|Publication number||US3357145 A|
|Publication date||Dec 12, 1967|
|Filing date||Jan 9, 1964|
|Priority date||Jan 9, 1964|
|Publication number||US 3357145 A, US 3357145A, US-A-3357145, US3357145 A, US3357145A|
|Original Assignee||Abraham Grossman|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (18), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 12, .1967 A. GROSSMAN 3,357,145
CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION 'ALLOWING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXPANSION Filed Jan. 9, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 i Q INVENTOR.
V q JQaPAb /AM Gem/149M m Dec. 12, 1967 A. GROSSMAN 3,357,145
CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION ALLOWING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXPANSION Filed Jan. 9, 1964 3 sheets sheet 2 I} 445 I INVENTOR. 48 1}: ammy/14 6190:0 44
BY 4! 4a 44 Dec. 12, 1967 A. GROSSMAN 3,357,145
CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION ALLOWING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXPANSION Filed Jan. 9, 1964 3 SheetsSheet 5 INVENTOR. HBRQHQM @POSJMM/ United States Patent 3,357,145 CURTAIN WALL CONSTRUCTION ALLOWING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL EXPANSION Abraham Grossman, 9339 Rhea Ave, Northridge, Calif. 91324 Filed Jan. 9, 1964, Ser. No. 336,824 22 Claims. (Cl. 52-235) The present invention relates to a curtain wall construction and more particularly to a curtain wall which has improved means for connecting horizontal members to vertical mullions in the curtain wall frame, improved means for supporting curtain wall panels within the frame, and improved means for preventing leakage of water at a joint between adjacent mullions in a column.
In the building industry today the use of curtain Wall construction for use in single as well as multi-story structures is desirable for economy, simplicity, appearance and easy of assembly. Curtain walls enable architects to utilize both fixed glass and/or operable sash on the exterior of the building at economic-a1 costs.
The frame members of the curtain walls in use today are primarily made of aluminum. However, stainless steel is both desirable and in some respects will afford a better construction. It has been difiicult, if not impossible, to use stainless steel in frames for curtain walls due to the difiiculty of fabrication in the shop or assembly on the job. The present invention completely obviates this problem.
In prior curtain wall construction, the frame members required notching or coping of either the horizontal members or the vertical members or both in order to make a connection therebetween. The process of cutting the frame members in order to provide the required notching for connection purposes has contributed substantially to the cost of the frame members. The cost of notching or coping a hard metal such as stainless steel has practically limited the art to usin soft metals such as aluminum.
The present invention eliminates the problem of notching or coping either the horizontal or the vertical frame members. This is accomplished by a novel means retaining and supporting the panels in the frame members.
Further, the present invention provides a novel means connecting the horizontal members to the vertical members or mullions so that the horizontal members can expand and contract without setting up undue stress within the framing. This novel connecting means eliminates the requirement of attaching, bolting, or riveting clips or other hardware to either or both of the horizontal or vertical members during assembly of the curtain wall. Additionally, the novel connecting means allows the horizontal members to be easily and quickly assembled or disassembled from the frame, thus eliminating high labor cost presently experienced in present art connecting means.
By avoiding the difficult notching or coping process and by providing the novel means connecting the horizontal frame members to the vertical frame members, it is now commerically practical to utilize stainless steel in the construction of the frame members.
In prior curtain wall constructions, there has been a problem of leakage of water through the curtain wall at the joints of mullions in a vertical column.
It has been found that this water can leak through the curtain wall by traveling along the bottom ends of the mullions either by a driving wind or capillary action.
The present invention has overcome this leakage problem by providing the lower ends of the mullions with a configuration that will stop the water and cause the water to drop downwardly within the 'hollow mullion column.
Accordingly, it is a general object of the present invention to provide a curtain wall construction that avoids all of the foregoing disadvantages of similar type curtain walls used heretofore.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved curtain wall construction.
A further object is to provide a curtain wall construction which can be easily and quickly assembled and yet will be structurally acceptable in the trade and which will provide for expansion and contraction of the curtain wall frame without setting up undue stress in the members thereof and yet have water-tight integrity.
Still another object is to provide an improved connec tion for joining horizontal channel members to a vertical mullion in a curtain wall construction in a quick and easy manner.
Still a further object is to provide within a curtain wall frame an improved connection for horizontal channels, having substantially uniform cross-section from end to end, to vertical mullions to allow for expansion and contraction without undue stress in the curtain frame.
Still another object is to provide a column of mullions with a curtain wall frame which are joined so as to prevent leakage of water from the exterior of the curtain wall.
Still a further object is to provide means for preventing the leakage of water along the lower end of a mullion which is joined to a top end of an adjacent lower mullion in a column.
Still another object is to provide a curtain wall in which panels are supported by means connected to horizontal channel members and vertical mullions wherein the channel members and the mullions are of a substantially uniform cross-section from end to end.
Still a further object is to provide a curtain wall in which panels are supported by horizontal channel members and within recesses of vertical mullions wherein the horizontal channel members are connected within the mullion recesses and are of a substantially uniform crosssection from end to end.
Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same become better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGS. 1 and 1a show an isometric View, with elements broken away, of an exemplary construction of the curtain wall of the present invention. FIG. 1 illustrates the upper half of such construction and FIG. 1a shows the lower half thereof, the two figures being broken along a trans verse plane A-A. An upper solid wall panel and lower glass panel are shown in phantom for clarity.
FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-section taken along plane II-II of FIG. la, the solid wall panel and glass wall panel being shown in full.
FIG. 3 is a horizontal section taken along plane III- III of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a horizontal section taken along plane IV- IV of FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 is a side elevation of adjacent mullions joined within a vertical column with the panels removed, and illustrates an exemplary water-tight connection.
FIG. 6 is a horizontal section taken along plane VI VI of FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is an isometric view of another embodiment of the connection means for the end of the horizontal channel to the vertical mullion.
Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several views, there is shown in FIGS. 1 and la an exemplary curtain wall construction which may include a solid wall panel 12 (in phantom) and a glass wall panel 14 (in phantom) supported by curtain wall framing, a portion of this framing being shown in FIGS. 1 and 1a as 9 adjoining vertical mullions 16 and 18 of a column and a horizontal channel 26.
As shown in FIG. 1a, the mullion 16 may have a pair of channel shaped members 16a and 16b which are maintained in spaced relationship by a vertical reinforcing sheet 16c and which are interlocked by inturned and interengaging edges 16d and 16d provided on front and rear sides of members 16a and 16b, respectively.
The configuration of the mullion members 16a and 16b together with sheet 160 provide forward hollow spaces 16c and 16 and rear hollow spaces 16g and 16h. The vertical channel-like members 16a and 16b include web portions 17a, 17b respectively, and said members are arranged in back to back relation to provide vertically extending side recesses or channels 16k and 16m, respectively, such recesses or channels being adapted to receive vertical wall panels such as solid panels 12 and 12 and glass panels 14 (shown in FIG. 4) and 14. The mullion 18 and the other mullions in the curtain wall frame may be similarly constructed.
The end portion of a horizontal channel member 20 is adapted to be received in the vertically extending recess 16m of the mul1ion 16 when the frame members are being assembled, such horizontal member 20 being retained within such mullion 16 by supporting and connecting means which will be described in detail hereinafter.
An exemplary horizontal memberZi) of this invention may be constructed of a plurality of elements rigidly connected together, such as a main horizontal member 20a having a downwardly extending front flange 20b and an upwardly extending rear flange 200, such flanges being interconnected by a horizontal web 20d.
The horizontal member 20 may have an elongated clip 202 or a plurality of horizontally spaced clips 20c extending vertically above web 20a and connected to the front flange 20b by any suitable means such as rivets 20 and may have another elongated clip Ztig connected to the web 23d by any suitable means such as rivets, one rivet 2611 being shown in FIG. la. The clips 20c and 20g are utilized for supporting panel retainers 22 and 24 to be discussed more fully hereinafter.
As shown in FIGS, 1a, 2 and 3, the end of the main horizontal channel member 20a is received within the side mullion recess 16m. The front flange 2% has a front side which may slidably engage a front side 1671 of the recess 16m and the rear flange 200 has a rear side which may slidably engage a rear side 16p of the recess 16m so as to restrain the horizontal channel member 20 from forward or rearward movement with respect to the mullion 16.
Such vertical mullions 16 or 18 may be connected between their ends to the horizontal members 2% to prevent vertical movement therebetween by means for releasably connecting and for allowing expansion and contraction between such mullions and horizontal members. As shown in FIGS. la, 2 and 3, such means for connecting one end of a horizontal member to a vertical mullion 16 or 18 may include a pair of laterally spaced pins 26, each of which may slidably engage and support a bottom side of the web 20a, and a pin 28 which is spaced upwardly from pins 26 and which may slidably engage and retain a top side of the Web 20d. The main channel member Zita has an end portion (not shown) opposite to that shown in FIG. 1a which may be connected in a similar manner to a mullion (not shown) in another adjacent column of the curtain wall framing. v The pins 26 support the weight at the end of the horizontal channel member 20 and the pin 28 restrains the channel member 20 from upward movement. The pins 26 may be fixed in position by a force fit through mullion members 16a and 16b and reinforcing sheet 16c and may extend into the other mullion recess 16k (as seen in FIG. 3) to support another horizontal channel member 20'.
After the horizontal member 20 is placed on top of and supported by pins 26, pin 28 is adapted to be forced through openings 28a which extends through mullion members 16a and 16b and reinforcing sheet for restraining and preventing vertical movement of such horizontal member 20. Such pin 28 may extend into both adjacent recesses 16k and 16m (FIG. 3) to simultaneously and releasably restrain vertical movement of members 20 received in such recesses in the assembled position. Pin 28 may be removed in the event such members are disassembled or are replaced if damaged.
Such means also allows for expansion and contraction of such members 20 which may be of a length slightly less than the distance between adjacent columns of mullions 16 or 18 as measured from the bottoms of their recesses so that a space is provided between at least one of the channel ends and a respective mullion, such as space 30 shown in FIG. 3. Accordingly, when the main channel member 26a expands or contracts the channel web 20d will slide along the pins 26 and 23 and thereby not exert an undue stress within the curtain wall framing. It is understand that the length of that portion of pin 28 extending into recess 16m and supporting one end of member 20 will be of greater length than the space 30.
Such means may also include other embodiments, such as the embodiment for connecting the main horizontal channel member 20:: to the mullion 16 as shown in FIG. 7. The mullion member 16b may include laterally spaced struck out portions 16g which support the channel 20 by slidably engaging the bottom side of the web 20d. Further, an upwardly spaced spring tab 16r may be struck out of the mullion member lab and has sufiicient resiliency to be forced inwardly toward the center of the mullion 16 so as to allow the end of the main channel member Ziia to pass thereover and then snap across the top of the channel Web 20d when the channel web 20a is forced past the tab and is supported on portions 16q.
The bottom end of the tab 16r is vertically spaced from the top of the struck out portions 16: so that when the end of the main channel member 29a is forced past the tab 16r, the tabs 16g will slidably engage the bottom side of the web 20d and the tab 16r will slidably engage the top of the web 20d. Accordingly, one end of the main channel member may be connected to another mullion (not shown) and then the opposite end snapped into a connected position with the mullion 16.
It is to be understood that elements separable from the vertical mullion may be substituted for the struck out portions 16g and 161- and may be attached to the mullion by any suitable means such as bolting or riveting.
Further, it is to be noted that both types of connections (FIGS. 1:; and 7) allow quick disassembly of the channel member 20 should it be required. In disassembling the pin connection the pin 28 is driven flush with the bottom of the recess 16m and a similar pin is driven flush in a mullion in an adjacent column and then the channel member 20 is lifted from position. In the connecting means shown in FIG. 7 the same procedure is used only the tab 161' and a similar tab on a mullion in the adjacent column are biased inwardly until the channel member 20 can be lifted from position.
It can readily be seen that either type of connection allows the channel member 20 to be connected to the mullion 16 and another mullion in an adjacent column without altering the cross-section of the main channel member 204. This simplifies construction of the main member 20a since no notching is required to make its connection with the vertical mullion.
Panels 12 and 14 are adapted to be retained on horizontal channel members 20 by elongated panel retainers 22 and 24 (FIGS. 1a and 2). The panel retainer 22 may be provided with a plurality of weep holes.
The panel retainer 22 may include vertically spaced inturned lower and upper edges 22a and 22b, the upper edge 22b interengaging the top edge of the clip 20c. The retainer 22 may be constructed of a material which is of a sufiicient thinness so as to allow the retainer edge 22b to snap engage the top edge of the clip 20a when the retainer 22 has been positioned with its bottom edge 22a interengaging the bottom edge of the front flange 20b.
The panel retainer 24 may include an inturned lower edge 24a which interengages a front turned bottom edge of the clip 20g, and a turned upper edge 24b which interengages an upper turned edge of the clip 20g. The panel retainer 24 may be constructed similar to panel retainer 22 so that the retainer 24 may be assembled with clip 20g.
The panel retainer 22 may be provided with an elongated horizontal slot 220 and a rearwardly facing edge 22d. Either the slot 220 or the edge 22d may be utilized for carrying an elongated gasket which supports and weather-strips the panel 12.
In the example shown (FIG. 1a), a gasket 34 is dovetailed to the edge 22d and frictionally engages a front side of the panel 12. The main channel member 20a may have an inturned portion 20j on the upper portion of rear flange 200 which engages a rear side of the panel 12 so that the gasket 34 and the inturned portion 20 in combination support and retain the bottom end of the panel 12.
The mullion member 16b may be provided with front and rearelongatedslots 16s and v16t (FIGS. 1a and 3,) and front and rear edges 16v and 16w in a manner similar to that described for the panel retainer 22 for retaining and supporting the sides of panels 12 and 14. In the example shown in FIG. 3, an elongated gasket 36 is dovetailed to the edge 16v and frictionally engages the front side of the panel 12 and a gasket 38 is dovetailed within the elongated slot 16! and frictionally engages the rear side of the panel 12. The gaskets 36 and 38 in combination support and retain the vertical end of the panel 12.
The other vertical end (not shown) of the panel 12 and the top end thereof (not shown) may be supported in a similar manner.
Retaining and weather-stripping means may also be provided for the lower panel 14 in a manner similar to that provided for upper panel 12. The panel retainer 24 may thus be provided with an elongated slot 240 and an elongated edge 24d. In the example shown in FIG. 2, a gasket 40 is dovetailed within the slot 240 and friction- .ally engages the rear side of the panel 14. Another gasket 42 is dovetailed to the inturned panel retaining edge 22a and engages the front side of the panel 14. Accordingly, the gaskets 40 and 42 in combination support the top end of the panel 14.
As shown in FIG. 4 an elongated vertical panel retainer 44 may have a front turned edge 44a, a laterally extending wall 44a spaced rearwardly from front recess side 1611 to provide a space for receiving panel 14, and a laterally spaced, rear looped edge 44b. The front turned edge 44a engages the mullion member 16b within an elongated slot 16x and the looped edge 44b engages the mullion member 16b within the elongated slot 16? so that the panel retainer 44 is easily and releasably connected to the mullion member 16b. The panel retainer 44 may be constructed of a material, such as stainless steel or plastic, so as to allow the looped edge 44b to be snapped within the elongated slot 162 after the retainer edge 44a is in engagement with the mullion member 16b within the elongated recess 16x.
As shown in FIG. 4, an elongated vertical gasket 46 may be dovetailed to an edge 44c of the panel retainer 44 and frictionally engages the rear side of the glass panel 14. Further, an elongated vertical gasket 48 may be dovetailed with the elongated slot 16s and frictionally engages a front side of the panel 14. The gaskets 46 and 48 in combination support the vertically extending end of the panel 14. A glass wall panel 14' (as seen -in FIG. 4) may be supported in a similar manner from mullion 16a.
All of the gaskets may be constructed of any suitable material for supporting and weather-stripping the panels such as vinyl, synthetic rubber or even metal. Each of the gaskets may be a single elongated strip.
It is to be noted that the means described for supporting '6 and retaining panels 12 and 14 in members 16 or 18 and 20 eliminate the requirement of notching or coping of the main horizontal channel member 20w or the mullion member 16. Both of these members can be manufactured by ordinary processes and merely cut to length. This simplifies manufacturing of the members in the shop prior to assembly on the job and reduces costs to a minimum.
It is important to note that the main horizontal channel member 200 is received within the channel member recess 16m and that the gasket 36 bridges the thickness of the front flange 29b and extends therebeyond to engage the front side of the panel 12 and that the gasket 38 bridges the inward dimension of the inturned edge 20 to engage the rear side of the panel 12. In a like manner, the gasket 48 bridges the thickness of the front flange 20b and extends therebeyond to engage the front side of the glass wall panel 14 and the gasket 46 in combination with the panel retainer 44 bridge the crosswise dimension of the panel retainer 24 to engage the rear side of the glass wall panel 14. By so dimensioning the gaskets, the mullion 16 does not have to be altered in its cross-section by notching or coping for retaining and weather-stripping panels 12 and 14.
As shown in FIG. 4, a reinforcing member 16c of a generally I-beam cross-section may be substituted for the reinforcing sheet for separating the mullion members 16a and 16b along the glass wall panel 14.
In prior curtain wall constructions, hollow vertical mullion sections have been joined together by hollow connecting sleeves. It is desirable to provide a space between adjacent vertical mullions to allow for expansion and contraction after the curtain wall is assembled.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 5, the mullion 16 has a top end 16y which is spaced from a bottom end 18y of the upper mullion so as to allow for expansion of the mullions 16 and 18. A hollow sleeve 50 may snugly engage the interior surfaces defining the hollow spaces 18c and 18 and may bridge the space between the mullions 16 and 1 8 and extend into the mullion spaces 16s and 16) to snugly engage the inner surfaces therein. The sleeve 50 may be fixedly supported within the hollow spaces 18a and 18]- by any suitable means such as welding (not shown) and may be sealed to the interior mullion surface which forms these spaces by any suitable sealing means such as mastic between the sleeve edge and the mullion. The sleeve 50 may slidably engage the mullion 16 within the hollow spaces 16a and 16 No sealing means are provided between sleeve 50 and lower mullion 16 thereby allowing water to drain downwardly into 'hollow spaces 16c and 16 Accordingly, as the mull-ions 1'6 and 18 expand or contract, the sleeve 50 will slide within the mullion 16. Water that may have entered the forward hollow mullion spaces 18a and 18 of mullion 18 will be channeled within the sleeve 50. This water will travel downwardly within the sleeve 50 past the joint between the mullions 16 and 18 so as to present no problem of leakage of this water into the building.
As shown in FIGS. '1, 5 and 6, an elongated U-section sealing element 52 is rigidly connected to the mullion 18 within the mullion recess 18111 by any suitable means such as rivets 52a and may be sealed thereto by any suitable means such as mastic. The lower portion of ele ment 52 may slidably engage the walls of the mullion recess 16m. When the mullions 16 and 1.8 expand or -'contract, the element 52 will slide with .respect to the mul- .lion within mullion recess 16m. Another sealing element is similarly connected to the mullion 18 within mullion recess 18k and is slidable with respect to mullion 16 within mullion recess 16k.
Such sealing elements 52 prevent water leakage into the building from the channel recesses 16k and 16m and 18k and 18m.
The sleeves 50 and sealing elements 52 will prevent a majority of the water from entering into the structure;
tween the mullion ends 16y and 1832. This may occur by water entering an opening 54 (FIG. and a similar opening on an opposite side of the mullion's and traveling along a rear side of the sleeve 50 until it reaches an area 56 as shown in FIG. 6. After reaching the area 56, the water is free to enter the space between the mullions 18 and 16 which are located rearwardly of area 56. If the Water is not stopped, it may seep inside the structure.
The leakage of water along the mullion top end My rearwardly of the area 56 has been eliminated by shaping the mullion members 16a and 1612 so as to provide the top end of this mullion with a surface 162 (as seen in FIG. 5) which slopes downwardly toward the front of the curtain wall.
The leakage of water along the bottom end 18y of the upper mullion 18 is eliminated by providing the bottom end 1832 with a novel shape. As shown in FIG. 5, a portion of the bottom end 18y may be notched at 18y so as to provide an abrupt change in slope of the bottom end 18y at 18y".
Water that is traveling along the forward horizontal portion of the end 18y will drip from the end 18y upon reaching the abrupt slope change at 18y" and then will drop to the surface 162 and the top of the reinforcing sheet 160, after which it can drain through the mullion spaces 16c and 16).
In the example shown in FIG. 5, the notch 18y provides a change in slope at 18 2 of approximately 90. The degree of change in slope of the bottom end 18y may be less than 90 depending upon the parameters to be considered in the design. Taking into consideration the expected wind forces, the amount of rain and capillary action, the change in slope at 18y" is to be such that water traveling rearwardiy along the bottom end 18y will, upon reaching the change in slope at 18y", drip from the bottom end 18y and fall to the spaces therebelow.
The retainer 22 may be provided with a plurality of weep holes, one of these weep holes being shown at 22c in FIG. 2. In a like manner the clip 2Ge may be provided with a plurality of weep holes, one of the weep holes being shown at 20e' in FIG. 2. These weep holes will drain any water that may become trapped by condensation or otherwise in the retainer 22 or clip 2% vicinities.
As shown in FIGS. 1, 5 and 6, the mullion 18 may be connected to any structure such as a concrete slab 60 by a mullion anchor 62. The mullion anchor 62 may be secured to the concrete slab 60 by any suitable means such as bolts 64 and an insert 66 which is bonded in the slab. The mullion anchor 62 may extend through the rear side of the mullion 18b (FIG. 6) and may be connected to the mullion members 18a and 18b by any suitable means such as rivets 62a.
The bottom end of the reinforcing sheet 180 may bear directly on a top end of the mullion anchor 62 (FIG. 5). The mullion 16 and the other 'mullions in the curtain wall framing may be supported in a similar manner at each floor slab level of the structure.
It is now readily apparent that the present invention has greatly simplified the component parts of a curtain wall and has providd means which allows quick and easy assembly of the components. This has been obtained without sacrificing rigidity of the structure or watertight integrity thereof.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.
1. A curtain wall construction having vertical columns of mullions joined together with horizontal members for retaining and supporting wall panels, comprising:
at least one of the horizontal members having front and rear flanges joined together by a web;
at least one of the mullions having a recess which receives an end portion of said one horizontal member and slidably engages said front and back flanges thereof so that the horizontal member is restrained from forward or rearward movement with respect to the mullion;
said horizontal member having an end which is spaced from said mullion so as to allow for expansion of the horizontal member;
support means operatively connected to said mullion and slidably engaging a bottom side of said horizontal me'mber web and supporting said end portion so that the horizontal member can slide on said support means when expanding or contracting;
restraining means operatively connected to said mullion and slidably engaging a top side of the horizontal member web so as to restrain upward movement of the horizontal member;
said mullion and an adjacent mullion in a column having their opposed ends spaced from one another so as to allow for expansion thereof;
the adjacent mullions each having a forward hollow portion, a rear portion, and a web portion extending therebetween and substantially oo-extensive in length therewith, the hollow portion, the web portion and 'the rear portion forming the mullion recess of said one mullion and a similar recess for the adjacent mullion;
a sleeve disposed within the forward hollow portion of the adjacent mu'llions and bridging the space between the mullions, said sleeve being supported by and sealed to the upper mullion of the adjacent mullions and slidably engaging the lower mullion thereof;
a sealing element disposed within the recesses of the adjacent mulhons and bridging the space between the mullions, said sealing element being supported by and sealed to the upper rnu'llion of the adjacent mullions and sli'd'a bly engaging the lower mullion thereof;
at least a portion of the top of the web portion of the lower mullion of adjacent mullions being sloped downwardly as it extends from said rear portion of the mullion toward the forward 'hollow portion thereof;
a portion of the bottom of the web portion of the upper mullion of adjacent mullions being notched to provide an abrupt change in the slope of said bottom web portion, said change in slope being sufiicient to cause water traveling along the bottom of the Web portion to drip therefrom at a location above the web portion of the adjacent mullion where the change in slope occurs.
2. A curtain wall construction as claimed in claim 1,
said support means being a pair of laterally spaced pins force fitted through the web portion of said one mullion; and
said restraining means being at least one pin slidably extending through the web portion of said one mullion and frictionally engaging a top side of the horizontal member web.
3. A curtain wall construction as claimed in claim 1,
i said support means and said restraining means being struck out of the web portion of said mullion;
the restraining means being a struck out tab which is springy with a bottom end of the tab extending from the mullion so that upon assembly the horizontal member can be forced downwardly past the tab and snapped into connection with the mullion.
4. A curtain wall construction as claimed in claim 1,
said horizontal member having a main horizontal structural member which includes said front and rear flanges and said web;
said mullions and the main horizontal member being of a substantially uniform cross-section along their full lengths;
means opcratively connected to the main horizontal structural member and further means operatively connected to the mullion with both of said last mentioned means engaging and supporting at least one of the panels;
- said further means bridging the thickness of' the main horizontal structural member flanges so that the panels can be supported without altering the crossseotion of said mullions.
5. A curtain wall construction as claimed in claim 4, further comprising:
said further means which are operatively connected to the mullions including an elongated gasket strip which is dovetailed to at least one of the adjacent mullions, bridges the thickness of one of the main horizontal member flanges and then frictional-1y engages a side of said one panel.
6. A curtain wall construction as claimed in claim 5, whereinsaid means which is operatively connected to the main horizontal structural member includes:
a further elongated gasket strip;
a clip connected to said main horizontal member;
means snap fitted over said main horizontal member and the respective clip; and
the snap fitted means being connected to the further gasket strip, and positioning the strip so as to snugly engage said panel. 7. In a curtain wall structure, a horizontal channel frame member supported by a pair of spaced mullion frame members, said channel member having front and rear flanges joined by a web;
each of the muilions having forward and rear portions and a web portion extending therebetwe'en and defining a recess which receives an end portion of the channel member and slidingly engages said front and rear flanges so that the channel member is restrained from forward or rearward movement with respect to said mullions; said channel member having at least one of said end portions spaced from the web portion of one of the mullions so as to allow for expansion of the channel member;
support means within said recess carried by the web portion of each of the mullions and slidably engaging a bottom side of the channel member web and supporting a respective end of the channel member so that the channel member can slide on said means when expanding or contracting; and
restraining means operatively connected to each of the mullions and slidablyengaging a top face of the channel member web so as to restrain upward movement of the channel member.v
8. A combination as claimed in claim 7 further comprising:
said support means including a pair of pins force fitted transversely through the web portion of each of said mullions; and
said restraining means being at least one pin slidably extending transversely through each of said mullions and frictionally engaging said top face of the channel member web.
9. A combination as claimed in claim 7 further comprising:
said support means and said restraining means being struck out tabs of the web portion of each of said mullions;
the restraining means being a struck out tab which is springy with a free bottom end of the tab extending from the mullion so that upon assembly the channel member can be forced downwardly and snapped into connection with respect to the mullion.
10. In a curtain wall frame a pair of vertically extending mullions aligned longitudinally in spaced relationship in a column, one above the other, wherein the mullions each have forward hollow portions joined to a rear portion by means with the forward and rear portions and the means forming a pair of recesses opening in 0pposite directions from one another;
a sleeve disposed within the hollow portions of the mullions and bridging the space between said mullions, said sleeve being supported by and sealed to the upper mullion and slidably engaging the lower mullion;
a pair of sealing elements wherein each sealing element is disposed within a respective recess of each of the mullions and bridges said space between the mullions, each sealing element in said pair being supported by and sealed to the upper mullion and the slidably engaging lower mullion;
at least a portion of a top end of the lower mullion being sloped downwardly as the top endv extends from said rear portion of the lower mullion toward the hollow portion thereof; and
a portion of the bottom end of the upper mullion of adjacent mullions being notched to provide an abrupt change in the slope of said bottom end, said change in slope being sufiicient to cause water traveling along the bottom end to drip therefrom upon reaching that portion of the bottom end where the change in slope occurs.
11. In a curtain wall frame a joined together in a column;
a portion of the bottom end of an upper mullion of said pair being notched to provide an. abrupt change in the slope of said bottom end, said change in. slope being sufficient to cause water traveling along the bottom end to drip therefrom upon reaching that portion of the bottom end where the change. in slope occurs.
12. In a curtain wall, a framing which supports panels and wherein at least one panel frame has a pair of laterally spaced mullions which support a pair of vertically spaced horizontal channel members;
each of said horizontal channel members havingamain horizontal member of substantially uniform crosssection from end to end, each main horizontal member having front and rear flanges which are joined together by a web;
each of said pair of mullions having a recess which receives an end; of a panel and an endof each of the main horizontal members including said front and rear flanges;
said front and rear flanges of the main horizontal: members engaging walls of the mullion recesses so that the; channel members are restrained from: forward or rearward movement with respect to the curtain wall;
means operatively connected to the. channelmembers and engaging opposite sides of the. panel so as to support and seal the panel;
gasket means connected to each mullion within a respective mullion recess;
said gasket means extending transverse at least one of the main horizontal member flanges and engaging a side of said panel so as to support and seal the panel.
13. In a curtain wall, a framing which supports panels wherein at least one panel frame has a pair of laterally spaced mullions which supports a pair of vertically spaced horizontal channel members;
each of said horizontal channel members having a main horizontal member, each main horizontal member being of a substantially uniform cross-section from end to end and having front and rear flanges which are joined together by a web;
each of said pair of mullions having a recess which receives an end of each of the main horizontal members including said front and rear flanges;
means operatively connected to at least one of the mullions and extending transversely at least one of pair of adjacent mullions said flanges to engage a side of a panel and provide support therefor.
14. A combination as claimed in claim '13 further comprising:
said front and rear flanges of the main horizontal members engaging a respective wall of the mullion recesses so that the channel members are restrained from forward or rearward movement with respect to the curtain wall.
15. In a curtain wall construction:
a plurality of vertically spaced mullions arranged in spaced columns, the mullions in each column being connected for relative longitudinal movement during expansion and contraction;
a plurality of spaced horizontal members extending between said mullions and defining therewith an opening adapted to receive a wall panel;
said mullions including front and rear spaced portions and a web portion interconnecting the front and rear portions to provide a vertical recess facing said opene;
an end portion of one of said horizontal members received within said recess and slidably engaged with said front and rear portions for limiting lateral movement of the horizontal member;
said end portion of said horizontal member being spaced from said web portion of said mullion;
support means carried by said web portion of the mullion within said recess for slidable supporting engagement with said end portion;
restraining means carreid by said mullion within said recess for slidable engagement wtih said end portion to retain said end portion against said support means;
and means at opposed end edges of said web portions of adjacent mullions for barring water from the rear portions of said mullions.
16. A curtain wall construction as stated in claim 15, wherein said means for barring water includes a cutout in the bottom of the web portion of an uppermost mullion of the adjacent mullions.
17. A curtain wall construction as stated in claim 15, wherein said means for barring water includes a downwardly and outwardly directed slope in the top edge of the web portion of the lowermost mullion of adjacent mullions to drain water outwardly and away from said rear portions and web portions of the mullions.
18. In a curtain wall construction:
a vertically extending mullion comprising a pair of mullion elements of similar cross-section, arranged in back to back relation, and restrained against movement relative to each other;
each element comprising front and back portions and an interconnecting web portion, said portions defining a vertically extending recess;
a'horiz'otal member having an end portion extending into said recess,
and means within said recess carried by said web portion for releasably connecting said horizontal member to said mullion for relative movement therebetween to allow expansion and contraction of said horizontal member within said recess.
19. In a curtain wall construction as stated in claim 18, wherein said connecting means includes a horizontal web on said horizontol member;
said connecting means including means supporting and slidably engaged with the bottom surface of the horizontal web of the end portion of the horizontal member.
20. In a curtain wall construction as stated in claim 19, wherein said means connecting said horizontal member to the vertical mullion includes'means carried by the web portion of the mullion and slidably engaging the top face of the horizontal member web for holding said horizontal member from upward movement.
21. In a curtain wall construction:
a horizontal frame member including a horizontal web;
a vertical mullion frame member including a vertical web and front and rear portions defining with said web a vertical recess;
means carried by the vertical web for slidable engagement with the horizontal web for connecting the horizontal frame member to the vertical frame member and for allowing expansion and contraction of the horizontal member;
said vertical web including a bottom edge having a downwardly facing cutout for limiting inward travel of Water along the bottom edge of the vertical web.
22. A curtain wall construction as stated in claim 21, wherein said front portion of said vertical member is of hollow polygonal cross-section;
and wherein the top portion of said vertical web receives water from the bottom edge of the vertical web of the uppermost adjacent mullion and directs the water into said front hollow portion.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,354,270 9/1920 Wood 248-250 1,718,878 6/ 1929 Raquette 220-3.4
1,981,239 11/1934 Manske 52-242 X 2,885,040. 5/1959 Grossman 52-235 X 2,916,108 12/1959 ,Gartner 52-235 X 3,037,591 6/1962 Pulling et a1 52-397 3,038,568 6/1962 Morgan 52-235 3,147,518 8/1964 Horgan 52-235 X FOREIGN PATENTS 216,977 8/ 19-58 Australia. 1,271,188 7/1961 France.
I OHN E. MURTAGH, Primary Examiner.
R. W. COOKE, Examiner. C. G. MUELLER, AssistantExamz'ner.
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|U.S. Classification||52/235, 52/204.591, 52/573.1|
|International Classification||E04B2/88, E04B2/96|