US 3353859 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
196.7 M. SCHUPACK 3,353,359
OPEN END STRUCTURE HAVING A POSITIVELY ENGAGED CLOSURE Filed March 25, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR MORRIS 5CHUPACK Nov. 21, 1967 I M. SCHUPACK 3,353,859
OPEN END STRUCTURE HAVING A POSITIVELY ENGAGED CLOSURE- Filed March 23, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR MORRIS SCHUPHCK United States Patent 3,353,859 OPEN END STRUCTURE HAVING A POSITIVELY ENGAGED CLOSURE Morris Schupack, Stamford, Conn., assignor to The Preload Company, Westbury, N.Y. Filed Mar. 23, 1965, Ser. No. 442,089 6 Claims. (Cl. 292256) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Large open-end concrete structures are provided with a removable top closure for the open-end, the portion of the structure surrounding the removable top closure is prestressed, a sealing ring is positioned within the structure between the closure and a supporting internal ledge for the closure, thrust members are contained within the structure and adapted to be swung into position against the closure so that it is positively locked in position within the structure.
This invention relates to large structures and particularly to closures for such structures.
In some manufacturing processes large structures are advantageously used to hold large articles which are to be subjected to high pressures or high temperatures for a variety of purposes such as curing. Also, some hazardous and dangerous operations are preferably carried out in structures which can resist the great pressures which may suddenly build up, for example, due to a malfunction. When such great internal pressures are developed within the structure, it is obvious that a tremendous force is applied to the closure of the structure. Accordingly, positive means must be available for securing the closures in place when the very high pressures are developed.
With prior art closures a standard approach has been to use costly bolts and/ or studs used in combination with special designed shear pins and systems.
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a construction with a positively secured in place closure so that the closure will remain in a fixed position when high pressures or temperatures are developed within the structure. It is a further object of the present invention to provide means which permits the closure to be readily removed from the structure so that rapid access may be had to the interior of the structure if necessary.
It is still a further object of the present invention to provide thrust means which causes the closure to be securely held in position, and yet allows the thrust means also to act as a shock transmission means to transfer any suddenly developed force from the closure to a suitable supporting anchorage, the anchorage being capable of absorbing the suddenly developed force.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a structure which may be vertically aligned or, if desired, it may be constructed with a horizontal longitudinal alignment of the structure.
In the accompanying drawings and in the specification, an embodiment of the present invention is shown. It is to be understood that this embodiment is for the purpose of illustration, and it is not to be construed as limiting the present invention, but, rather, it is for the purpose of disclosing the invention to those skilled in the art so that it may be practiced in various ways and means, each within the spirit and scope of the invention as claimed hereafter.
FIGURE 1 is a side view of a large vertically positioned structure in accordance with the present invention, wherein the closure is removed from the structure;
FIGURE 2 is a view of the structure of FIGURE 1 taken along lines 22 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged partially fragmentary sectional view of the structure of FIGURE 1 with the closure in place;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged partially fragmentary sectional view of the wall, closure and thrust means of the structure of the present invention;
FIGURE 5 is a partially fragmentary plan view of the thrust means of FIGURE 4;
FIGURE 6 is a partially fragmentary perspective view of the thrust means of FIGURE 4; and
FIGURE 7 is a force diagram showing how the developed thrust forces are broken into vertical and horizontal components.
Referring to the drawings and to FIGURES 1 and 2 in particular, a large cylindrical concrete structure 10, in accordance with the present invention, is shown. The structure 10 comprises an end portion illustrated as a bottom floor or wall 12, sidewalls 14, a top closure 16, and a ledge 18 which supports the closure 16 spaced above the bottom floor 12.
To show the scope and size of the illustrated structure 10 and its components, an overhead crane 20 which is mounted on a supporting frame 22 is depicted for moving the top closure 16 from an operative position in the sidewalls 14 to an open position wherein the closure is removed from the structure 10.
In the illustrated embodiment in the drawings, the structure 10 is a vertically positioned curing vessel for materials which must be subjected to high pressures. It might also be a chamber in which a potentially highly explosive operation takes place or it might also be horizontally positioned along its longitudinal extent.
In a curing vessel of the type shown in the illustrated embodiment, the internal pressure would be in the order of about 1000 psi. and the object to be cured might weigh in the vicinity of about 200 tons. The internal diameter of the structure is about twenty-five feet and the closure 16 has a depth of about seven feet.
The closure 16 which of substantial size must be limited to the tonnage capacity of the overhead crane which is determined in each case. To achieve the necessary bulk required and also to still stay within the crane capacity, light weight concrete may be used for the top closure.
As shown in detail in FIGURE 3 in particular, the bottom end or floor 12 of the structure 10 is made of concrete as are the sidewalls 14 which may be lined with steel or other suitable materials. If desired, the sidewalls 14 may be horizontally prestressed by wrapping about the walls a series of convolutions of high tensile strength tendons so that the wall is placed in a state of compression.
Whether or not the lower portion of the wall 14 is prestressed, the upper portion 24 of the wall 14 is advantageously prestressed circumferentially and longitudinally as will be discussed in more detail hereinafter.
On the interior of the sidewall 14 the ledge 18 is provided. In the illustrated embodiment the ledge 18 takes the form of a shoulder. Placed on the ledge 18 is a sealing ring 26. The sealing ring 26 may be of a desirable construction in that it may be a deformable elastomeric pad or even an inflatable elastomeric material. The closure 16, in its supported position, rests on the sealing ring 26. The elastomeric qualities of the sealing ring 26 advantageously solve the problem of close tolerances since the ring will deform to make up for any irregularities which may occur between the mating surfaces of the closure 16 and the support or ledge 18.
If desired, a steel liner 28 may be provided on the underside of the closure 16. This steel liner 28 serves a dual purpose in that it provides a smoother mating surface for contacting the sealing ring 26 and also provides a protective member for the closure 16. To insure proper 3 seating of the ring 26, a flat steel plate 29 may be provided on the ledge 18.
To lock theclosure 16 in place, thrust means 30 are used. The thrust means 30 are best illustrated in FIG- URES 4, 5 and 6 in particular. The thrust means 30 are generally comprised of a series of seats 32 atfixed to the upper peripheral portion of the closure 16, thrust members 34 which engage the seats 32, anchorages 36 to which the thrust members 34 are swingably aflixed and push rods 38 which move the thrust members 34 into engagement with the seats 32.
The upper peripheral portion of the closure 16 has a beveled area 40 about which are mounted the seats 32. The seats 32 are anchored to the closure 16 by suitable bolts 42 and may be seated on elastomeric material 43 to help to assure equalization of thrust. Each seal 32 is a built up member with a top flange 44 and a stop 46 running along the flange 44. Advantageously, the lower surface 47 of the thrust members 34 is curved to provide a smooth and accurate fit with theupper surface of the flange 44.
The thrust members 34 are relatively heavy plate members pivoted to the anchorage 36 by means of any convenient device such as the hinge members 48 shown in FIGURES 4 and 6 in particular. The anchorages 36 are fitted with a number of studs 50 which project into the concrete of the sidewalls 16 so that the anchorages are fixed solidly in position. The push rods 38 which control the position of the members 34 are moved by any suitable means through openings 52 in the upper wall portion 24. The thrust members 34 are movable from the open position of FIGURE 4 (as shown by the phantom lines) to the in-place position shown in that figure. The thrust members 34, when in a locked-in place position, form an angle of approximately 20 with the vertical surface of the side'- wall 14.
The upper wall portion 24 is advantageously circumferentially prestressed by a series of tendons 54 which surround the structure and vertically prestressed by a series of tendons 55 which are vertically, i.e., longitudinally, in the wall 14 from one end to the other.
When pressure is developed within the chamber C of the structure 10, the developed force is exerted against the closure 16. The thrust members 34 are arranged about the periphery of the closure 16 and they transfer the developed forces to the upper wall portion 24 by means of the anchorages 36. Advantageously, the upper wall portion 24 is in a state of compression due to the developed forces of the prestressing tendons 54 and 55.
In FIGURE 7 a force diagram is shown which illustrates how the developed force F taken by thethrust means 30 may be divided into a horizontal component H and prestressing 54 and 55 are designed to withstand these force components.
It should be noted that the vertical component V of the force of the thrust plate 30 is taken substantially by the compressive force developed in the wall 14 by the vertical reinforcement 55 which in the illustrated embodiment is vertical prestressing; and the horizontal component H is taken substantially by the compressive force developed in the wall 14 by the circumferential prestressing 54.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that a new and highly effective closure construction is disclosed.
In this specification the sidewalls 14 are referred to in the plural. However, it is to be understood that the sidewall may be a unitary continuous circular cylindrical component, or it may be of any other desired peripheral configuration, such as polygonical or oval shaped.
I claim: 1. A large open-end concrete structure having an end 5 portion, sidewalls and a removable top closure for the open-end, a plurality of prestressing tendons positioned about and within the upper portion of said sidewalls to place said portion of the sidewalls in a state of compression, support means about the interior of said sidewalls and spaced from the end portion, a deformable sealing ring positioned on said support, said closure disposed on said ring, thrust means arranged above the support and including an anchorage afiixed to the upper portion of the sidewall which is in compression, thrust members swingably mounted at one end to the anchorage, means for moving the other end of the thrust members from a position adjacent the sidewall to a position in positive contact with the top closure whereby the closure is positively locked in position within the sidewalls.
2. In a large open-end structure of the type having an end portion, sidewalls and a removable top closure, an improved closure arrangement including a plurality of convolutions of prestressing tendons tensioned about the upper portion of the sidewalls and cooperating with vertical prestressing tendons in the; sidewall to place said portion of the sidewall in a state of compression, closure support means about the interior of said sidewalls, thrust means arranged about the closure portion of the sidewall, thrust members swingably mounted at one end to the anchorage, means for moving the unmounted ends of the thrust members from a position adjacent the side-wall to a position in positive engagement with a seat on the top closure whereby said closure is positively locked in place.
3. In a large open-end concrete structure the improvement as defined in claim 2 and further including a deformable sealing ring positioned between the closure and the closure support means.
4. In a large open-end concrete structure the improvement as defined in claim 2 wherein the means for moving the unmounted ends of the thrust members includes push rods movable through openings in the sidewalls, said openings located above the support means.
5. In a large open-end concrete structure the improvement as defined in claim 2 wherein the seat on the closure has an inclined upper surface with respect to the inner surface of the sidewall so that the thrust member when locked in position is orientated at an included angle of about 20 with the sidewall. 5 6. In a large open-end concrete structure the improvement as defined in claim 2 wherein the anchorage is sub stantially imbedded in the sidewall whereby any pressure exerted on the thrust members by forces acting on the closure are transferred to the prestressed upper portion of the sidewalls.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS MARVIN A. CHAMPION, Primary Examiner.
RICHARD E. MOORE, Examiner.