|Publication number||US3356141 A|
|Publication date||Dec 5, 1967|
|Filing date||Mar 12, 1965|
|Priority date||Mar 12, 1965|
|Publication number||US 3356141 A, US 3356141A, US-A-3356141, US3356141 A, US3356141A|
|Inventors||Kline Albert K|
|Original Assignee||Kline Albert K|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (4), Classifications (8), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 5, 1967 A. K. KLINE OIL WELL HOLD-DOWN TOOL 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 12, 1965 INVENTOR. ALBERT K. KL/NE dz, Xz/M.
ATTORNEY Dec. 5, 1967 A. K. KLINE 3,356,141
OIL WELL HOLD-DOWN TOOL Filed March 12, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR.
ALBERT K. KL/NE BY 65:2; zflzz ATTORNEY Dec. 5, 1967 A. K. KLINE OIL WELL HOLD-DOWN TOOL Filed March 12, 1965 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR. ALBERT K. KL/NE BY 21, 2724 ATTORNEY Dec. 5, 1967 A. K. KLINE OIL WELL HOLD-DOWN TOOL 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed March 12, 1965 dig- INVENTOR. ALBERT K. KL/NE BY dz" x124 ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,356,141 01L WELL HOLD-DOWN TOOL Albert K. Kline, 5741 South 70th East Ave, Tulsa, Okla. 74145 Filed Mar. 12, 1965, Ser. No. 439,344 4 Claims. (Cl. 166-134) ABSTRACT OF THE DHSCLOSURE A mechanical structure includes toothed slips which are held in a bracket on a mandrel which is locked to a cone. The mandrel is unlocked, the cone moved to actuate the slip into engagement with the well wall. The strucfrom the cone, the bracket disengaging the slips sequentially.
The present invention relates to oil well tools which keep packers down the hole in position against pressure. More particularly, the invention relates to a tool which will hook to the wall of an oil well hole by mechanical arrangement and be independent of pressure or weight in maintaining its position.
There are oil well tools run in the hole which must be maintained in a fixed, vertical location. Packers are a basic example of such tools. There are many arrangements for hooking these tools to the wall by slips with teeth. The slips are moved laterally for their teeth to bite into, or hook onto, the hole sides. Many arrangements have been developed to actuate the slips.
A set of slips above or below it tool will resist displacement of the tool by pressure from one direction. A set of slips above and a set of slips below their tool will resist displacement of the tool by pressure from either direction-A problem descends in providing a holding set of slips, and means for actuating the slips, connected to a packer which has a set of setting slips. How can a set of holding slips be actuated, and then maintain position, without the continued application of fluid pressure, or weight of the tubing string, on which the tools are run? Further, how can a set of holding slips which are mechanically set be disengaged by simply an upward pull with attached tubing? An object of the present invention is to set holding slips connected to a well tool to resist the force of displacement pressure from one direction.
Another object is to maintain holding slips, connected to a well tool, in their set position without the use of fluid pressure within the well hole or the weight of a tubing string.
Another object is to sequentially disengage holding slips, connected to a well tool, by exertion of an upward force.
The present invention contemplates releasably locking a slidable mandrel to a well tool and mounting slips on the mandrel and slip-actuating structure on the tool. The set of slips on the tool are actuated and the tool set in the well hole in the conventional manner. The mandrel is unlocked from the tool and moved relative the tool to carry its set of connected slips onto actuating structure attached to the tool. Thereafter, any force in the hole which is applied to the tool, and which tends to displace the tool toward the holding slips, will be resisted by engagement between the teeth of the holding slips and the walls of the well hole. Therefore, the tubing string could be removed because the tool is prevented from displacement by forces in either direction on the tool. The holddown structure, and connected tool, may subsequently be removed from its position in the well hole by exerting a force on the slips away from the connected tool and 7 through a bracket which sequentially engages the individual slips.
Other objects, advantages and features of this invention will become apparent to one skilled in the art, upon the written specification, appended claims, and attached drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a partially sectioned elevation of a well tool being placed in a hole, attached to a hold-down structure in which the invention is embodied;
FIG. 2 is the structure of FIG. 1, actuated at the desired position within the hole FIG. 3 is an isometric slips of the hold-down;
FIG. 4 is an isometric view of slips in position on a fork of the ring of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a partially sectioned elevation of a combination well tool and hold-down structure being placed in a hole in which the invention is embodied; and
FIG. 6 is the structure of FIG. 5, actuated at the desired position within the hole.
view of the holding ring for the GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OPERATION FIG. 1 illustrates a well tool, and hold-down structure connected to the tool, being lowered to a desired position within an oil well hole. The hole 10 is vertical, and the tool 11 and hold-down 12 are suspended from a string of run-in tubing 13.
The end of the tubing 13 is threaded and joined to the upper threaded end of a mandrel 14 by a coupling 15. Mandrel 14 is in the general form of an elongated cylinder which extends down and inside a cone assembly 16. This mandrel and cone assembly are releasably and positively locked together through a pin 17 and J-slot 18. Locked as shown in FIG. 1, the pin and J-slot hold the cone assembly and mandrel at a specified spacing between the lower end of the mandrel and an internal abutment of the cone assembly. When the pin is repositioned in the longer side of the J-slot, the mandrel is moved down until its lower end seats on the internal abutment of the cone assembly. This relative movement actuates the hold-down mechanism in which the invention is embodied.
The tool 11 is given the specific form of a packer. The expansible element 2% is moved out to engage the wall of hole It) at a time selected by an operator at the top of hole 10.
When it is desired to move element 20 out to the wall of the hole, a J-slot and pin lock, similar to pin 17 and .l-slot 18, between the sliding parts of the packer is p0- sitioned by turning tubing 13 so the parts will slide and bear upon the ends of element 20. Springs 21 are attached to one of the sliding parts and they will bear upon the wall to provide enough force to resist movement of that part and enable the J-slot and pin lock of the packer to be actuated.
Once the tool J-slot and pin are unlocked, the cone 22 can be moved down against slips 23. The teeth of slips 23 are moved laterally into engagement with the wall of hole 10. Against this resistance of slips 23 engaged with the hole 10 wall, packing element Ztl i structure connected from above to the packer.
Any force on packer 11, in addition to that required for setting packer 11, and exerted from above, will drive the teeth of slips 23 more firmly into the wall of hole 10. However, upward force will act on the cone 22 of the tool and tend to move it away from the slips 23 and disengage them from the wall. Once the teeth of slips 23 are dis- 0 engaged, the entire tool will be displaced from its desired position. The hold-down structure of the invention resists this displacing force from a position above the tool;
thus force from either direction will not be able to move tool 11 from its desired position.
THE HOLD-DOWN General cone-slip acti n Essentially, to carry out the invention, an elongated structure is connected to the tool, a cone is mounted on the elongated structure and slips are moved down up n the cone to force the slips in a lateral direction and engage their teeth with the wall of the hole. Then, any upward force on this hold-down structure will cause the cone to bite the slip teeth of the hold-down structure deeper into the wall of the hole 10.
Both FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 illustrate the details of the hold-down structure 12 in bringing cone 25 and slips 26 together properly. Cone assembly 12 is comprised of an outer casing 27 which is connected positively to tool 11 and cone casing 28 which is fitted down into outer casing 27 to provide cone 25. The two casings are threaded and sealed to each other as a cylindrical, elongated structure carrying a cone on the upper end of tool 11.
One reason for forming cone assembly 16 in these tw parts is to provide for engagement with the lower end of mandrel 14. Mandrel 14 slides sealingly within the internal bore of cone casing 28, carrying protuberance 29 on its lower end into engagement with shoulder 30 within the bore of outer casing 27. Of course, this engagement between shoulder 30 and protuberance 29 takes place after pin 17 is rotated to the longer leg of J-slot 18. In this relative movement between mandrel 14 and cone assembly 16, slips 26 are carried into actuation by cone 25.
Slipscmm0n housing 31.-Slips 26 are mounted on mandrel 14 and moved down upon cone 25 for lateral movement into engagement with the wall of hole 10. Slips 26 are carried within a housing 39 which is made in two parts. Slip housing base 32 is essentially a ring which slides along the external surface of mandrel 14, urged by a spring 33, against an abutment 33A on the mandrel 14. The lower end of this base ring 32 exerts a downward force upon slips 26 at the proper point in the downward movement of mandrel 14.
The lower portion of base ring 32 is formed outward to provide a fork for each slip 26. Arms 34, 35 comprise one of these forks, as an example, fitting around neck 36 of the slip supported by this fork. FIG. 4 gives perhaps the clearer illustration of this particular assembly of slips and base 32.
Slips 26 are carried loosely in their forks of base 32. From their mountings they are readily moved laterally by cone 25 to engage their teeth with the hole wall. The lower surface of the base 32, which is the end of base ring 32, forces the slips downward, onto the actuating surface of cone 25. The further movement of the mandrel 14 downward carries abutment 33A away from this end of base ring 32 as can be seen in FIG. 2. Then, when the mandrel 14 and base ring 32 are moved upward, the slips are pulled upward by the upper surface 37 of the fork arms of the base ring.
Slipstheir sequential disengagement.To aid ready removal of the slips whose teeth have engaged the wall of the hole, the neck of one slip 26' is made a finite length shorter than the others. Therefore, the force of the mandrel moving upward is first transmitted through the base surface 37 to the slip with the shorter neck. The full upward force on one slip has no difiiculty in disengaging that slip 26. The force is then subsequently applied to the remaining slips and has little diificulty in disengaging them from the wall of the hole. Of course, it would be feasible to .make the neck of each of the slips a different length so there would be sequential application of the upward force. However, it is usually adequate to break away one slip initially and the remainder will break away almost as readily.
Slips-retenti0n in their fork arms.-Having provided for basic supp rt of the slips by fork arms 34, 35-their movement upon the cone 25 by the lower surface of the armsand their disengagement by the upper surface of the armsit is additionally necessary that they be positively retained within these fork arms. The upper part of each slip has an extension 33 which fits into a housing 39 mounted on the upper part of slip housing base 32. From another view, housing 39 extends down over slip extension 38 to limit its movement laterally. Therefore, none of the slips will fall from their respective forks yet will be provided with sufficient lateral movement to engage the wall of hole 10. FIG. 2 illustrates this function clearly.
FIGS. 1 and 2 have disclosed the invention embodied in a hold-down structure separately identified from the well tool. That is, the hold-down is an attachment for any well tool on which a force tending to displace the well tool toward the hold-down structure requires resistance to prevent displacement of the tool. The tool is separately unlocked from its mandrel and its slips actuated; then the hold-down structure is unlocked from the tool and its slips are actuated. However, FIGS. 5 and 6 disclose how the tool and hold-down can be combined in a single unit. A single mandrel can serve as a mounting for both the tool and hold-down; a single lock will enable both sets of slips to be simultaneously actuated.
FIGS. 5 and 6 disclose a mandrel with a pin 51 positioned in a J-slot 52 formed in a sleeve 53. Sleeve 53 slides on mandrel 5t) and has springs 54 mounted on it to bear against the wall of the hole to provide the resistance which will enable the I-slot 52 and pin 51 to be actuated.
A first set of slips 55 are mounted on sleeve 53 so they can be forced laterally into engagement with the wall of the hole. First cone 56 is slideable on mandrel 50 above slips 55. When mandrel 50, and this first cone 56, are unlocked from sleeve 53 and moved toward the sleeve 53, the cone 56 pushes the slips out against the wall in engagement.
When the first set of slips 55 are engaged with the wall of the hole, the unlocked mandrel 50 moves a second set of slips 57 outward to wall engagement by second cone 58. Cone 58 is slideable upon mandrel 50 and slips 57 are mounted on mandrel 50 with a housing 59 having a base 60 urged along the mandrel 50 by spring 61. Spring-urged base 60 forces second slips 57 down upon second cone 58 and this force both pushes the slips 57 out against the well wall and cone 58 down toward cone 56. The expansible element 62 is about mandrel 50, between the fiat surfaces 63 and 64 of the cone structures. The movement of these surfaces toward each other sets the tool by expanding the element 62 into sealing engagement with the well wall.
FIG. 5 discloses the various structures 50-64 in their relationships when the pin 51 and slot 52 are locked. The hold-down and tool combination are lowered to the desired vertical position in the well hole. The only contact with the wall is through the resistance springs 54.
FIG. 6 showed the pin 51 repositioned in slot52. Mandrel 50 has moved all the structure mounted on it toward the first set of slips 55, forcing them into engagement with the well wall, the element 62 into sealing engagement with the well wall and the second set of slips 57 into engagement with the well wall.
Disengagement of the slips is accomplished just as it was with the arrangement of FIGS. 1-4. Base 60 picks up the second set of slips and the first cone 56 moves away from the first slips 55. The hold-down and tool can then move up the hole for subsequent use.
From the foregoing it will be seen that this invention is one well adapted to attain all of the ends and objects hereinabove set forth, together with other advantages which are obvious and which are inherent to the apparatus.
It will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations. This is contemplated by and is within the scope of the claims.
As many possible embodiments may be made of the invention without departing from the scope thereof, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted ast illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
The present invention, having been described, what is claimed is:
1. An actuating mechanism for a well tool, including,
a mandrel in the form of a cylinder mounted on the lower end of a run-in string of tubing,
a well tool with an elongated structure movable along the outside of the mandrel,
a structure mounted on the outside of the mandrel to support slips,
and a cone structure mounted on the elongated structure to engage the slips supported by the structure which is mounted on the mandrel,
said slips supported by the structure mounted on the outside of the mandrel having relative dimensions between the slips and their supporting structure so that the movement of the mandrel and supporting structure away from the cone will sequentially apply the force of the mandrel movement to the slips in dis engaging the slips from the Well wall.
2. The actuating mechanism of claim 1 whereby the relative dimensions between the slips and their supporting structure is provided by a different length of neck for at least one slip relative to the necks of the remainder of the slips, the supporting structure thereby contacting and pulling one slip from engagement with the well wall before the remaining slips are contacted for their disengagement.
3. A well tool and hold-down structure, including,
a mandrel adapted to be run in the bore of a Well,
a sleeve slideable on the mandrel and locked to the mandrel by a pin and J-slot,
springs on the sleeve engaging the wall to give a measure of resistance to displacement of the sleeve,
a first set of slips mounted on the sleeve so as to be carried into engagement with the wall of the hole,
a first cone mounted on the mandrel so as to actuate the first slips when the mandrel and sleeve are unlocked and moved relative each other,
an expansible member about the mandrel on the side of the first cone away from the slips,
a second cone mounted on the mandrel to capture the expansible member between the second cone and the first cone,
a second set of slips mounted on the mandrel so as to be actuated by the second cone as the mandrel is unlocked from the sleeve and moved relative to each other,
and a bracket mounted on the outside of the mandrel to support the slips, there being provided relative dimensions between the slips and support bracket so that movement of the bracket by the mandrel away from the second cone will sequentially apply the force of the mandrel movement to the slips to disengage the slips from the well wall.
4. A hold-down structure for an oil well tool, includa mandrel in the form of a cylinder,
an upwardly and inwardly tapering cone mounted on the mandrel for movement relating thereto,
a bracket mounted on the mandrel wall above the cone and holding a plurality of slips for outward expansion by the cone into engagement with the wall of the well bore upon downward movement of the mandrel relative to the cone,
means for transmitting upward movement of the mandrel to the bracket,
and means on the bracket for engaging at least one slip before the other slips in the upward travel of the bracket to apply the force which moves the mandrel upwardly relative to said one slip prior to the other of said slips and thereby release the slips from their engagement with the well wall.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,919,853 7/1933 Mack 166-134 2,002,140 5/1935 Dillon 166-216 2,108,605 2/1938 Moseley 166-216 2,379,394 6/1945 Young 166-134 2,534,528 12/1950 Page 166-140 X 2,841,225 7/1958 Talbott 166-216 2,901,046 8/1959 Webber 166-215 X 3,128,826 4/1964 Brown 166-216 X ERNEST R. PURSER, Primary Examiner. I. A. CALVERT, Assistant Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1919853 *||Feb 12, 1929||Jul 25, 1933||Oil Well Supply Co||Well packer|
|US2002140 *||Aug 19, 1932||May 21, 1935||Dillon Stephen V||Well equipment|
|US2108605 *||Jun 26, 1936||Feb 15, 1938||Moseley Charles F||Tubing stop|
|US2379394 *||Nov 12, 1940||Jun 26, 1945||Lane Wells Co||Packer holding device|
|US2534528 *||Nov 2, 1946||Dec 19, 1950||Page Oil Tools Inc||Combined anchor and packer for use in wells|
|US2841225 *||Jan 27, 1956||Jul 1, 1958||Talbott William G||Packer for use in oil wells and like|
|US2901046 *||May 27, 1954||Aug 25, 1959||Webber Jack C||Hold-down devices for well packers|
|US3128826 *||Nov 21, 1960||Apr 14, 1964||brown|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4877085 *||Dec 27, 1988||Oct 31, 1989||Pullig Jr Joe G||Manually operated spear apparatus|
|US5148866 *||Sep 27, 1991||Sep 22, 1992||Dresser Industries, Inc.||Well tool anchoring mechanism with improved slip release|
|US20120298378 *||Sep 30, 2011||Nov 29, 2012||Key Energy Services, Llc||Wellbore anchor|
|US20130319683 *||Oct 1, 2012||Dec 5, 2013||Giant Oil Tools Ltd.||Anchor|
|U.S. Classification||166/134, 166/137, 166/215, 166/217|
|International Classification||E21B33/12, E21B33/129|
|Mar 23, 1981||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ARROW OIL TOOLS CO., INC., 2301 EAST INDEPENDENCE,
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:KLINE, ALBERT K.;REEL/FRAME:003841/0896
Effective date: 19801223