room into a position where it is accessible to the occupant, who uses it to open and close the panel. This arrangement, however, has many disadvantages.
One disadvantage of the chain-type skylight assembly is that the hanging chain projecting into the middle of the room detracts from the appearance of the room, as does the aperture in the ceiling. Another disadvantage is that the hinged panel tends to become warped, displaced or loose with use and this results in drafts and the intrusion of wind, rain, snow, sleet, dust, dirt, inserts and, sometimes, even birds and bats. Furthermore, when the panel is open, it permits persons on the same or adjoining roofs to look into or enter the room, thereby affecting privacy and making it easier for burglars and others to gain entrance.
It is one object of the present invention to overcome the above and other disadvantages of the prior type of skylight arrangements by providing a skylight assembly having an openable vent means wherein the unsightliness of holes in the ceiling, downwardly projecting chains and the like is completely eliminated.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a skylight assembly of the aforesaid type which is adapted to keep the room free of drafts, wind, rain, snow, dirt, insects and the like at all times and regardless of the period of use.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a skylight assembly of the aforesaid type wherein the vent means is tamper-proof and burglar-proof and is positively retained in both open and closed position.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a skylight assembly of the aforesaid type wherein the vent means is operable by remote control means which may be thermostatically or humidistatically controlled.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a skylight assembly of the aforesaid type which is adapted to simultaneously serve as a storm-window assembly.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a skylight assembly of the aforesaid type which increases the appearance of the room and which may serve to increase the illumination of the room even at night.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a top plan view with the top cut away to reveal the interior of the duct and of the parts therein, this view being taken on line 1-1 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 2-2 of FIG. 1.
Referring now in greater detail to the various figures of the drawing wherein similar reference characters refer to similar parts, there is shown a skylight: assembly, generally designated 10, comprising a vertical duct or housing 12 of rectangular cross-section. The duct 12 is preferably constructed of a sheet metal such as aluminum, steel, or the like, although any other desired material may also be used.
The duct 12 extends from below the level of the roof, indicated at 14, to a position above this level, At the lower end of the duct is provided a lower section of increased diameter defined by outwardly inclined side Walls 16. The walls 16 are adapted to act as light reflecting means when constructed of proper light-reflecting material and are provided with lower flange portions 18 connected to the upper surface of the ceiling 20 of aroom (not shown).
The lower section of the duct encompasses an aperture 22 in the ceiling 20. This aperture 22 is covered by a sheet 24 of light-transmitting material. The term light-transmitting is here used to define a material which is not opaque to light, i.e., translucent or transparent. The material may be any desirable material which has the required light-transmitting characteristic, such as glass, plastic, quartz, etc.
The sheet 24 may comprise a single sheet or a plurality of panes or sections. In either case, it is fixed in position over the aperture 22 and is, itself, provided with a central rectangular aperture 26. A rectangular screen 28 extends upwardly from the sheet 24 and encompasses the aperture 26. This screen 28 includes a vertical portion 30 and a horizontal, radially-inwardly extending upper flange 32. This screen is preferably provided in the assembly, but, if desired, it may be omitted without affecting the basic operation of the apparatus.
Vertically movable into and out of a closing position against the aperture 26 is a closure plate 34-. This plate 34 3 to its fully open position wherein the sealing strip 36 abuts the horizontal flange 32 of the screen 23.
The actuating means for the closure plate 34 comprises a vertical link 38 fixed to the plate 34 by a rigid connection 40. The link 38 is pivotally connected at 42 to a link 44 which is, itself, pivoted at 46 to a crank arm 48. The crank arm 48 is fixed to a motor shaft 50 extending from a motor 52 supported on a shelf 54 mounted on brackets 56 fixed to opposite side walls of the duct 12.
Also connected to the motor shaft, at the opposite end from the crank arm 48, is a bracket 58. A set-screw 60 (note FIG. 2) is used to secure the bracket 58 to the motor shaft in any desired angular position of adjustment. One arm 62 of the bracket 58 extends upwardly and is pivotally connected at 64 to a straight arm section 66 of an operating arm. The arm section 66 is integral with a diagonal arm section 68 (best seen in FIG. 1) and the section 68 is, in turn, integral with a straight end section 70. The provision of the angular arm section 68 permits the section 70 to be pivotally connected at 72 to the central portion of a closure plate 74 adapted to hingedly move into open and closed position against an aperture 76 in the upper portion of one wall of the duct 12. The closure plate 74 is provided with a peripheral sealing strip 77 and is hingedly connected at 78 to the duct wall.
The angularly adjustable connection between the bracket 58 and the motor shaft 50 permits the throw of the operating arm to be varied so as to vary the position of the closure plate 74 in its fully opened position. The provision of the pivot connection 72 in the central portion of the closure plate provides the utmost tightness of fit in the closed position since the pull is equally balanced in all directions. It, furthermore, permits easier operation of the closure panel when moving from one position to another.
The link 38 is guided in its vertical movements by a slotted guide plate 80 (note FIG. 2), this guide plate being secured to the shelf 54 by supporting straps 82.
It is to be noted that the top 84 of the duct is inclined. This top 84 is constructed of a light-transmitting material and the inclination provides an angle of light reflection against one wall of the duct 12. In order to increase the lighting effect in the daytime and to provide a constant daylight effect at night, light means, here shown as fluoroescent lamps 86, may be mounted on one or both walls of the duct. These lamps may be electrically connected to a source of electrical energy to be either energized by a separate switch or to be energized by the same switch that turns on the room lights.
The motor 52 is connected by cable 88 to a source of electrical energy (not shown) and may be actuated by a switch (not shown) which is either separately operated or is operated by actuation of another switch such as the room light switch or a thermostat or humidistat. In the latter two cases, the operation of the skylight vent would depend either on the temperature of the room or on the humidity therein.
If desired, the sealing means 36 may be omitted from the periphery of the closure plate 34 and, instead, a sealing means may be provided around the aperture 26 and on the undersurface of the flange 32 of the screen. Such arrangement would eliminate rubbing of the sealing strip against the side walls of the screen with consequent wear on both the sealing strip and the screen. However, it would eliminate the guide action of the screen for the moving closure plate.
The operation of the above-described apparatus is obvious from its construction. In brief, if, for example, the motor 52 were in electrical circuit with the room light switch for synchronous operation thereby, when the light switch is turned on, it actuates the motor, which then acts through crank arm 48 and links 38 and 44 to move the closure plate 34 upwardly away from its seat above apertures 26. At the same time, the motor acts through All the operating arms 66, 63, 70 to pivot the closure plate '74 into its open position. The motor 52. is so constructed that it automatically stops after rotation of its shaft through This is the full open position. When the switch is turned off, this again actuates the motor to turn its shaft another 180 so that it rotates a full 360 which carries it back to its starting position, where it then stops. This is the fully closed position. The device is then ready for another cycle when the switch is opened again. The same cycle is effected when the switch is controlled by a theromostat, a humidistat or any other desired control means.
It is to be noted that when the motor is stopped, it acts as a positive lock against movement of the closure plate 74 either in its open or closed position. This prevents vibration and rattling and, in the closed position of the closure plate, acts as an additional securing means to prevent ingress of burglars as well as to maintain the duct free of wind, rain, snow, ice, dust, dirt, insects, birds, bats etc. In this function, it is aided by the pressure of the outside air against the outer face of the closure plate 74. Furthermore, the double closures provided by the plates 34 and 74 have the effect of a storm window.
It is to be understood that the particular 360 type of motor described above, although preferable, is not limitative since any other desirable and feasible type of motor may be substituted. Furthermore, it is possible to use other types of drive means, although a motor of the general type described is preferred.
Preferably, the sheet or panel 24 is removable so that not only is replacement simple but easy access is available into the duct for cleaning or replacement of parts.
It is also within the scope of the invention to provide a blower-type fan within the duct to aid in circulation of the air.
Obviously, many modifications of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is, therefore, to be understood that within the scope of the appened claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than a specifically described.
The invention claimed is:
1. In a skylight construction, a vertical duct having a closed upper end and a closed lower end, an upper opening in the side of the duct adjacent to said closed upper end, a lower opening in said closed lower end, an upper closure member mounted in said duct for pivotal movement into and out of closed position against the peripheral portion defining said upper opening, a lower closure member movable within said duct in a straight vertical direction into and out of closed position against the peripheral portion defining said lower opening, said closure members being movable from open to closed positions entirely within said duct, means operatively interconnecting said upper and lower closure members to move said closure members simultaneously into their corresponding open and closed positions, and drive means operatively connected to said closure members for providing said simultaneous movement.
2. The construction of claim 1 wherein said drive means comprises an electric motor in electrical circuit with a source of electrical energy.
3. The construction of claim 1 wherein said drive means is thermostatically controlled.
4. The construction of claim 1 wherein said drive means is humidistatically controlled.
5. The construction of claim 1 wherein said drive means locks said closure member in their open and closed position upon moving them into said position.
6. The construction of claim 1 wherein a screen is provided around the periphery of the lower opening, said screen having a vertical portion extending above the plane of the lower opening and a horizontal portion extending radially inward from the upper edge of the vertical portion, said lower closure member being movable from its closed position against said lower opening into an extreme open position in substantial abutment with said horizontal portion of the screen.
7. The construction of claim 6 wherein the horizontal portion of the screen is provided with a peripheral sealin-g means for abutment by said lower closure member.
8. The construction of claim 6 wherein said lower closure member is provided with a peripheral sealing means.
9. A skylight construction comprising a duct having a closed upper end and a closed lower end, an upper aperture in said upper end and a lower aperture in said lower end, an upper closure member movable into and out of closed position against said upper aperture, a lower closure member movable in a straight vertical direction into and out of closed position against said lower aperture, means to move said upper and lower closure members simultaneously into corresponding open and closed positions, said means comprising an electric motor fixedly mounted within said duct, a vertical rod having a lower end pivotally connected to said lower closure member and having its upper end pivotally connected to a first link, said first link being operatively connected to the drive shaft of said motor, a second link operatively connected to the drive shaft of said motor for synchronous operation with said first link, an operating arm having one end pivotally connected to said second link and an opposite end pivotally connected to said upper closure member, and means operatively connecting said motor to a source of electrical energy, said lower closure member being movable in a substantially vertical direction into and out of its closed position and said upper closure member being pivotally movable relative to said upper aperture.
10. The construction of claim 9 wherein said operating arm has an offset portion, said oifset portion being pivotally connected to said upper closure member, and wherein said arm is movable by said motor through an arc of about 180 to move said upper closure member from its fully closed to its fully opened position and is movable in a continuing rotational movement through a further arc of 180 to move said upper closure member from its fully opened position back to its closed position, the movement of said arm to bring said upper closure member from its fully closed position to its fully opened position and then back to its fully closed position constituting a continuous movement of said arm through a path of 360.
11. A skylight construction comprising a duct having a closed upper end and a closed lower end, an upper aperture in said upper end and a lower aperture in said lower end, an upper closure member movable into and out of closed position against said upper aperture, a lower closure member movable in a straight vertical direction into and out of closed position against said lower aperture, means to move said upper and lower closure members simultaneously into corresponding open and closed positions, said means comprising an electric motor fixedly mounted Within said duct, a vertical rod having a lower end pivotally connected to said lower closure member and having its upper end pivotally connected to a first link, said first link being operatively connected to the drive shaft of said motor, a second link operatively connected to the drive shaft of said motor for synchronous operation with said first link, an operating arm having one end pivotally connected to said second link and an opposite end pivotally connected to said upper closure member, and means operatively connecting said motor to a source of electrical energy, and a screen provided around the lower aperture, said screen having a vertical portion extending upwardly from the lower aperture and a horizontal portion extending radially inward from the upper edge of the vertical portion, said horizontal portion forming a stop means for the opening movement of said lower closure member.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 778,204 12/ 1904 Porter.
925,252 6/ 1909 Warden 4973 X 985,148 2/1911 Cummings 4994 X 2,111,009 3/ 1938 Smith -5 2,120,060 6/1938 Williams 5272 X 2,127,099 8/1938 Whitaker 9842.1 2,198,488 4/1940 Smith 98-43 2,278,581 4/ 1942 Dexter 9843 2,701,515 2/1955 Rinker 49--58 X 2,750,868 6/ 1956 Mieczkowski 98-43 X 2,799,772 6/ 1957 Stewart 2402 3,094,915 6/1963 Leigh 98-42 3,230,859 1/1966 OHea 52-1 X FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner. C. G. MUELLER, Assistant Examiner.