US 3355853 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 5, 1967 J, D. WALLACE METHOD OF BUILDING CONSTRUGTIUN Filed Feb.l 23, 1965 IN VENTOR. JOHN D. WALLACE FIG. I
ATTORNEYS Dec. 5, 1967 J, D. WALLACE METHOD OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2 Sheets-Sweex Filed Feb. 23, 1965 NVENTOR. JOHN D. WALLACE ATTORNEY-S United States Patent Ofice 3,355,853 Patented Dec. 5, 1967 3,355,853 METHOD OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION .lohn D. Wallace, Salt Lake City, Utah, assignor to Intermountain Lift Slab Corporation, Salt Lake City, Utah, a corporation of Utah Filed Feb. 23, 1965, Ser. No. 434,235 6 Claims. (Cl. 52--745) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A method of building construction, wherein grade floor and ceiling slabs of a building are preformed, as required, and the vertical wall components of the building are constructed simultaneously with lifting of the ceiling slabs to its final raised position.
This invention relates to building construction and especially to the placing of floors and ceilings of buildings and to the erection of vertically extending structural components such as shafts for elevators, heating, air conditioning, stairwells, walls and the like.
It has been proposed in the past, that buildings be erected by first pouring a concrete ground door or grade slab and then pouring monolithic slabs for floors of upper stories and for a roof on top of the grade slab, with only a thin layer of bond preventing material between the slabs to prevent their bonding together. This process is disclosed in U.S. Patents Nos. 2,720,017 and 3,053,015.
The above mentioned patents teach that jacks positioned on the tops of preformed columns can be used to raise the slabs into position after they obtain a suitable hardness. With tlhis type construction, as commonly practiced, openings are blocked out in the floor slabs through which walls for vertically extending structural components, such as elevator shafts, heating and air conditioning ducts, etc., are constructed after the slabs have been raised and fixed in position on the columns, or the vertically extending structural `components are constructed using a slip-form process wherein jacks are positioned on reinforcement rods to slowly raise a form into which concrete is placed, the forms being removed and the concrete being removed and the concrete being allowed to attain its final strength set before the slabs are raised.
These processes, while constituting major improvements over the formerly used methods of forming and pouring the slabs at their n-a'l raised position, still require that the vertically extending structural components be formed and poured after the slabs are raised and permanently connected to ythe support posts, or Vthat the slabs not be raised until the vertically extending structural components have been completed and have obtained adequate strength to withstand the forces developed during lifting, In the latter case, a large amount of scaffolding is required to provide the necessary work area for the workmen placing the concrete.
.It has also been proposed in another U.S. Patent No. 1,066,436 to pour the slabs yat ground level and to then raise all of them at once, using jacks mounted on steel reinforcement rods, while at the same time employing forms positioned beneath the slabs to receive concrete placed around the rods, thus forming supporting columns for the slabs. `Once the supporting columns have been formed to the required height, the individual slabs are lowered to their permanent position. This process necessitates a very slow rate of lifting, since the columns must be strong enough so that, when the slabs are aflixed thereto, theywill each support their share of the slab weight without collapsing. Furthermore, the columns so formed are necessarily subjected to tremendous lateral forces, even while the concrete isin a very plastic state because of the tremendous moments placed on the rein forcement rods that must support the slabs as they an raised in unison.
It is a principal object of the present invention t( provide a method of building construction that result: in faster construction, that is safer to use than those known heretofore, and that results in substantial saving: in construction costs.
In achieving this object I have developed a methoc of construction whereby slabs are individually and sequentially raised about fixed support columns, and, as the top or roof slab is raised, the vertically-extending structural components of the building are constructed The vertically-extending structural components then cooperate Iwith the slabs to assist in laterally stabilizing the building, but they do not support any vertical load other than their own Weight during the lifting process. Neither are they required to resist lateral movement until they have obtained sufficient strength t-o withstand the lateral forces that may develop. Thus, the lifting can safely proceed at a much more rapid rate than can be employed using the process of Patent No. 1,066,436. wherein support columns are poured simultaneously with the lifting of the slabs. Moreover, vertically-extending structural components can -be readily constructed during upward travel of the top slab, even though they may not extend the full height of the building.
There are sfhown in the accompanying drawings specific embodiments of apparatus used in accomplishing the procedures of the invention that are presently regarded as the best modes of carrying out the generic concepts in actual practice. From the detailed description of these presently preferred procedures, other more specic objects and features of the invention will become apparent.
The drawings In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is an isometric view illustrating the initial steps of one embodiment of the method of the invention;
FIGS. 2-7 are schematic illustrations of subsequent steps in such embodiment of the method; and
FIG. 8 is another isometric view similar to that of FIG. l, but illustrating the initial steps of another embodiment of the method of the invention.
Detailed description Referring now to the drawings:
In carrying out the method of this invention, a level grade slab 10 is poured around support columns 11 that are preferably set in footings 12 beneath the grade slab. Additional floor slabs 13 and 14 and a roof slab 15 are puored in place, one above the other, on top of grade slab 10, with only a thin layer of some bond-preventing material 151, such as a silicon base spray compound known as Thompson Water Seal manufactured commercially by the IE. A. Thompson Co. of San Francisco, Calif., interposed between slabs to keep them from adhering to one another.
A lifht jack 16 and support structure therefore, shown generally at 17, are positioned on each support column 11. Correlated action of the jacks will raise the slabs to their required elevation, all in the conventional manner disclosed by the aforementioned U.S. Patent No. 2,720,017.
It is a feature of the present method that, as the slabs are raised, the walls of vertically-extending structural components forming part of the building, such as shafts for elevators, heating and air conditioning ducts, stairwells, walls, etc., are simultaneously poured. To this end, an opening 18, FIGS. 3-7, for an elevator shaft 18-1, for example, is blocked out for each of the vertically- :xtending structural components before the slabs are `Joured, so that such slabs will surround the completed /ertically-extending structural components.
Inner and outer forms for concrete to be poured are Jrovided for each vertical wall to be constructed, and :hese forms are carried by the roof slab in such a nanner that they extend upwardly from the slab, with :heir weight distributed evenly over a broad area thereof, so that such slab will not fail under the loading.
In FIGS. 1-7, the outer forms 20 are of concrete and :xtend upwardly from and integral with the roof slab. hese concrete outer forms are constructed with the use )f conventional forms of wood, metal or other suitable material at the time the roof slab is poured.
A pair of beams 21 and 22 extend across opposing outer forms and support the inner wall forms 23, holding them a spaced distance from the forms 20 so that concrete :an be placed between them.
The outer forms act as Atransfer beams to distribute the weight of the cross beams-and of any load carried there- Jy-around the entire edge of the opening 18, and also to allow the vertical walls of the elevator shaft 18-1 to be formed in close proximity to the surrounding slabs, so that permanent attachments are easily made after the slabs have been raised to their final elevation.
By making the outer forms 20 integral with roof slab 15, it is a relatively simple matter to lift out the suspended inner wall forms and the finishers platform hung below the inner wall forms. This allows easy insertion into the shaft of preformed stairs or other preformed structures not shown. Furthermore, after the roof slab has been moved to its final position the upstanding outer forms provide the walls for housing on top of the building, through which the roof becomes easily accessible in the finished building. This upstanding housing is readily faced with bricks, as shown at 26 in FIG. 7, to provide an attractive finished appearance, and is bonded to the vertical walls to increase the rigidity and strength of the building.
Since the forms used for Vconstructing the vertical structural components extend above and are carried by the roof slab separate forms are required to construct stub walls through the stacked slabs, from the grade slabs up to the lowermost portion of the forms carried by the roof slab. To this end conventional inner and outer forms 27 and 28, FIG. 2, are respectively positioned beneath the inner and outer forms 23 and 20 carried by the roof slab and concrete is placed between them. Forms 27 and 28 are stripped away as soon as the roof slab is raised toward the position shown in FIG. 3, and the finishers platform 25 is then suspended beneath inner forms 23 so that iinish work on the vertical walls can proceed.
The same lift pattern disclosed in the aforementioned U.S. Patent No. 2,720,017 is desirably employed to raise the slabs. Thus, where the building includes a grade slab 10, two floor slabs 13 and 14 and a roof slab 15, such aS are illustrated, the roof slab and iioor slab 14 are both raised to temporary resting positions above the nal position of lioor slab 13, which is then raised to its final position where it is permanently attached to the support columns 11, as shown in FIG. 4. The height of the support columns 11 is increased by welding on extensions 11a and the top slab is moved up to another temporary rest position, shown in FIG. 5. The lioor slab 14 is then moved to its linal position, FIG. 6, where it is attached to the support columns.
Roof slab 15 is moved to its final position, FIG. 7, and is permanently fixed to the support columns 11a. The inside forms and finishers platform are lifted out, using conventional crane or other hoisting apparatus, not shown, and as they are raised workers on the platform 25 cornplete nishing of the concrete walls.
During all upward movement of the roof slab concrete is dumped between the inner and outer forms 20 and 23 and is worked into place. The concrete is carried to the forms via a crane and bucket in sufiicient quantity that the forms can be raised at the rate of approximately one foot per hour. At this rate, using four feet deep forms, by the time they are no longer supported by the forms, the poured portions of the walls that are below the forms have obtained approximately twenty-five to thirty percent of their strength and are capable of supporting the weight of the wall portions above them and of withstanding any forces applied to them as a result of the tendency of the columns to sway and the slabs to move laterally. In this connection it should be noted that since the vertically eX- tending components assist in resisting lateral sway, smaller size support columns can be used than are required for previously known methods of construction, as for example, that disclosed in the aforementioned Patent No. 2,- 720,017. However, since the slabs are supported by columns 11, the walls do not have to support any portion of the slab weight.
The roof slab serves as a safe, spacious, working platform for men and equipment as the vertical components are poured, the reinforcing steel is placed, and the slabs are permanently fixed to the support columns. No scaffolding is normally required.
If it is desired that the completed building have a iiat roof, the weight of the inner and outer forms required to form the vertical walls in place can be distributed over a large area of the roof slab in the manner shown in FIG. 8. 1n this arrangement beams 30 and 31 are spaced apart and positioned to surround the opening 18. Upright posts 32 are positioned on top of beams 30 and 31, and suspension beams 33 and 34 are positioned to extend over opening 18 and to rest on the top of each opposing pair of upright posts. Both the inner and outer forms, 35 and 36 respectively, for the vertical walls are suspended from the beams 33 and 34 and the forms are raised with slab 15 in the same manner as are the inner and outer forms 20 and 23, previously described.
Whereas there are here illustrated and specifically described certain preferred procedures which are presently regarded as the best modes of carrying out the method of the invention, it should be understood that various changes may be made and other procedures adopted without departing from the inventive subject matter particularly pointed out and claimed herebelow.
1. A method of building construction which cornprises the steps of erecting a plurality of vertical supporting members for a building, secured adjacent their lowerrnost ends to a foundation support;
forming a grade slab to surround each of the supporting members;
covering the grade slab with a separating layer of bond-preventing material;
casting a monolithic concrete iioor slab above said separating layer, with openings therein around each of said supporting members and with at least one opening adapted to receive a vertically extending structural component;
covering the iioor slab with a second separating layer of `bond preventing material; casting a monolithic roof slab above said second separating layer, with openings therein varound each of said supporting members and with an opening or openings overlying said at least one opening, respectively, in the floor slab that is adapted to receive a vertically extending structural component;
erecting inner and outer wall forms so as to be carried by the roof slab, the outer wall form surrounding a corresponding opening in the roof slab and said inner wall form being spaced from said outer wall form and extending downwardly into the corresponding overlying opening;
lifting said roof slab vertically to a position above the permanent position of the oor slab, while maintaining said roof slalb in sliding engagement with each of the supporting members;
lifting said floor slab vertically to its permanent position, while maintaining it in sliding engagement with the supporting members, and lixing the floor slab to the supporting members at its permanent position;
continuing upward movement of the roof slab to its permanent position, and then fixing it to the supporting members;
placing concrete in the wall forms carried yby the roof slab during upward movement of the slab to form walls ybelonging to the vertically extending structural component; and l controlling the rate of travel of the roof slab such that the initial set of the walls is obtained before the forms are moved therepast.
2. The method of claim 1, further including the steps suspending a platform beneath the inner wall, after the roof slab has been partially raised; and
finishing the insides of the walls of the vertically extending structural component from the platform as the roof slab is raised to its permanent position.
3. A method of building construction which comprises the steps of erecting a plurality of vertical supporting members for a building secured adjacent their lowermost ends to a foundation support;
forming a grade slab to surround porting members;
covering the grade slab with a separating layer of bond-preventing material;
casting a monolithic concrete floor slab above said separating layer, with openings therein around each of said supporting members and with at least one opening adapted to receive a vertically extending structural component;
covering the floor slab with a second separating layer of bond-preventing material;
casting a monolithic roof slab above said second separating layer, with openings therein around each of said supporting members and with an opening or openings overlying said at least one opening, respectively, in the floor slab that is adapted to receive a vertically extending structural component;
erecting inner and outer wall forms to extend above and to be carried 'by the roof slab, the outer wall form surrounding a corresponding opening in the roof slab and said inner wall form being spaced from said outer wall form and extending downwardly into the corresponding overlying opening;
forming stub wallls extending from the grade slab upward to the bottom of the forms carried by the roof slab and in alignment therewith when said slabs are 4in their lowermost positions;
each of the suplifting said roof slab vertically tot a position above thi permanent position of the floor slab while maintain ing said roof slab in sliding engagement with eacl of the supporting members; lifting said oor slab vertically to its permanent posi tion while maintaining it in sliding engagement witl the supporting members and fixing the floor slab tc the supporting members at its permanent position continuing upward movement of" the roof slab to its permanent position and then fixing it to the supporting members;
placing concrete in the wall forms carried by the root slab to form walls of vertically exten-ding structural components during upward movement of the rooi slab; and
controlling the rate of travel of the roof slab such that the initial set of the Walls is obtained before the forms are moved therepast. l
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the step of erecting outer wall forms includes constructing the outer wall forms integral with the roof slab; and including the step of bonding the vertically extending structural components to the outer wall forms after said roof slab has ybeen set in its permanent position.
5. The method of claim 3, wherein the step of erecting the inner wall form includes the step of providing a removable support means on said roof slab to support said inner wall form.
6. The method of claim 3, including the step of constructing a plurality of monolithic iloor sla-bs with a layer of separating material therebetween, one on top of the other between the grade and roof slab; and wherein the step of lifting the oor slab vertically includes moving each oor slab individually to a position above the final position of the one to be permanently connected and temporarily holding said slabs while the slab to be secured is permanently fixed to the vertical supports, sequentially lixing each oor sla'b in a similar manner and connecting the roof slab permanently after all the iioor slabs are fixed to the vertical support.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,066,436 7/1913 Peltzer 52745 2,217,115 10/1940 Hermoidsson 52-741 2,720,017 10/ 1955 Youtz 52,-'745 3,053,015 9/1962 Graham 52--745 3,275,719 9/1966` Dudson 264-33 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,168,156 8/1958 France.
FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner. M, O. WARNECKE, Assistant Examiner.