US 3351291 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. P. POHLE Nov. 7, 1967 AND DISPERSING THE EFFLUENT Filed Aprll 28, 1965 nu nu u mwww LIQUID DISCHARGING DEVICE HAVING MEANS FOR REDIRECTING FIG. 3
INVENTOR WERNER P. POHLE HIS ATTORNEY United States Patent O 3,351,291 LIQUID DISCHARGING DEVICE HAVING MEANS FOR REDIRECTING AND DISPERSING THE EF- FLUENT Werner P. Poble, Lynn, Mass., assignor to Spray Engineering Company, Burlington, Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts Filed Apr. 2s, 196s, ser. No. 451,602 4 Claims. (Cl. 239-511) The present invention relates to liquid discharge devices in the operation of which a flowing stream is redirected and dispersed by some surface means positioned beyond the egress port or last point of fluid confinement and in a direct line therewith to accomplish a change in the direction of flow of the fluid. Such surface means is usually called a deflector by which there is meant a solid means arranged exteriorly of the egress port to disperse and redirect the efuent and change its characteristics, as from a solid stream substantially circular in cross section to a attened or fan-shaped discharge or curtain. To accomplish this result the deector surface is arranged to one side of the general direction of the discharging stream, is flattened or presents a surface of comparatively large area, and may be stationary or is movable to various positions relative to the outlet means to vary the amount of dispersion of the fluid or the direction thereof, or both.
One such deilector-type discharging device is disclosed in U.S. Letters Patent No. 2,122,559, granted July 5, 1938, to Louis G. Dapero et al. for plant husbandry nozzle structure adapted for spraying trees. There is shown by the Daperos a deflector which may be flexed to various positions and which is manually controlled, is intended for use with low pressures on the liquid, and requires constant manipulation, i.e., control, by the operator himself not only to turn the discharge from side to side as desired but also as to maintain the -detlector-exing means in deector-exing position during use.
In contrast, the present invention contemplates embodiments which can be operated at high fluid pressures and therefore provides that While the deector-flexing means be operated manually to put it in a position for use, structure of the discharge device itself functions to maintain the deector-exing means in a deector-flexing position during operation, thereby eliminating the need of handling by the operator for this purpose during use and leaving him free for other work such, for example, as operating a monitor on which the structure may be mounted or turning the discharge about an axis if this operation is called for. It is contemplated that embodiments of the present invention be used for producing a curtain of Water useful in re fighting, and the pressures contemplated here' range upwardly from fty pounds p.s.i. to and including the great pressures and volumes used by remen who frequently employ nozzles having a three inch diameter orifice. It is also contemplated that monitor-mounted embodiments be carried -by railroads, for example, so that weed killing chemicals may be sprayed at each side of the tracks. In another aspect it is contemplated that embodiments be truck-mounted and spray a water-seed-soil mixture for sowing along embankments siding highways or spraying liquid fertilizer on embankments already succeded. In all of these applications the pressures used make it desirable that the operator himself not be the means for maintaining the deector-flexing means in operating position, so that liquid dispersion can be uniform and constant and not irregular and so that the operator is free to direct the apparatus as a unit or turn the discharge to vary its direction.
It is therefore the principal object of the present invention to provide certain improvements in the Dapero nozzle and therefore to provide a liquid discharge structure of the flexible deflector type which is of more general utility and is better adapted for a variety of uses.
To the accomplishment of this object and of such others as will appear hereinafter, the various features of the present invention reside in certain constructions, combinations, and arragements of parts which are all fully described in this specication and then are set forth in the appended claims the subject matters of which possess advantages which will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art.
The various features of the present invention will be readily understood from reading this specification in the light of the accompanying drawing which illustrates the best physical embodiment of the invention at present known to the inventor and in which:
FIGURE l is a view in rear elevation of the liquid discharging device as a whole, the deflector being unexed, i.e., in a position of disuse;
FIG. 2 is a view of the FIG. 1 structure in front elevation;
FIG. 3 is a view of the FIG. l structure in left side elevation;
FIG. 4 is a view in left side elevation, with part of the nozzle body and part of the defiecting rod being cut away, showing the flexing of the deiicctor and of the stitfener under the influence of the flexing rod;
FIG. 5 which is partially in section, is a View similar to FIG. 4 but showing the increased flexing of the deflector and decreased exing of the stiifener as the result of the impact of a jet of liquid on the deector; and
FIG. 6 is a detail view in elevation, partially in section, taken along the line 6 6 of FIG. 3, showing the pivot construction for the flexing rod.
Referring to the drawing, the illustrated embodiment of the present invention is provided with a nozzle body indicated generally at 10 which is internally threaded at its inlet end for connection with a suitable source of liquid under pressure, and has a tapered interior 11 (FIG.5) leading to a cylindrical passage 12 terminating in an egress port 13 for the liquid, The nozzle body 10 is formed as a cylinder 14 exteriorly of the passage 12 to receive rotatably a collar 15 the lower end of which abuts an annular shoulder 16 (FIG. 5) formed on the nozzle body 10. The upper end of the collar 15 engages a split ring 17 received by an annular recess 18 formed in the cylinder 14 just above the collar 15 so that the collar is retained on the nozzle body 10 but is rotatable thereon. A thumb screw 19 with a spring 20 coiled about its shank functions to maintain the collar 15 stationary on the nozzle body 10 in any desired rotative position with respect to the axis of the cylinder 14, there being preferably a replaceable pressure piece 21 of some relatively yielding material, such as nylon, to give one example, located between the tip of the screw 19 and the wall of the cylinder 14 so that the material of the cylinder is not scored or dented by repeated tightenings of the screw 19. It is to be understood, however, that in uses of embodiments of the present invention it is contemplated that the screw 19 not be tight, so that the collar 15 and structure carried thereby, as will be explained, may be turned about the axis of the cylinder 14.
The cylindrical passage 12 within the nozzle body 10 functions as a last region of uid confinement before discharge from the egress port 13 and serves to cause the stream to flow axially of the nozzle body. In order that the stream may be both redirected and dispersed upon leaving the port 13, the present invention contemplates the presence of a surface means 22, i.e., a deector, arranged exteriorly of the port 13 for movement into and out of a position in which a portion of its surface is in the path of discharge from the port 13. While such a deector could be mounted directly on the nozzle body 10, it
is preferred, to permit rotative adjustment, that it be mounted on the collar 15, and to this end a portion of the collar is flattened throughout its length to provide a rearward plane surface 23 which receives flatwise the front face of a plate 24 the functions of which will be described. Abutting atwise the rear face of the plate 24 is the front face of the lower end portion 25 of the deflector 22, and abutting atwise the rear face of the defleetor 22 for a portion of its length are the corresponding legs of two spaced angles 26. Cap screws 27 serve to mount the angles 26, deflector portion 25, and plate 24 rigidly on the collar 15.
The deflector 22 extends forwardly of the nozzle body and generally intermediate its opposite ends is preferably considerably wider than the diameter of the nozzjle body cylindrical passage 12. The forward edges of the dellector 22 are shown as curving convergingly (FIGS. 1 and 2) to meet in a blunt forward tip, although the particular terminal front edge formation shown is not essential to the present invention. The material of the deflector is resilient sheet or strip so that the deector may be flexed, as will be described, and this flexing is of what may be called the free end portion 28 as opposed to the deflector end portion 25 which is rigid by reason of the cap screw mounting 27. The deector is flat when in unflexed condition (FIGS. l, 2, and 3) and when unflexed, i.e., in a position of disuse, its free end portion 28 is to one side o f and is spaced from the axis of discharge of the nozzle cylindrical passage 12. It is not intended or necessary that the deliector 22 be of spring material.
Referring to FIGS. l, 3, 4, and 5, the angles 26 are shown merely for illustrative purposes as extending upwardly from the collar for more than half their length, and they are mounted on the collar in spaced relation so that their legs engaging the rear face of the deflector portion are directed away from each other and so that the outstanding legs form, with the back of the deflector 22, a sort of channel construction which may be regarded as parallel with the axis of discharge from the nozzle body 10. The outstanding legs of the angles 26 are provided with preferably several pairs of aligned apertures, one pair of which is located adjacent the free ends of the angles 26, as at 29 in FIG. 6, and another pair of which may be located as desired spaced from the angle free ends, as at 30 in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5. Pivotally received in the apertures 29 are the reduced end portions 31, respectively (FIG. 6), of a spindle 32, and these end portions are terminally threaded to receive retaining acorn nuts 33 to maintain the spindle 32 in place While permitting it to move about its longitudinal axis. To this end it will be noted from FIG. 6 that the threading of the spindle portions 31 does not extend inwardly to the outstanding legs of the angles 26, so that they are not engaged by the nuts 33 when tight. As best shown in FIG. l, the deflector 22 and the angles 26 are so mounted on the collar 15 that the angles are situated on the opposite sides, respectively of the longitudinal center line of the deflector. The body of the spindle 32, being mounted between the angles 26, is thus located over the longitudinal axis of the deflector22, and the purpose `of the spindle is to serve as the axis of swinging of a means for flexing the deilector into and also out of positions in which it is in the path of the discharge from the nozzle 10.
To this end the spindle 32 is provided with a through passage 34 (FIG. 6) which is located between and is parallel with the outstanding legs of the angles 26 and which receives slida'bly a stiff rod 35 the lower end portion of which may be bent, if desired, as at 36 (FIGS. l and 3) and which may receive a knob 37. The axis of the passage 34 is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the deector 22 and is located in a plane normal to the axis of pivoting of the spindle 32, and the upper portion of the rod is slidable under the arch of a strap 38 the opposite ends of which are secured, as by spot welding or brazing, to give two examples, to the rear face lof the deflector 22 adjacent its forward end so as to be carried thereby, and the upper end of the rod 35 engages the deflector 22 adjacent its tip as shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5. The rod 35 is made stationary relatively to the spindle 32 in any desired position by means of a set screw 39 with the result that the rod and spindle are swingable together while any sliding of the rod along the passage 34 is prevented.
With this construction it will be seen by comparing FIGS. 3 and 4 that when the rod 35 is swung so that the knob 37 moves away from the nozzle body 10, the rod portion forwardly of the spindle 32 swings forwardly, positively pressing against the upper portion of the back of the deector 22 adjacent its forward 4tip so that its free end portion 28 is flexed into a position in which it is located in the path of discharge of the nozzle body 10. It will also be seen, by again comparing FIGS. 3 and 4, that while during this flexing of the deflector 22 the strap 33 moves forwardly, as it were, relatively to the free.
end of the rod 35, the arch of the strap 38 remains over the rod so that the strap engages and coacts with the rod to move the deector positively and effect its return to its deflexed or FIGS. l, 2, and 3 position of disuse out of the path of discharge from the nozzle 1l) and spaced from the axis of its discharge, when the knob 37 is moved toward the nozzle body to swing the upper end of the rod 35 in the opposite direction. The extent to which the de.- flector is flexed by the rod 35 depends, of course, upon the extent to which the rod is swung, and to maintain the -rod 35 in any one of a plurality of positions of deflector flexing against any tendency of the flexed deflector to swing the rod back in the opposite direction s0 that the deflector is in a deflexed position of disuse, the rod 35 slidably receives and carries between the knob 37 and the spindle 32 a collar 40 in which is mounted the shank of a thumb screw 41 urged toremain in tight condition by a coil spring 42, as is well understood. By reason of the collar 40 being movable on and relatively to the rod 35, the collar is engageable with the outstanding legs of the angles 26, as indicated in FIGS. 4 and 5, and when held in fixed position on the rod 35 by the screw 41 `thus provides a stop means to prevent any swinging of the rod 35 and spindle 32 which would move the rod out of any particular deflector-flexing position determined by the location of the collar 40 relatively to the rod 35. It will be appreciated that as an alternative to the collar 40, the angles 26 could support an adjustable slide (not shown) which the rod 35 itself could abut and which would thus be a stop equivalent to the collar 40-angles 26 arrangement illustrated.
While remarks made supra show the two facts that the deector 22 is flexed by the rod 35 when the knob 37 is moved away from the nozzle body 10 and that the coaction of the collar 40 with the angles 26 functions as a stop to maintain the rod 35 in deflector-flexing position against the tendency of the defiector to resume its unexed condition, there are several considerations to which attention should be called in connection with these two facts.
The .first of these Considerations is that while the deector 22 may be of relatively thin material or of relatively thick material, or of material having anw thickness therebetween-with the result that the resiliency may be .relatively great or relatively small or any degree therebetween, the deflector all the while being accurately described as resilient or flexible-if the lower-end portion 25 of the deflector is in direct engagement with the hat face 23 on the collar 15, the deflector might tend to bend relatively sharply directly across the top edge of the collar face 23 as the rod 35 is moved to flex the deflector, with the two undesirable results that the greater part of the deflector free end portion 28 would be beyond the path of discharge from the nozzle 10 and the lower part of the free portion 28 would be relatively near the egress port 13. This latter adjacency could be in part obviated, of course, by giving the collar 15 such a greater diameter that the rigid portion 35 of the deflector would be considerably spaced from the axis of discharge of the nozzle in contrast to the spacing indicated in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, but this would increase the size, Weight, and cost of the construction and is therefore to be avoided. As a consequence it is prefered that means be provided to cause the flexing of the free portion 28 of the detlector to be less sharp at its lower end and instead to be a gradual curve over and beyond the path of discharge of the nozzle, and this is one of the functions of the plate 24 which is located between the collar face 23 and the lower end portion 25 of the deflector. The plate 24 is also made of resilient material soas to be flexible and may be shorter or longer than indicated in FIGS. 2-5, but is in any event relatively short as compared to the length of the free end portion 28 of the deilector, with the result that even if it is made of material identical with that of the deflector, it is stiffer, i.e., less resilient, by reason of its shortness, and therefore may be termed a stiffener by reason of its function. Stating this in different words, the plate 24 offers a yielding resistance to the flexing of the deector 22 under the influence of the rod 35 so that the free end portion 28 of the deflector does not bend sharply across the top edge of the collar face 23 but instead bends in a gradual curve from the top of the collar, the gradualness depending upon the amount of yield of the plate 24 which of course exes also since it is made of resilient material. One example of such a gradual curve is shown in FIG. 4. It should be pointed out here also that while only one plate 24 is shown in the drawing, it is contemplated that two or more plates be used, a second, for example, being located between the deflector 22 and the plate 24 and being somewhat longer than the latter so as to extend thereabove, viewing FIGS. 3, 4, and 5. The use of two or more stiffener plates as described is suggested when it is desired to have the free portion 28 of the deflector begin deflection at a level higher than indicated in FIG. 4, thus providing a somewhat sharper curving across the path of discharge but beginning at a level above the collar 15.
As a second consideration following from the flexing of the deiiector, the remarks in the two paragraphs next preceding above arel phrased as though the nozzle structure were in disuse, or were in adjusted condition for use but prior to the passage of liquid therethrough. The deilector would thus be in a ilexed condition as determined by the location of the rod 35 which is in turn determined by the setting of the collar 40. When, however, liquid is discharged from the egress port 13, the impact force of the discharge on the deector causes its flexure contour, i.e., its curve, to change, one such change being shown in FIG. 5 in contrast to FIG. 4. Stating this in a different way, and without regard at this point in this specification to the extent or manner in which the stream is dispersed, the deflector 22 is flexed, i.e., pushed, back by the force of the discharge so that it may be considered as having a sort of shorter radius, as it were, as can be seen by comparing the FIG. 5 deflector curvature with that of FIG. 4. Assuming suicient liquid force for FIG. 5, the lower part of the free portion 28 of the deflector may move back into abutment with the angles 26, as shown, the stiffener 24 may be completely deexed, i.e., as in FIG. l, the llexure curvature of the deflector 22 commencing at a level above the plate 24, and to a very appreciable extent the rear face of the defiector 22 free portion 28 may be engaged along a line with the rod 35 as a backer. A lesser liquid pressure would give the `deflector 22 and plate 24 fiexure curvatures somewhat between those of the FIGS. 4 and 5 showings, while a greater liquid pressure would cause the flexing of the deflector 22 to commence at an even higher point than shown in FIG. 5.
The location of the deflector 22 across the path of dis- 6 charge of the nozzle 10 causes a change in the direction of ow of the liquid and results in its dispersion and breaking up into a curtain or drops of various sizes in a general fan shape. All this is well understood inthe use of deflector-type nozzles and will not be gone into in detail here, but in connection with this dispersion and the reason for it, and as a third consideration, attention is called to the fact that by -means 'ofthe .present invention the force of the impact of the discharge upon the deflector 22, in addition to changing the flexure of the deflector, serves to cause the deector to exert rearward pressure on the rod above the axis of the spindle 32 since the dispersed liquid flowsrto and over the free or upper end of the deflector 22 and therefore causes the portion of the rod 35 below the spindle 32 to tend to swing inwardly toward the angles 26. This causes the collar to maintain its engagement with the angles 26, and rod swinging does not take place because of this engagement. Stating this last differently, while the natural resilience of the deilexed deflector, and of the plate 24 or plates, when used, causes them to tend to swing the rod 35 in a reverse direction so that the parts named 4become unexed, i.e., in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3 position, and while this tendency to thus swing the rod 35 is greatly augmented by the force of the liquid discharge against the deflector, yet the rod 35 does not swing because of the stop afforded by the collar 40 engaging the angles 26. The rod 35, i.e., the deflector flexing means, is thus maintained in deiector-flexing position by features of the nozzle structure itself, and because it is intended that high liquid pressures be used with embodiments of the present invention, this last is 0f great importance .in practical applications of the present invention. The mechanical manner of maintaining the flexing means in position regardless of the amount of force of the impact of the liquid stream on the deilector stands out in marked contrast to the necessity of the operator himself having the task of maintaining a flexing means in a given position, a task not performable with high liquid pressures and probably not performable with even low pressures since there would lbe bound to be some utter of the flexing means even under such conditions.
In view of the foregoing it is believed that little more need be said concerning embodiments of the present inl vention. If desired, the edges of the outstanding legs of the angles 26 may be serrated so as to have teeth resembling those of a rack, and the rod 35 may receive a collar having a periphery to fit between successive teeth on the angles 26. Such a construction is another equivalent of the angles 26-collar 40 structure illustrated, and it will be appreciated that the resiliency of the dellector 22 and the force of the discharge from the nozzle 10 against the deector would exert rearward pressure on the rod 35 above the spindle 32 to cause the modified collar to remain in tooth engagement and perform its stop means function. While the spindle 32 is shown as mounted in the apertures 29 (FIG. 6) in the angles 26, the spindle may be mounted lower, as in the apertures 30, if desired, to cause the deliector 22 to be exed by the rod 35 into ilexure contours somewhat different than those shown, and by the same token it is contemplated that the angles 26 may be longer, i.e., higher, than shown, with the result that when the spindle 32 is mounted adjacent the free ends of such angles, particularly when used in connection with two or more stitener plates as described above, a particularly rsharp curvature can be given to the deector 22 by the rod 35, beginning well above the collar 15. It will also be appreciated that while the strap 38 coacts slidingly with the rod 35 to move the deector positively to deilexed condition, the strap 38, by reason of being fixed on the detlector 22, also acts as a guide to constrain the swinging of the rod 35 to a plane normal to the axis 0f the spindle 32. As shown in FIG. 1, the rod 35 and arch of the strap 38 lie along the major axis of the deector so that with this construction the detlector i-s always ilexed and deflexed in a regular manner transversely of the. path of discharge of the nozzle. It is preferred in embodiments of the present invention that the support for the spindle 32 be angles rather than rods or bars or other shapes, the reason being that I have found that angles provide maximum stiffness and resistance to the thrust exerted on the rod 35 by the deector 22 under the influence of the impact thereagainst of the discharged liquid. With the nozzle 10 mounted on a suitable source of liquid under pressure, which may be a hose or a monitor carried by a vehicle, for examples, the collar may be made stationary on the nozzle by the thumb screw 19, or by loosening the screw the collar 15 and therefore the deflector 22 and coacting .parts may be turned to right or left rotatably as a unit, and this rotation may be a full 360 degrees or any lesser extent to play the discharge on the under portions of three .branches or on varying contours of rights of way or roadway embankments. To effect this turning, the collar 15 may be manually turned on the cylinder 14, or the knob 37 may be used for this purpose, or the s crew 19 may have a knob finally in place of the usual thumb and finger surfaces shown, or the collar may be provided with handles which are not illustrated. As a nal point, while the front face of the deector 22 is shown as unlined, it is contemplated that when a liquid discharge includes abrasive material, as dirt in a water-seed-soil discharge, a lining of some relatively soft material (not shown) be provided because its relative softness-rubber is one examplereceives an abrasive discharge with less wear than does a surface of harder material. In such a construction the lining would preferably extend downwardly substantially to the bottom of the rigid deflector portion 25 and the plate 24 so as to be clamped therebetween from its bottom to a point above the collar 15.
What is claimed as new is:
1. In a liquid discharging device:
(A) a nozzle;
(B) a flexible detlector having an end portion rigidly mounted to locate the deflector in a position of disuse in which the free end portion of the deflector is unflexed and spaced from the axis of discharge of the nozzle;
(C) means for exng the deflector into the path of discharge of the nozzle, said ilexing means being spaced from the rigidly mounted end portion of the deector and said end portion being mounted independently of the flexing means;
(D) a stitener engageable Awith the deector beyond its mounting and in the direction of the free end portion of the dellector for yieldingly resisting ilexing of the deector, said stilfener also being spaced from the exing means; and
(E) stop means to maintain the flexing means in deector-flexing position against the exing-resisting influence of the stiffener and the tendency of the flexed deector to resume its unexed position.
2. In a liquid discharging device:
(A) a nozzle;
(B) a flexible delector having an end portion rigidly mounted to locate the deflector in a position of disuse in which the rdeector is unexed and spaced from the axis of discharge of the nozzle;
(C) means for exing the delector into the path of dicharge of the nozzle; and
(D) means carried by the deflector and engageable with the flexing means whereby the deflector is positively moved to deexed condition during movement of the flexing means in a direction opposite to that in which it moves to cause the deflector to be exed.
3, Structure such as set forth in claim 2 characterized by the fact that the flexing means (C) is slidable relatively to the means (D) carried by the deflecton 4. In a liquid discharging device:
(B) a flexible deflector having an end portion rigidly mounted to locate the deector in a position of disuse in which the deflector is spaced from the axis of discharge of the nozzle;
(C) means swingable about an axis for flexing the deector into the path of discharge of the nozzle; and
(D) a guide carried by the deector and coacting with the flexing means for constraining its swinging to a plane substantially normal to its axis of swinging.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 4/1910 Stone 2395l0 4/1957 Gilmour d 239-513 X UNITED STATES PATENT oEErc-E CERTIFICATE 0E CORRECTION Patent No. 3,351,291 November 7, 1967 Werner P. Pohle pears in the above numbered pat- It is herebyT certified that error ap Patent should read as ent requiring correction and that the Said Letters corrected below.
Column 1, line 63, for "succeeded" read seeded column 4, line 63, for "anw" read any column 7, line 16, for "three" read tree line Z0, for "finally" read finial Signed and Sealed this 26th day of November 1968.
EDWARD I. BRENNER Edward M. Fletcher, J r.
Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer