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Publication numberUS3353827 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 21, 1967
Filing dateApr 28, 1964
Priority dateApr 28, 1964
Publication numberUS 3353827 A, US 3353827A, US-A-3353827, US3353827 A, US3353827A
InventorsJr Angus Dun
Original AssigneeJr Angus Dun
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Target and backing member therefor
US 3353827 A
Images(2)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 21, 1967 A. DUN, JR

TARGET AND BACKING MEMBER THEREFOR Filed April 28, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet l Fig.

INVENTOR Dun, Jr.

Angus ATTORNEY Nov. 21, 1967 A. DUN, JR 3,353,827

'TARGET AND BACKING MEMBER THEREFOR Filed April 28, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Angus Dun, Jr

BYW"

ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,353,827 TARGET A-ND BACKING MEMBER THEREFOR Angus Dun, Jr., Fairview Drive, Neshanic- Station, NJ. 08853 Filed Apr. 28, 1964-, Ser. No. 363,169 15 (Claima. (Cl. 27.3-102.L)

The present invention relates to a target and a backing member therefor, adapted for use on a rifle range or a pistol range andby the use of which a permanent mark or indication will be clearly visible from the firing line so that the exact point of penetration of the bullet or other projectile will be permanently made on the target.

Another advantage of the present invention is that it will eliminate the necessity of the person using the firearm or anyone else leaving the firing line and approaching the target until' the point of penetration can be seen. In, addition to the inconvenience of approaching the target to ascertain where the bullet has hit, there is a certain measure of danger to the person approaching the target, since usually a series of such targets are suspended from wires or the like closely adjacent to one another and the person approaching the target might accidently get in the line of fire of another person using the range.

A further advantage and object of the present invention is to provide a target of this character by the use of which spotting telescopes is eliminated, especially where pistol matches are involved, since the pistol range, that is, the target is usually about sixty-five feet from the firing line. The cost of these telescopes is rather high and some ranges could not afford to purchase a supply of these telescopes.

When used on rifle ranges where the targets are positioned from fifty to one hundred yards from the firing line, use of the present invention would eliminate the necessity of a high. powered telescope of say twenty to thirty power, which is. necessary with the conventional target, and would permit the use of a spotting telescope of much lesser power and much less. expensive.

On some firing ranges, using the conventional targets, instead of making use of spotting telescopes a conventional pulley system for pulling the targets to the firing line for observation is employed, but these pulley systems are very expensive and involve a maintenance cost. The use of the target equipped with the backing member of the present invention will eliminate the need of these expensive pulley systems.

A still further advantage and object of the present invention is to provide a target of this character which Will permit the calling of each shot when zeroing in from the firing line. This is true because the exact point of penetration is clearly visible from the firing line.

The backing member of the present invention is fixed to the rear face of the target in alignment with the bullseye area of the target and is made of a material which will stretch when being penetrated by the bullet or projectile and will return to its original unstretched condition after the bullet has passed therethrough save for a pin hole or small opening in the center of the area of the backing member through which the bullet has passed. The object of this pin hole or small opening is that in matches or tournament a number of shots, usually about ten, is fired by each contestant and the area covered by the group of shots is determined by measuring from center to center of the punctures or penetrations made by the ten bullets. By producing these pin hole openings for each shot fired the area of the group of shots can be measured with greater precision than when a conventional target is used, since with the conventional target, any overlapping penetrations will tear away the material of the target and it will not be possible to measure from center to center of the ten penetrations.

A veryimportant feature of this. invention, is that it will provide a target having a backing member which will produce a permanent, marking or indication on. the target which can be examined and studied. leisurely by the "master, judge or scorer even though the oflicial did not actually see the results of each shot as it was fired.

Another aim of thepresent invention. is to provide a backing member of this type: which can readily and easily be aflixed'to the rear face of a conventional target so that the backing member can. be sold as aseparate article and the purchaser can apply it to the rear face of thetargets. Of course the backing member can also be applied'to the rearface of the target by the manufacturer of the target at'the time the target ismade.

The backing member is made of a contrasting color to the color of the bulls-eye, the conventional target has a bulls-eye area, usually in black, so. that the backing member-of the present invention could be made in the colorwhite. The fact that the portion of the target hit by the bulletis dissipated to an extent approximately equal to. the circumference of the bullet and the fact that the backing member has a recovery characteristic to its original condition after the bullet has passed therethrough, except for the pin hole mentioned above, the white backing member will be easily discernible in the portionv of the target which has been dissipated by the striking of'the bullet against the target.

A still further aim of the present invention is to provide a target and a backing member therefor which backing member has only certain areas thereof secured to the rear face of the target so that the unsecured portions of the backing member are free of the target and therefore can stretch the necessary amount when a bullet passes therethrough without detaching the backing member from the target.

With the foregoing and other objects in view, the invention will be hereinafter more fully described and more particularly pointed out in theappended claims.

In the drawings in which the same parts are denoted by the same reference numerals throughout the several views,

FIGURE 1 is a front elevational view of a target constructed in accordance with the present invention,

FIGURE 2 is a side elevational view thereof,

FIGURE 3 is a rear elevational view thereof,

FIGURE 4 is an exploded side elevation illustrating the method of assembly of the target and the backing member,

FIGURE 5 is a series of side elevational views of a target with parts in section to show in sequence the effect of a projectile on the target and backing member as it penetrates the target and the backing member and passes entirely therethrough,

FIGURE 6 is an enlarged fragmentary front elevational view of the target illustrating the appearance of the bulls-eye section thereof after being penetrated by a number of projectiles,

FIGURE 7 is a sectional view taken on the line 7-7 of FIGURE 6,

FIGURE 8 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a modified form of the invention illustrating diagrammatically means for hermetically attaching a backing member to the target at spaced apart points,

FIGURE 9 is a fragmentary rear elevational View taken along the line 99 of FIGURE 8,

FIGURE 10 is a rear elevational view with parts broken away of a modified form of backing member,

FIGURE 11 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 11-11 of FIGURE 10, and

FIGURE 12 is a view similar to FIGURE 10 illustrating another form of the backing member.-

Referring more particularly to the drawings and especially to FIGURES 1 through 7, at 10 is indicated a target which may be of the conventional type and made of any material which can be penetrated by a bullet or other projectile and may be made of the conventional type target paper. The front face of the target 16 is inscribed with the -usual or conventional concentric marking circles 11 which define the outer target areas and the inner concentric marking circles 12 which define the bulls-eye area 13.

As can be seen particularly by FIGURES 2, 3 and of the drawings, a backing member 14 is affixed to the rear face of the target in alignment with the bulls-eye area 13 and the backing member 14 may be made of substantially the same size as the bulls-eye area 13. The backing member 14 may be of any desired thickness but it has been found in actual practice that a thickness of from one-sixtyfourth to three-sixtyfourths of an inch works very satisfactorily. The backing material must be such that it has the characteristic or ability to stretch as the bullet or projectile penetrates it and permit the bullet finally to break through and pass entirely through the backing member and then the backing member will have the ability to recover or snap back to its original unstretched condition except or save for a pin hole or small opening in the center of the area of the backing member through which the bullet has passed. The backing member should be of a color which contrasts with the color of the bulls-eye area. Since the bulls-eye area of a conventional target is black, it is preferred that the backing member be a white color so that there is a sharp contrast between the black bulls-eye and the white backing member after the target and backing member have been penetrated by a bullet.

The backing member could be made of many materials which meet the characteristics set forth above, but the following are some examples of the material which would serve the purpose of this invention, natural rubber, silicone rubber, polyvinylchloride and polyethylene.

The following tabulations give the preferred durometer readings on the Shore A scale and the Shore D scale for the various materials mentioned above. The durometer readings indicate a hardness test, that is, the amount of pressure required to make an indentation on the material being tested.

4 at spaced apart intervals, as indicated at 15, in FIGURE 7 of the drawings. In the form of the invention illustrated in FIGURES 1 through 7 of the drawings, the adhesive is applied to the backing member in spaced apart concentric circles and may be applied thereto by means of a compass, the writing element of the compass has some of the adhesive applied thereto and the pointed end of the compass is inserted in the backing member at the center thereof and the compass is then rotated to form spaced apart concentric circles of increasing diameter away from the center of the backing member toward the outer peripheral edge thereof.

By applying the adhesive in this manner, the adhesive is applied to a sufficient number of spaced apart areas of the backing member to assure the secure afiixing of the backing member to the rear face of the target, leaving the intervening areas of the backing member free from attachment to the target so that when the bullet penetrates the backing member it will be free to stretch until it reaches its breaking point without pulling the backing member from the target.

In the use of the target illustrated in FIGURES 1 through 7, it is assumed that the target 10 with the backing member 14 properly affixed thereto is set up in the conventional manner and the marksman takes his position on the firing-line and fires at the target. Assuming that the projectile or bullet thus fired strikes within the bulls-eye area 13 of the target, the effect of the bullet striking and penetrating the target and the backing member is clearly illustrated in the series of views shown in FIGURE 5 of the drawings. Reading the views from left to right when looking at FIGURE 5, the first view shows the initial penetration of a bullet 16 or other projectile through the target 10 and its engagement with the backing member 14 to initiate the stretching of the backing member. The second and third views illustrate further penetration of the bullet 16 through the target and causing further stretching of the backing member. View No. 3 shows the backing member stretched almost to its breaking point and view 4 shows that the backing member has reached its breaking point and the bullet has begun to emerge from the rear face of the backing member. The fifth view of FIGURE 5 shows the final position of the target and the backing member after the bullet 16 has passed entirely therethrough.

Material Manufacturer ggffi Rating Silicone Rubber:

RTV 11 General Electric Corp 65 58 75 43 f0 65 45 to 65 Natural Rubber and Silicone 10 to 75 Polyvinylchloride Bakelite;

VN D 9950 Union Carbide Co., Bound Brook, N..l' 30 to 65 VN D 9980 Polyvinylchloride:

2301 }Carey Chemical 00., Flemington, N.J'., 30 to 65 328 subsidiary of Union Carbide 00. U 750 Woodbridge Plastics, Woodbridge, N.J'. to

Shore D Scale I Rating Polyethylene:

Bakelite 6169 Union Carbide C0 Fortitlex Celanese Corp, Belvidcre, NJ 40 to 68 Alathon Eblldu Pont de NCIIlOulS, Wilmington,

The backing member 14 is secured to the rear face of the target 10 by means of any appropriate conventional adhesive, such as, a conventional rubber cement. The adhesive is applied to one face of the backing member 14 5 eter substantially equal to the external diameter of the ages-"3582i FIGURES thatthe portion of 'thebacking member which "was stretched iby the passage or the bullet therethrou'gh has fully'recovered or returned to "its original unstretched "condition'save for the 'formation of *a'sniall or pinhole 18 whieh coincides with the "center "of the-"cutaway portion 17 of thetargeL-The cutaway portion 1*7""of"'the"target '"FIGURES'6 and 7"of the drawingsillustratethe effect 'upon' the target 10 and 'the"backin g member "14' when a round of' ten shots penetrate the target 'andthe backing member. From' these-'two Figures-it will be 'noted'thatthe bulls-eye area 13 has had "considerable "of its material cut away as indicated by thecut awayportion 17 andit will be noted that a corresponding amount-ofthe backing member is exposed as indicated at 191mm be further notedthat in this exposed 'area f9 of the 'backing "member'14, there-are ten'small' or pinhole openings '18 clearly defined and visible although apparently'twoof'the'bul'lets penetrated'overlapping'portions of the backing member, as can be'discerned in the upper part of the 'area 19. This will permit 'the accurate measuring of 'the openings 18 from center to center for the purpose of determining-the size of 'the'grotlping ofshotsin order to determine the score of each contestant.

Turning now to'FIGURES Sand 9 of the drawings, we find amodified'form of the target and-backing member. The target is indicated-at -20'and' the target areas onthe front face thereof are inscribed thereon in the conventional mannerfThereis applied to the rear faced the target 20 afilm 'or thin coating of' natural rubber, silicone rubber, vinyl, polyvinylchloride or polyethylene ofthe thickness of approximately .002 to L010inchin thickness. 'Thisfilm ofmaterial is laminated directlyto the back'of the target '20 and'is indicated at 21 in FIGURES 8 and 9. The backing member'22 which-is similar to'the backing member 14 of FIGURES 1 through 7 is "hermetically sealed to the exposed surface ofthe film 21 at spaced "apart areas indicated at '23 so'that unattached or floating portions '24 are formed or provided between the sealed areas 23 of the backing member 2*2IThese hermetically sealed areas '23 may be formedinany manner by the application of heat at the desired points or areas. In 'FIGURE'S is-shown digrammatica'lly-at 25 a conventional device for applying the heat to the areas '23. This device 25 includes heating 'tubes26 which are brought into 'contact with therear face of the backing member '22'at the points or-areas at whichthe sealed areas23 are desired to'be made.

The backing member22'should 'be'made from thes'ame material as the 'film or-coating' 21 so that a' good strong hermetical seal=is provided at the areas 23'between the film '21 and-the backing member22.

The target illustrated in FIGURES 8 and '9 will be used in the same manner as the target illustrated in FIGURES 1 through 7" andthe effect made thereon by a projectile penetrating the target and theibacking member willbe the same as that describedtinconnectionwith the target o'fFI'GURES 1 through 7.

In FIGURES'IO and 11 is illustrated a modified form of the backing :member WhlChTlS iI1dlCatEd"at 27. The backing member 27 may be made of any of the fivematerials mentioned above'in connection *with the backing members 14 and 22 andtis of-substantially the -same thickness as the other backing members.

One face of the backing member 27 is provided with spaced apart concentric circular ribs or ridges 28, the width of which will vary in direct proportion to the diameter ofthe backing-member 27. Thvexpos'ed outer sur- *faces of the ribs 1 28 ha've applie d thereto an adh'esive' 29 which 'maybe a conventional *rubber cement a'dhesive. A un-dc cover 30 '"is *applied to the 'ribbe'd side I of the backing I member 27 and ad'heres ligh'tly' to the *adhesive 29 so as to protect the adhes'ive' from' the *air, moisture and other extraneous 'matter wh'ich might interfere with the ability of"the-"adhesive2 9 to-' adhere to the 'rear'face ot the targetwhenihe backing member '27 is applied theretoI-This pull-off cover 30 may =be -a -waxpaper or other conventional protective cover-used -for such pnrposes,'such as on the-Well known band-aids.

The backing member 27 illustrated in FIGURES 10 '--and 11 may be sold per'setol'pu'rchasers who'havebn hand the supply ofconventional-targets and who Wish to apply the backing member-to" the targets themselves. The

backing member '27 'isapplied to awonveriticn'al target,

such as the target -10 of-FIGURES 1 'through 7, by 'r'emoving the cover 30-and applying the adhesiveocated ribs 28 to the back-of the target in linew iththebulFs-eye area of i the target 1 and; pressing the sa me 'firmly there- :against. :It-Will be noted that the ribs'28 pr'ovide and define spaces 31 therebetween and-the inner "circular rib 28 defines ra space 32 which spaces-31--and 332 are free of adhesive andWhenthe backing member is appliedto' the :rear of the target these spaces will be free frOm 'and lspace'd fromthe iback surface of the target so that the mater ial of :these spaced areas is r free to -'-be stretched "when penetrated by a bullet and w ill recover in -the same 0 ;.manner' as the :backing members 1-4 and 22.

:In-FIGURE. Il a backing m'ember 33-is illustra-ted 'and instead of the continuous circular ribs 28, the ribs -are in- .terruptedso as to :provide concentric spaced apart rows of segments134, the-outer exposed surfaces ofwhich are coatedwithaconventionaladhesive 35,Whichis protected by a pull-off cover :56, :similar to the mover- 30 of FIGURES. l0. and 11. It is apparent that when the pull-elf cover '36ihasbeen removed and the backing member 33 applied to the rear face of a conventional ta'rget'the backing member will be" attached to'the targetat spaced apart points was to1provider-intervening areas ofthe backing member which are free of the target and which can expand when penetrated by a bullet.

The backing members 27 and 33 of FIGURES -10 through 12 when applied to the-rear face of a 'conventional target will operate in the same manner as the target and backing member described and illustrated in FIGURES 1 through 9.

It is obvious that various :other changes and modifications may be made in-the detailsof constructionand design of the above specifically described embodiments of this invention without :departing'from the spirit thereof,

such changes and modifications being restricted "only by the scope of the following'claimsxlt isap'parent from the abovethat this invention provides an opticals'afety targe't.

substantially less than .a majority of th'e itotal surface area of one side of said body, and'a'n adhesive applied to i said' exposed surfaces of "the =raisedrport'ions.

92.. A tearable target :sheet having scoring i ndi'cia the'reon mcluding a bull s eye, 1a Ipen'etrable resilient backing -member of-a.co1or:c0ritrasting to that ofthe said bulFseye; securing means attaching-said backing mem'ber -to said ztarget sheet "at spacedapa'rt "areas for allowin'g' 'said Itargetsheet to tear in the-vicinity 'of a projectile impingelment, :thereby allowing ithe backing member "to show through the hole made in the target sheet by the projectile and rendering the point of impingement more visible due to the contrast in color of the backing member to that of the bulls-eye area, such backing member comprising a material characterized by the fact that it will stretch when being punctured by bullets passing through the target and the backing member so that the free portions of the backing member can stretch while the bullet is passing therethrough and can recover its original, unpunctured, unstretched condition save for a pinpoint opening in the center of the punctured area of the backing member after the bullet has passed therethrough, so that the portion defined by the spaced-apart areas of the backing member which have been penetrated by the bullet will be exposed through a portion of the target torn away by the passage of the bullet therethrough and Will be visible to a person on the firing line due to the contrast in color of the backing member to that of the bulls-eye area.

3. A target as claimed in claim 2, in which the attaching means comprises a film of the same material as the backing member applied to the rear face of the target and the spaced apart areas of the backing member are heremetically sealed to the said film.

4. For use with a target, an elastic backing member adapted to be secured to the back of the target, and means on the backing member for securing spaced apart areas of the backing member to the back of the target, said backing member comprising a material having the ability to stretch when being punctured by a projectile passing through the target and to return to its original unpunctured, unstretched condition save for a small opening therein in the punctured area of the backing member after the projectile has passed therethrough, said small opening being significantly smaller than the projectile passing therethrough, said backing member material being chosen from the group consisting of natural rubber, silicone rubber, polyvinylchloride and polyethylene.

5. A backing member as claimed in claim 4, in which the securing means is an adhesive arranged in spaced apart concentric circles on the backing member.

6. A backing member as claimed in claim 5, in which a removable cover is positioned over the adhesive bearing areas on the backing member to protect the adhesive from air, moisture and extraneous matter.

7. A backing member as claimed in claim 4, in which the securing means is an adhesive arranged in spaced apart segments of concentric interrupted circles.

8. A backing member as claimed in claim 7, in which a removable cover is disposed over the adhesive bearing areas of the backing member to protect the adhesive from air, moisture and extraneous matter.

9. For use with a target, an elastic backing member adapted to be secured to the back of the target, and means on the backing member for securing spaced apart areas of the backing member to the back of the target, said backing member comprising a material having the ability to stretch when being punctured by a projectile passing through the target and to return to its original unpunctured, unstretched condition save for a small Opening therein in the punctured area of the backing member after the projectile has passed therethrough, said small opening being significantly smaller than the projectile passing therethrough, said backing member material havof the backing member to the back of the target, said backing member comprising a material having the ability to stretch when being punctured by a projectile passing through the target and to return to its original unpunctured, unstretched condition save for a small opening therein in the punctured area of the backing member after the projectile has assed therethrough, said small opening being significantly smaller than the projectile passing therethrough, said backing member material having a Shore D scale durometer reading in the range of 40 to 68.

11. For use with a target, an elastic backing member adapted to be securedto the back of the target, means on the backing member for securing spaced apart areas of the backing member to the back of the target, said backing member comprising a material having the ability to stretch when being punctured by a projectile passing through the target and to return to its original unpunctured, unstretched condition, save for a small opening therein in the punctured area of the backing member after the projectile has passed therethrough, said small opening being significantly smaller than the projectile passing therethrough, said backing member having on one face thereof ribs arranged in concentric spaced apart circles, a means for securing the backing member tothe target being on the ribs, and a pull-off protective cover disposed over the ribbed face of the backing member.

12. For use with a target, an elastic backing member adapted to be secured to the back of a target, means on the backing member for securing spaced apart areas of the backing member to the back of the target, said backing member comprising a material having the ability to stretch when being punctured by a projectile passing through the target and to return to its original unpunctured, unstretched condition save for a small opening therein in the punctured area of the backing member after the projectile has passed therethrough, said small opening being significantly smaller than the projectile passing therethrough, said backing member having on one face thereof ribs arranged as segments of interrupted spaced apart concentric circles, the means for securing the backing member to the target being placed upon said segments, and a pull-off protective cover disposed over the ribbed face of the back member.

13. For use with a target sheet having a colored face, a substantially planar elastomeric backing member having means for securing said backing member to the rearward face of a conventional target sheet in a designedly patterned manner leaving substantial areas of said backing member free from engagement with the target sheet, said backing member having a Shore A durometer reading in the range of 10 to 75.

14. For use with a target sheet having a colored face, a substantially planar elastomeric backingmember having means for securing said backing member to the rearward face of a conventional target sheet in a designedly patterned manner leaving substantial areas of said backing member free from engagement with the target sheet, said securing means including raised portions on a face of said backing member.

15. For use with a target sheet having a colored face, a substantially planar elastomeric backing member having means for securing said backing member to the rearward face of a conventional target sheet in a designedly patterned manner leaving substantial areas of said backing member free from engagement with the target sheet, said elastomeric backing member being of the group of natural rubber, silicone rubber, polyvinylchloride and polyethylene.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,145,585 7/1915 Hebard 273- 102.1 2,535,280 12/1951 Gartrell 273-1024 ANTON O. OECHSLE, Primary Examiner.

DELBERT B. LOWE, Examiner.

M. R. PAGE, Assistant Examiner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1145585 *Apr 11, 1914Jul 6, 1915Remington Arms Union Metallic Cartridge CompanyTarget.
US2535280 *Nov 8, 1946Dec 26, 1950Us Rubber CoSelf-sealing rifle target
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3423092 *Oct 11, 1965Jan 21, 1969Kandel WalterSelf-marking firearm target including a resiliently deformable marking sheet
US3516670 *May 23, 1968Jun 23, 1970Rai Res CorpPolyethylene target with waffle-type rigidifying structure
US3682478 *Jan 31, 1969Aug 8, 1972Lindsay Charles KnightThin, self-supporting, ductile, plastic target sheet
US3895803 *Aug 22, 1973Jul 22, 1975James M LoeLaminar indicating target
US4076246 *Nov 14, 1975Feb 28, 1978Meyer Leonard STarget particularly for archery
US4462598 *Dec 14, 1981Jul 31, 1984Chalin Manuel LVanishing target and arrowhead projectile therefor
US5186468 *Dec 10, 1991Feb 16, 1993Davies Clifford LFirearms target
US5188371 *May 29, 1992Feb 23, 1993Edwards A WReusable projectile impact reflecting target for day or night use
US7631877Jan 26, 2006Dec 15, 2009Battenfeld Technologies, Inc.Firearm targets and methods for manufacturing firearm targets
US7681886Feb 26, 2007Mar 23, 2010Battenfeld Technologies, Inc.Shooting gallery devices and methods
US7954272May 8, 2008Jun 7, 2011Battenfeld Technologies, Inc.Adjustable firearm supports and associated methods of use and manufacture
US8011129Jun 10, 2004Sep 6, 2011Battenfeld Technologies, Inc.Recoil-reducing shooting rest
US8444056May 11, 2006May 21, 2013Alliant Techsystems Inc.Multi-colored visishot paper target
US8556268 *Jan 27, 2012Oct 15, 2013Wei SuAffixable firearms target capable of leaving a custom-shaped silhouette visible from afar upon the projectile's impact on the target's bullseye
US20130193646 *Jan 27, 2012Aug 1, 2013Wei SuAffixable firearms target capable of leaving a custom-shaped silhouette visible from afar upon the projectile's impact on the target's bullseye
Classifications
U.S. Classification273/378, 273/DIG.400
International ClassificationF41J5/00, F41J1/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41J1/00, F41J5/00, Y10S273/04
European ClassificationF41J5/00, F41J1/00