|Publication number||US3352448 A|
|Publication date||Nov 14, 1967|
|Filing date||Nov 15, 1965|
|Priority date||Nov 15, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3352448 A, US 3352448A, US-A-3352448, US3352448 A, US3352448A|
|Inventors||Livingstone Jay G|
|Original Assignee||Livingstone Jay G|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (23), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
' Filed Nov. 15, 1965 Nov. 14, 1967 J. G. LIVINGSTONE 3,352,448
RESILIENT CLOSURE 2 Sheets-Sheet l 14, 1967 J. G. LIVINGSTONE 3,352,448
Filed Nov. 15, 1965" 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent F 3,352,448 RESILIENT CLOSURE Jay G. Livingstone, 715 W. Market St., Akron, Ohio 44303 Filed Nov. 15, 1965, Ser. No. 507,762 Claims. (Cl. 220-60) The fitments of this invention are of resilient composition and are designed to be attached by mere pressure to the flaring annular wall which surrounds an opening in a container. Such containers are, for instance, illustrated in my Patent 3,080,993.
The undersurface of the fitments of this invention is provided with a groove which makes a snug fit with the outwardly flaring end of such an annular wall. Preferably the fitment wall below its flaring end portion converges inwardly and the fitments used on such containers are preferably designed so that the inner surface of the groove makes a tight fit with the inwardly converging portion of this wall.
The fitments may be closures, in which case there is no opening through them, or they may be provided with an opening for any purpose such as the insertion of a thermometer if the fitment is to be used on a chemical flask, or for insertion of a pouring tube, or the opening may be surrounded by a spout integral with the fitment, or they may form a shaker top, etc.
The area of the undersurface of the fitment which surrounds the groove tapers upwardly into the groove so that the tapering wall forms a lead so that the fitment may be attached to the container by mere pressure. The resiliency of the fitment causes its outer portion to flare out wardly when the tapering area is pressed against the end of a flaring tube, and slides outwardly over the end of the tube until the end portion of the tube is seated in the groove. The fitment is relatively thin at the bottom of the groove, and this facilitates outward flexing of the fitment, particularly if the periphery of the fitment is relatively thick. The wall of the fitment outside of the groove contacts the outer surface of the container wall near its tip only. It makes contact with only a portion of that part of the wall which flares outwardly, and there is a space between the fitment and the outer surface of the rest of the outwardly flaring wall of the container. Consequently, when the fitment is pressed on to the container, the portion of the fitment which lies outside of the container wall will be flexed outwardly for onlya portion of the distance that it would have to be flexed if the fitment contacted a larger portion of the Outer surface of the fitment wall.
Usually the end of the wall will contact the bottom of the groove, although this is not necessary. The groove is narrow and makes a snug fit with the end portion of the wall to the depth necessary to attach the fitment to the container.
To improve the seal between the fitment and the inner surface of the outwardly flaring wall of the container, the portion of the fitment within the wall may be of greater diameter than the outwardly flaring wall. This will not only necessitate squeezing this portion of the fitment into the container, but also it will tighten the grip of the fitment over the end of the wall, causing the portion of the fitment which extends beyond the container wall to move inwardly. This is particularly advantageous where the squeezed portion of the fitment extends below the outwardly flaring portion of the container wall and contacts the upwardly converging portion, and expansion of the fitment tends to draw it into the opening in the container.
To facilitate the flexing of the portion of the fitment beyond the groove when pressure is applied to the lead, the upper surface of the fitment may be grooved in a ring of larger diameter than the groove in the undersurface. It also facilitates flexing to provide a groove in the upper 3,352,448 Patented Nov. 14, 1967 surface of the fitment which is concentric with and of smaller diameter than the groove in the undersurface. This groove also lessens the bulk of material adjacent the inner surface of the outwardly flaring portion of the container wall, and if the container wall converges upwardly below the outwardly flaring portion, such a groove concentrates the bulk of the material adjacent this upwardly converging portion of the wall. Where such a groove is provided it is often desirable to provide a continuing projection from the undersurface of the groove which forms the inner wall of the groove which is on the undersurface of the fitment. Such a projection thickens this portion of the fitment and causes a downward pull on the fitment when heated, particularly if'this thickened portion extends under the upwardly and inwardly converging'portion of the container wall.
Due to the outward flare of the wall and the tight fit of the groove around the end portion of the wall, if the fitment should shrink more than the wall, or the wall should expand more than the fitment, the fitment will continue to fit tight over the end portion of the wall due to the fact that this end portion of the wall flares outwardly. A tight fit over the top of the wall is insured when either heating or cooling affects the size of the fitment or the opening in the container, if the fitment is flush against the upwardly converging portion of the container wa In the preferred form of the invention the area of the wall immediately below the outwardly flaring portion of the wall converges upwardly toward the opening. If the inner wall of the groove of a fitment designed for such a container conforms to the inner surface of the wall, and particularly the inwardly converging portion of the wall, a tight fit is insured regardless of any differential in the expansion and contraction of the fitment and the wall, because if the fitment enlarges more than the wall the bottom portion of the inner groove forming part of the fitment will be drawn against the inwardly converging portion of the wall and make a tight sealing fit therewith.
To enhance the advantages of the tight fit of the fitment on the wall with change in temperature, the outer portion of the fitment is made bulky, and ribs-preferably radial ribsextend inwardly from the portion of the fitment inside of the groove.
Increases in the thickness of the fitment at various 1ocations product helpful results, providing a large bulk of fitment outside of the container Wall causes a swelling of this portion on heating, with resultant downward pull and tightening of the wrap-around portion of the fitment against the tip of the container wall. Ribs on the inner portion of the fitment produce an effect like that of increasing the wall thickness of the fitment or providing a continuous bead there, but permit the circumference of the fitment to be more easily squeezed when the fitment is pressed on to the container. Such use of ribs to increase the thickness is most effective when at leastv the lower surface of the portion of the fitment which spans the opening in the container is located below the top of the container wall, and particularly when the bottoms of the ribs are below the portion of the wall that flares outwardly.
The invention is further described in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which- FIGURE l is a section through the portion of the end of an outwardly flaring wall which protrudes from the end of a container with a fitment thereon; and I FIGURES 2 to 17 are sections through modifications of fitments and container walls.
In FIGURE 1 the outer end 1 of the container wall flares outwardly above the inwardly converging portion 2. The fitment 3 is provided with a groove 4 which fits snugly around the outer end of the portion 1 of the wall.
a The undersurface of the fitment tapers inwardly toward the groove in the area 5. The inner wall of the groove 6 conforms to the top of the inwardly converging por tion 2 .of the wall of the container so that when the fitment expands more than the wall, or the wall contracts more than the fitment, due to a change in temperature, the portion 1 of the fitment will press against the adjacent converging area 2 of the wall of the container, maintaining a tight fit therewith. If on cooling, on the other hand, the fitment shrinks more than the wall of the container, it will shrink onto the outwardly flaring end portion of the Wall and make a tighter fit therewith. The radial ribs 7 give bulk to the fitment. As the fitment expands on heating, its circumference increases, making the fitment press tighter against the container wall, and by having the fit ment and ribs extend below the outwardly flaring portion 1 of the wall, this increase in diameter tends to pull the fitment further into the container Opening. The portion 8 of the fitment outside of the wall 1 is bulky and at all times pulls inwardly against the outer surface of the outwardly flaring portion 1 of the wall. To take the most advantage of this, it is desirable to have the fitment thin at the tip of the container wall.
When the fitment is to be applied to the container, it is placed on the container with the end of the container wall contacting the lead portion of the fitment 5. Pressure is applied and the portion 8, which is outside of the groove 4, fiexesoutwardly and the fitment is readily put in place on the container wall.
FIGURE 2 shows the inwardly tapering lead wall 25. It is to be noted that the wall 26' does not extend far enough into the container to contact the inwardly converging wall portion 2. The ribs 27 give bulk, and may vary in length.
The container wall portion 31 of the fitment shown in FIGURE 3 is somewhat different from that shown in FIGURES l and 2 because it includes a small bead 32 at its end. The wall 36 extends below the outwardly flaring portion of the Wall of the container. On contraction of the container, the wrap-around portion of the fitment which is over the end of the container wall, pulls tight against this bead.
In FIGURE 4, the end 41 of the container wall flares out only slightly. The portion 46 of the fitment extends under the upwardly converging portion 2 of the container wall. The groove 40, which is of larger diameter than the top of the container wall, facilitates outward flexing of the portion 48 of the fitment as it is pressed onto, and removed from, the container.
In FIGURE 5 the portion 52 of the container wall converges inwardly at a relatively sharp angle, and the portion 41 is flared outwardly at a relatively sharp angle. The outer portion 58 of the fitment snaps over the end of the wall portion 51 and forms a tight fit with it. The inner wall of the groove 56 conforms to the shape of the container wall to a distance to contact the inwardly converging portion 52.
The fitment and container of FIGURE 6 resemble those of FIGURE 1, the chief difference being that the inner wall 66 of the groove barely contacts the inwardly converging portion 62 of the container wall.
In FIGURE 7 the inner wall 76 of the groove does not reach the inwardly converging portion 72 of the container wall. If the fitment shrinks more than the container, this fitment will be drawn more tightly on to the portion 71 of the container wall. On the other hand, if the container wall shrinks more than the fitment, the tendency might be for the fitment to climb on the container wall, but the heat will expand the bulk of material 7 8 and tend to maintain sealing contact between the fitment and the container wall. As in many of the other embodiments shown in the drawings, the fitment is thin in the wrap-around portion at the tip of the container wall between the grooves 170 and 174 and this induces the portion 78 to pull in under the portion 71 of the wall.
In FIGURE 8, the projection 86' into the container opening, tends to expand on heating, increasing the tightness of the fit between the fitment and the container wall.
FIGURE 9 shows a modification of the container illus= trated in FIGURE 8 in which threads 93 are provided on the container so that the shaker-type fitment with openings '90 may be used when a screw cap 97 is utilized. In the fitment shown, a groove 99 is provided in the top of the fitment interiorly of the groove 94 which receives the top portion 91 of the wall of the Container. The groove 99 facilitates the flexing of the outer portion of the fitment as the fitment is pressed into attaching relationship with the wall of the container in contact with the tapering area 95. It flexes outwardly and the area guides the end portion 91 of the container into the groove 94.
In the modification shown in FIGURE 10, the inner wall 106 of the groove extends into contact with the converging portion 102 of the wall of the container. Ribs 107 give body which facilitates the desired retention of the fitment in the opening at the end of the Wall of the container.
An outstanding feature of the assembly of FIGURE ll is the projection 113 which extends upward from the fitment. It is adapted to spread at its base, facilitating placement of the fitment on the container and removal therefrom. The groove facilitates flexing of the outer portion of the fitment, and the downward projection 116' gives bulk which tends to maintain a tight seal.
The enlarged view, FIGURE 12 shows the wraparound etfect clearly. The fitment is thin where it extends over the tip of the wall 121 of the fitment. The portion 126' is thick, and together with ribs 127 causes a tight fit within the container opening as the fitment expands or the container wall shrinks, and tends to pull the fitment down into the container opening. On expansion of the fit-ment or shrinkage of the container, the bulk 128 pulls the fitment over the tip of the container wall, making a tight seal. The lip 129 assists in removal of the fitment.
In FIGURE 13, the grooves 130 and 133, outside and inside of the groove 134 which accommodates the end of the container wall, allow the fitment to flex as it is the container opening. Grooves 140. and 144 perform the function of grooves similarly located in the modification shown in FIGURE 13.
The diameter of the fitment of FIGURE 15 is larger than the opening provided by the outwardly flaring portion 151 of the container wall. The dotted line which is 'inside of the container wall indicates the shape of this portion of the fitment before it is placed on the container.
The contour of the outwardly-flaring dotted line overlaps the container wall 151 and when the fitment is placed on the container it of course conforms to the container wall making a tighter fit with it than if the contour of the fitment were the same as the contour of the wall. The projection 156 of the container fits against the up wardly converging portion 152 of the wall and holds the fitment against any tendency for the fitment to slide up out of the container opening. The bulk of material in the projection 156" and in the ribs 157 press the fitment outwardly making a tight fit. The groove reduces the bulk of the material which lies above the juncture of the outwardly flaring portion 151 of the Wall and the upwardly converging portion 152, thus forcing the fitment down into the container opening when the fitment is expanded by heat. The bulk 158 of fitment material outside of the container wall is drawn to the dotted-line position as the fitment is placed on the container due to the deformation of the portion of the container within the container wall.
The groove I54 lessens tension onthe bulk of material 158 outside of the container wall and it moves toward the container to the dotted-line position tightening the thin portion of the fitment which fits against the upper part of the portion 151 of the wall and around the end of the wall. This gives a very tight fit of the thin portion of the fitment over the end of the wall. The groove 154 also facilitates outward flexing of the bulk 158 as the fitment is placed on the container.
In the assembly shown in FIGURE 16, as the projection 166 and the bulk 168 outside of the container wall expand, they expand toward the container wall, tightening the grip of the fitment over the end of the container wall. The lip 169 assists in removal of the fitment.
The upper portion of FIGURE 17 is a section through a fitment, and the lower portion is a bottom view of the portion of the fitment which fits into a container opening. The bulk 178 is located outside of the container wall. The projection 176' extends below the outwardly flaring portion of the container wall and contacts the upwardly converging portion. The ribs 179 on the bottom of the portion of the fitment which fits into the container opening, not only strengthen it, but give bulk to it so that on heating the projection 176' is forced under the upwardly converging portion of the wall.
The container may be of glass, metal, plastic, etc. The fitment is made of any suitable plastic, such as polyethylene, polypropylene or other materials afiording adjustments by use of thin sections, ribs, etc. New flexible materials may show up, even rubber compositions, etc.
The invention is covered in the claims which follow.
What I claim is:
1. A fitment of resilient composition to fit over an outwardly flaring annular container wall which wall defines an opening into a container, the outside bottom of which fitment is of larger area than the end of the container wall, there being in the undersurface of the fitment a groove shaped to form a snug fit with the end portion of the container wall to a depth suificient to hold the fitment on the container wall, the fitment being relatively thin at the bottom of the groove and relatively thick outside of the groove, the undersurface of the fitment tapering up into the groove over an area at least as large as the area of the end of the container wall so that when the container wall is pressed against the tapering area the resiliency of the fitment permits the portion of the fitment outside of the groove to flare outwardly and the end of the wall is guided into the groove by the tapering area, the fitment making contact with only that portion of the outer surface of the outwardly flaring portion of the wall of the container which is adjacent the rim of the container wall.
2. The fitment of claim 1 in which there is a groove in the top surface of the fitment concentric with and of slightly smaller diameter than the groove in the bottom of the fitment, the fitment projecting downwardly from the bottom of this groove in the top of the fitment which projection contacts the inner surface of the container wall.
3. The fitment of claim 1 in which there is a groove in the top of the fitment which surrounds the groove into which the container wall fits, which groove facilitates the flexing of the outer portion of the groove when the end of the container wall is pressed against the tapering area thereof.
4. The fitment of claim 1 in which the portion of the fitment which spans the area within the container wall is continuous and substantially flat.
5. The fitment of claim 1 in which the container wall, below the outwardly flaring end converges towards the opening, and the inner wall of the groove conforms to the inner surface of said inwardly converging portion.
6. The fitment of claim 5 in which the fitment adjacent its bottom is larger than the area within the wall and extends below the outwardly flaring portion of the wall.
7. The fitment of claim 1 in which there are inwardly extending radial ribs on the inner surface of the inner wall of the groove.
8. The fitment of claim 7 in which the ribs are adjacent the bottom edge of the fitment.
9. The fitment of claim 7 in which the tops of the ribs blend with the top of the fitment.
10. The fitment of claim 7 in which the tops of the ribs blend with the top of the fitment and they extend to the bottom of the fitment.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3/1963 Livingstone 220-245 1/1967 Klygis 22060
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3080993 *||Feb 27, 1961||Mar 12, 1963||Livingstone Jay G||Cover and container|
|US3295415 *||Oct 18, 1965||Jan 3, 1967||Deckel Friedrich W||Machine tool with two alternately usable spindles|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US6260723 *||Oct 1, 1997||Jul 17, 2001||Tetra-Laval Holdings & Finance||Package for flowable media having a snap lid and preform for making same|
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|WO2000061447A1 *||Apr 10, 2000||Oct 19, 2000||James Edward Rooney||Snap-on cap and container|
|U.S. Classification||220/782, 220/790, 215/43, 215/45|
|International Classification||B65D41/18, B65D41/04, B65D41/02|
|Cooperative Classification||B65D41/0414, B65D41/185|
|European Classification||B65D41/18B, B65D41/04B1|