US 3352421 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. E. CARY DIALYZER CLAMP ASSEMBLY Nov. 14, 1967 Filed Oct. 23, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEYS JAMES E. CARY Nov. 14, 1967 J. E. CARY 3,352,421
DIALYZER CLAMP ASSEMBLY Filed Oct; 25, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 3o 24 L 20 I6 I F/G 3 )2 1 IN I T341? JAMES E. GARY INVENTOR.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,352,421 DIALYZER CLAMP ASSEMBLY James E. Cary, Edmonds, Wash, assignor to Sweden Freezer Manufacturing Co., Seattle, Wash, a corporation of Washington Filed Oct. 23, 1965, Ser. No. 503,007 11 Claims. (Cl. 210238) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A dialyzer clamp assembly peripherally contains the plates of a dialyzer and clamps the plates into functional position by means of toggle clamps pivotally hinged to one of two frames and compressibly connectable to the other frame.
This invention relates to apparatus for use in hemodialysis and more particularly to apparatus for supporting a dialyzer employed in hemodialysis.
In recent years artificial kidneys have been employed to treat patients with acute renal failure and to rehabilitate patients who would otherwise die of chronic uremia. An essential feature of an artificial kidney system is the dialyzer. A Kiil-type dialyzer, which is generally preferred, comprises two cellophane semi-permeable envelopes through which small portions of a patients blood passes in counterfiow to a dialysis solution passing on the outer surface of the cellophane envelopes. The dialysis system removes Waste from the blood portions by a permeation phenomenon. The cellophane envelopes are supported by a dialyzer which comprises an intermediate plastic plate, and upper and lower plastic plates that are superimposed on the surfaces of the intermediate plate. One of the cellophane envelopes is positioned between the lower plate and the intermediate plate and the second cellophane envelope is positioned between the intermediate plate and the upper plate. Suitable apertures are provided within the dialyzer plates for directing a portion of a patients blood into and out of the two cellophane envelopes and for directing a dialysis solution across the outer surfaces of the cellophane envelopes. When the dialyzer is assembled with the cellophane envelopes in place the dialyzer is clamped such that the upper and lower plastic plates are compressed toward one another to fluid-tightly seal the flow passages within the dialyzer.
Because of the complexity of known dialyzer apparatus it is difficult to properly clamp the assembled dialyzer such that a fluid-tight seal is obtained completely around the periphery of the dialyzer. Further, once the proper amount of clamping pressure is achieved it has been found to be difiicult to reestablish this proper clamping pressure when the dialyzer is disassembled, the cellophane envelopes replaced and the dialyzer reassembled and reclamped. It has also been found to be diflicult to maintain the three plastic plates of the dialyzer in proper alignment upon reassembly without consuming an inordinate amount of time in insuring proper alignment.
It is a primary object of this invention to provide a dialyzer clamp assembly which insures the proper clamping of a dialyzer upon assembly in a quick and easy manner. Another object of this invention is to provide a clamp ing assembly that can be easily adjusted to provide a uniform clamping pressure completely around the periphery of the dialyzer. A further object is to provide a clamping assembly that permits the dialyzer to be quickly disassembled and reassembled with the plastic plates of the dialyzer in proper alignment. These and other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a top plan view of the dialyzer clamp assembly of this invention;
3,352,421 Patented Nov. 14, 1967 FIGURE 2 is a side view of a dialyzer clamp assembly;
FIGURE 3 is a detailed view illustrating one of the clamps of the clamp assembly in a clamping position; and
FIGURE 4 is a view taken along the line 44 in FIG. 1 illustrating a clamp assembly with the clamps opened to permit disassembly and reassembly of the dialyzer.
In general the dialyzer clamp assembly of this invention comprises a base peripheral frame upon which the dialyzer is supported. A top peripheral frame which is placed upon the assembled dialyzer and a plurality of adjustable toggle clamping means which are pivotally hinged to one of the peripheral frames and are adapted to engage the other peripheral frame and rigidly clamp the base and top peripheral frames compressibly toward one another. With reference to FIGURES 1 and 2 the base and top peripheral frames are designated by the numerals 10 and 12 respectively and the adjustable toggle clamping means by numeral 14. The base and top peripheral frames are preferably constructed in a similar manner and comprise side bars 16-18 and 16'-18', respectively, and reinforcing cross bars 20 and 20, respectively. Cross .bars 20 and 20' preferably have a T-shaped cross-section with the leg of the T extending in an outward direction from the clamp assembly. Toggle clamping means 14 are positioned at least on four corners of the clamp assembly and at intermediate points along the side bars 16-18 and 16'-18 as required to provide a uniform clamping pressure. In FIGURES 1 and 2 four end toggle clamping means and six intermediate toggle clamping means are shown. The end and intermediate toggle clamping means are preferably located at opposite ends of cross bars 20 and 20' such that the clamping pressure will be distributed transversely across the dialyzer in addition to being distributed laterally along the sides of the dialyzer.
At each location of a toggle clamping means, side bars 16-18 and 16'-18' are preferably provided with clamp blocks. Clamp blocks 22 are connected to the side bars of the base peripheral frame and are adapted to be pivotal hinge points for the clamps 14. Clamp blocks 24 are connected to the side bars of the top peripheral frame and are adapted to receive toggle clamping means 14 when the latter are placed in a clamping position. As more clearly shown in FIG. 3, an inner section of the clamp blocks 22 and 24 is cut away so that side bars 16 and 16' can be positioned therein to provide a flush composite face against which cross bars 20 and 20' abut and connect. The clamp blocks and the side bars may be suitably con nected together as by a press fit. The clamp blocks may also be cast with the respective side bars as unitary members. Cross bars 20 and 20' are preferably connected to the composite flush inner face of side bars 16 and 16' and clamp blocks 22 and 24 by means such as welding.
As shown more clearly in FIGS. 3 and4, each toggle clamping means 14 comprises a toggle clamp and a retaining lever 26 to which the toggle clamp is pivotally connected. The lever 26 is pivotally hinged to the base peripheral frame clamp block 22 at a hinge point 14a. The toggle clamp comprises a toggle link 28 which has an adjustable head comprising bolt 30 adapted to fit within an aperture 24a provided therefor on the upper sur face of the top peripheral frame clamp block 24, and a handle 31 pivotally connected to an intermediate section of lever 26 at a hinge point 14b and to toggle link 28 at the toggle knee 140. The sections of handle 31 between hinge point 14b and toggle knee 14c constitute another toggle link. Hinge point 14b is located on an upper section of handle 31 and toggle knee 14c is located at a lower section of handle 31 such that when handle 31 is lifted upward the toggle link 28 will be lifted from aperture or rounded depression 24a in clamp block 24, out of the clamping position shown in FIG. 3, such that the clamp may be pivoted away from the top peripheral frame as shown in FIG. 4. Toggle link 28 has an arcuate shape with its upper section projecting toward the clamp assembly. i
' Each lever 26 has sufficient length so that when the toggle clamping means are in clamping positions, the levers 26 will abut their respective top peripheral frame clamp blocks to properly position the top peripheral frame with respect to the base peripheral frame and retain the top peripheral frame in that position. When a toggle clamping means is placed in a clamping position, the toggle link in handle 31 between hinge point 14b and toggle knee Me is positioned oif vertical toward the dialyzer clamp assembly so that the toggle knee urges the lever 26 into a retaining position. The base peripheral frame clamp blocks 22 are preferably U-shaped members with the legs 22a of the U extending outward from the clamp assembly such that a recess is provided in which the lower end of the clamp lever 26 is inserted and pinned to the sides 22a at hinge point 14a. As also shown in FIG. 4, the top peripheral frame clamp blocks 24 are preferably provided with recesses 24b into which the upper ends of levers 26 are inserted when the clamps are placed in a clamping position such as shown in FIG. 3.
Clamp handles 31 are preferably fabricated from a generally channel-shaped member with the side walls 31a of the channel extending from the channel base 31b tovward the clamp assembly. The channel base 31b has a generally inverted L-shaped configuration with the upper section cut away such that a recess is provided in which toggle link 28 may be pivotally moved about toggle knee 140 as shown in FIG. 4.
Each clamp adjustable bolt 30 may be threaded through the upper end of toggle link 28 to a predetermined extent by-positioning intermediate lock nut 30a. By this arrangement each adjustable bolt 30 may be tightened down onto the top peripheral frame clamp block 24 to a desired degree by a torsion wrench and that position maintained by threading intermediate nut 30a down onto the top of the upper end of toggle link 28. Thus once the proper clamping pressure is established on each toggle clamping means 14 this clamping pressure may be easily retained regardless of the disassembly and reassembly of the dialyzer.
A preferred dialyzer 32 as shown in FIG. 4 comprises an intermediate plastic plate 32a, top and bottom plastic plates, 32b and 32c respectively, and a rectangular peripheral soft rubber seal member 32d which encloses the peripheral sides of intermediate plate 32a. The adjacent surfaces of the three plates, between which the cellophane envelopes are placed, are corrugated to provide flow passage. The combined widths of intermediate plate 32a and seal member 32d are slightly greater than the widths of the top and'bottom plates 32b and 320. The thickness of seal member 32d is slightly greater than the thickness of intermediate plate 32a such that a fluid-tight seal will be created with the top and bottom plates 32b and 320 compressibly urged toward one another when the clamp assembly is placed in clamping position as shown in FIG. 3. Because of the flexibility of seal member 32d, seal member 32d will tend to be deformed outward under the clamping pressure of toggle clamping means 14. In order to inhibit the outward deformation of seal member 32d, intermediate retaining bars 34 are preferably connected to the corner toggle clamping meansby screws 26, or the like, as shown in the left hand portion of FIG. 4. Thus, when the toggle clamping means 14 are placed in a clamping position as shown in FIG. 3, intermediate retaining bars 34 are brought to the outer edge of seal member 32d to prevent its outward deformation. The dialyzer is described in US. patent application Serial No. 503,002, entitled Dialyzer by Harvey F. Swenson, filed of even date herewith, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by this reference.
With reference again to FIGS. 1 and 2, the clamp assembly is preferably provided with reinforcing end bars 38 which are threadably attached to the corner clamps by screws 4e. Thus, in order to open the clamp assembly, reinforcing side bars 38 must be threadably detached at one of their ends so that the clamps may be opened and pivoted outward from the dialyzer. At least one of the cross bars 20 of the base and top peripheral frames is provided with peg members 42 extending inwardly and adapted to fit within apertures provided therefor in the outer surfaces of the dialyzer top and bottom plates to insure proper alignment of these plates on the. dialyzer rubber seal member.
As shown in FIG. 2, the clamp assembly of this invention is adapted to be positioned on a dialyzer support table 44 and rigidly attached thereto by clamp screws 46 which join table 44 to two of the base peripheral frame intermediate cross bars 20. A suitable dialyzer support table is described in U.S. patent application Serial No. 503,006, entitled Dialyzer Support Assembly by Robert S. Patch, filed of even date herewith, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by this reference.
What is claimed is:
1. A dialyzer clamp assembly which comprises a base, peripheral frame and a top peripheral frame adapted for receiving a dialyzer; and a plurality of adjustable toggle clamping means connected to one of such frames and adapted to compressibly contact the other frame, each of said toggle clamping means comprising'a retaining lever pivotally hinged to one of said frames and a toggle clamp having a handle hinged 'to said retaining lever and a toggle link adapted to compressibly contact the other frame and pivotally hinged to said handle at a toggle knee, and the toggle knee adapted to urge said retaining lever against said other frame when said other frame and said toggle clamping means is in a clamping position.
2. A dialyzer clamp assembly according to claim 1 wherein said base and top peripheral frames each comprise parallel side bars spaced apart and reinforced by cross bars joined at opposite ends to said side bars.
3. A dialyzer clamp assembly acording to claim 1 wherein said base and top peripheral frames are each provided with clamp blocks positioned such that base peripheral clamp blocks are positioned at each clamp location and hinged to such toggle clamping means retaining levers and such that top peripheral clamp blocks are positioned at each clamp location and are contacted.
5. A dialyzer clamp assembly according to claim 2.
wherein intermediate retaining side bars are provided between the side bars of the base and top peripheral frames and are connected to at least retaining lever intermediate sections of two of said toggle clamping means.
6. A dialyzer clamp assembly according to claim 2 wherein reinforcing end bars are attached to corner toggle clamping means at the ends of said base and top peripheral frames. 7
7. A dialyzer clamp assembly which comprises a base peripheral frame and a top peripheral frame, each comprising a pair of parallel side bars spaced apart and reinforced by cross bars joined at opposite ends to said side bars with at least one cross bar on each frame being provided with inwardly-extending pegs; a dialyzer having top, bottom and intermediate plates with a soft flexible seal around the peripheral edge of the intermediate plate and between the top and bottom plates, the outer surfaces of the top and bottom plates being provided with apertures adapted to receive the cross bar pegs; and a plurality of adjustable toggle clamping means pivotally connected to said base peripheral frame and adapted to compressibly contact said top peripheral frame, each of such clamps comprising a retaining lever hinged to one of said frames at a first hinge point, a toggle link with an adjustable head adapted to contact the other frame, and a toggle handle pivotally hinged to said retaining lever at a second hinge point and .pivotally hinged to said toggle link at a toggle knee.
8. A dialyzer clamp assembly according to claim 7 wherein said base and top peripheral frames are each provided with clamp blocks positioned such that base peripheral clamp blocks are positioned at each toggle 15 clamping means location and connected to such toggle clamping means at the first hinge points, and such that top peripheral clamp blocks are positioned at each toggle clamping means location and are contacted by toggle link adjustable heads.
9. A dialyzer clamp assembly according to claim 8 wherein the outer surfaces of the top peripheral frame clamp blocks are provided with depressions; and wherein the toggle link adjustable heads comprises bolts threadably adjustable through the upper section of the toggle link and intermediate lock nuts adapted to limit the extent to which such bolts may be adjusted, the depressions in the top peripheral clamp blocks being adapted to receive 5 between and parallel to the side bars of the base and top peripheral frames and are connected to at least the retaining lever intermediate sections of two of said toggle clamping means.
11. A dialyzer clamp assembly according to claim 7 10 wherein reinforcing end bars are attached to corner toggle clamping means at the ends of said base and top peripheral frames.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,453,492 11/1948 Carter 292-256.69 X 2,583,053 1/1952 Kestner et a1. 292113 X FOREIGN PATENTS 1,036,407 4/ 1953 France.
OTHER REFERENCES Cole, J. J., et al., Studies on the Modified Polypropylene Kiil Dialyzer, in Transactions American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, v01. IX, pages 67 to 72 (page 25 70 relied on), June 1963.
REUBEN FRIEDMAN, Primary Examiner.
F. SPEAR, Assistant Examiner.