US 3357777 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. K. KALLIO 3,357,777
PORTABLE PERISCOPE FOR VIEWING PUBLIC EVENTS Dec. 12, 1967 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July 30, 1963 v INVENTOR fizz? @2259 ATTORNEY PORTABLE PBRISCOPE FOR VIEWING PUBLiC EVENTSI I R. K. :KALLIO 2Sheets-$heet 2 Filed July 30, 1963 .4/INVENTOR' @292 KzZZz'a, BY M m ATTORNEY United 7 States Patent Office:
3,357,777 PORTABLE PERISCOPEFOR VIEWING PUBLIC EVENTS Richard Keith Kallio, 4915 41st St. NW., 7Washington DC. 20016; Laurie Kallimadministratrix of estate of Richard Keith Kaliio, deceased Filed July 30,1963, Ser. No. 298,712 7 8 Claims. (CI. 7350-301) This invention: relates to a portable periscope, particularlyl of the7typeused in crowded places for viewing public events such as parades, sports: exhibitions: and tournaments, and the like, to enable the user toview these 7 activities over the heads of other people. 7
The invention is:rnore particularly concernedwith a7 periscope, the body portion: of which is composed of folded fiberboard 7or likematerial, and with the structure of such fiberboard bodyportion: 7
Periscopes of the aforementioned type arexshown in:
the patents to Harris, No, 2,155,164 and Chaimson,:No. 2,635,506.:
7 Periscopes of this typeare required to be erected at 7 the point of use, since they are generally transported at the point of use of the periscope. When initial use of the periscope has ended, such as after; viewing a particular golf match, it is desirable that the periscopebe disassembled and/or folded into fiat form so that the parts may be conveniently stored, ready to be re-assembled for subsequent use.
A principal object of the: invention is to provide a periscope of the general type described and which will, among other advantages, efiectively meetthe requirements for ready assembly of the body portionwiththe mirrors, and for disassembly and subsequent re-assembly thereof, without thereby weakening the parts of the body portion which support the mirrors in use.
Another object of the invention: is toprovide a periscope as aforesaid,soconstructed asto 7firmly holdthe mirrors in their assembled position in the body of the periscope, even though the latter 7may be subjected to severe: jarring or other rough handling in use.
Still another object is to provide a periscope as aforesaid, so constructed as to enable the mirrors to be rapidly placed in proper position when assembling the device for use, and likewise to be rapidly separated from the body portion in disassemblingthe device for storage, and to enablesuch assembly, disassembly and subsequent re assembly to be eifected practically innumerable times without affecting the holding power of the parts or elements relied upon forholding the mirrors in position for use.
Yet another and important object of the invention is to provide a periscope as aforesaid, which will make possible its ready assembly, disassembly and re-assembly as above stated, notwithstanding the nonavoidable minor with any given size of periscope.
Briefly stated, the foregoing objects and advantages of the invention are achieved by providing a one-piece body portion which may conveniently be die-cut from suitable fiberboard or like material, the front:wall of the body being formed with an enlarged opening adjacent one end thereof, the rear wall being offset longitudinally with respect to the front wall and being formed with: a 7
similar opening adjacent the opposite end of the :body.
Spaced key-hole slots are formed along the: horizontal:
edge of the front and rear walls remote from said openings, each of these slots: being designed to:receive a stud of the form hereinafter more fully described and serving as supports for the lower edgeof the mirrors at the 7 respective ends of the body when erected for use of the periscope, The body is provided with top and bottom 7 closures, one foldable fromthe front wall and the other from therear Wall, intoangular position so as to be disposedin contact with the rear surface of the mirrors when thelatter have been inserted at opposite ends of i the body with their lower edges supported by the aforementioned studs located at: the respective ends of the front and rear walls A locking :fiap is :hingedly con:
nected :to each closure wall, these lockingflaps being each constructed to hold the respective: closure walls in:con-: tact with substantially: the entire rear surface: of the re: spective mirrors and to constrain the lower edge of the 7 respective: mirrors against the supporting portions of the aforementioned studs; 7
: The foregoing andcther objects and advantages of: the invention will: :be more readily apparent from the: detailed description below andfrom the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a front view, in elevation, illustrating a eri-7 scope constructed according to a preferred embodiment of my invention;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal cross-section thereof, taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary view thereof, in elevation;
and showing theupper end of the periscope with the clo ure wall in :a partially closed position;
FIG. 4 is a detail view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view,:in perspective, showing the upper end of the pcriscope with certainof the parts removed;
FIG. 6 is a view, on an enlarged scale, similar to FIG. 2, showing the upper end of the periscope;
FIG. 7 is a plan View of a fiberboard blank fromwhich the body portion of the periscopemay be formed; and
FIG; 8 is a view of the:periscope in folded or collapsed form for storage and shipment:
As illustrated in the drawings, the periscope consists 1 essentially of three components, namely, a body or casing B of fiberboard or like foldable material; mirrors M-1 and M2 insertable in :andremovable from the body B:
and studs S constructed so as to coactwith the body B as hereafter more fully described, for firmly securing the:
mirrors in parallel planes at the opposite end of thebody.
The one-piece body Bis relatively elongated longitudinally thereof and is of substantially rectangular cross section transversely thereof It comprises a front Wall 11 7 of rectangular: outline, a rear wall 12 of rectangular outto theupper edge of wall 11, and a bottom closure wall 20 hingedly connected to :the lower edge ofwall 12. 3A1- though the walisill, 12 are-herein referred to as front variations in the length of the mirrors furnished for use 7 struction is suchthat, inuse, eitherend ofthe periscope may be utilized as the viewing end, simply by reversing it end for end and face for face:
In accordance with one feature of the invention, the
walls 11, 12 are longitudinally offset with respect to each other: a :distance such that when the walls :19, :20 Bare: folded down into position for closing the :ends of the Patented Dec. 12,3 1967- body, they will each extend in a plane, of approximately, and preferably at an angle slightly less than, 45 with respect to the walls 11, 12, respectively. Hence, the apex of each of these angles, indicated by A, will serve as a bight for exerting a substantial degree of holding pressure upon the transverse edge of the respective mirrors M-1 and M2 positioned at the apex of these angles.
Further, in accordance with the invention, locking flaps 21, 22, hinged to the closure walls 19, 20, respectively, are formed for coaction with walls 12, 11, respectively, in a manner to securely hold the walls 19, 20, in their closed positions and to enable them to aid in supporting the respective mirrors M-1 and M-2.
To the foregoing end, the closures 19, 20 are each formed at the outer end thereof with opposed substantially right-angular notches 25, 27 and 26, 28, (FIG. 7) respectively, the edges 29 on each of the closures being in horizontal alignment with one another and substantially longer than the transverse edges 30, 32 thereof. The latter extend inwardly of the closure substantially at a right angle to the line along which the respective locking flaps 21, 22 are hinged to the closures. Preferably, the outer portion of one or both of the side edges of each of the closures extends at a slight angle, as indicated at 33, to facilitate rapid positioning of these closure walls when the mirrors M-1 and M2 have been inserted in position for use of the periscope.
Furthermore, and for the purposes above mentioned, each of the flaps 21, 22 is formed with a portion 35 of one side edge substantially in alignment with the edge 32 of the adjacent notches 25, 28, respectively, and with an outer portion 37 extending at an angle toward the transverse outer edge 39 of the flaps. The opposite side edge of each locking flap 21, 22 is formed with a portion 41 inclined inwardly and meeting a transverse edge 43 extending inwardly from edge portion 45. The latter portion joins edge portion 47 inclined oppositely to edge portion 37 and joining transverse outer edge 39 of the flaps. The re-entrant angle between the edges 41, 43, constitutes notches 49 for locking the closure flaps 20, 21 in place, as hereinafter described.
The free end of each wall 11, 12 is formed with a recess 51, comprising an elongated transverse edge 53 and opposed longitudinal edges 55, 55a. The latter edges are spaced from one another and so positioned as to receive, in frictional contact therebetween, the portion of the closure walls 20, 21 intermediate the edges 30, 32. At a suitable distance from recess 51, each of the walls 11, 12 is formed with a slit or slot 59 for receiving and interlocking with the flaps 22, 21, respectively. Pref erably, the slit is of inverted U-shaped outline, having its base portion parallel to edge 53 of the recess, and its leg portions 61, 61a disposed in ofifset relation to the edges 55, 55a thereof. This ofiset corresponds substantially to the length of the edge 43 of the notch 49 and extends in the direction opposite to that of the edge 43, namely, so that the leg 61 is disposed outwardly with respect to edge 55 of the recess, and leg 61a is disposed inwardly with respect to the edge 55a thereof.
As above indicated, another important feature of the invention resides in the means for receiving and firmly supporting the lower edge of each of the mirrors, namely, the edge thereof opposite the one held at the apex of the angle A. For this purpose, walls 11 and 12 are each formed at the free end thereof with a pair of key-hole slots 65, one disposed intermediate each of the side walls 13, 14 of the body and the adjacent side edges 55, 55a, respectively, of the recess 51.
Each of these slots comprises opposed side edges 67 inclined inwardly toward one another and leading into a circular opening 68 of a diameter slightly larger than the distance between the innermost ends of edges 67. Each slot 65 is adapted to receive and hold, within the circular portion 68 thereof, a stud S comprising a shank 70 connecting the opposed heads 71 and 72. Preferably,
as shown in the detailed view, FIG. 4, the shank 70 is of a tapered cross-section which increases gradually from adjacent smaller head 71 to adjacent the larger head 72. In order to retain the studs S in place in the circular portions 68 of the slots 65, the distance between the inner ends of the opposed edges 67 of each slot is slightly smaller than the smallest diameter of the shank 70, and the diameter of the circular opening 68 is substantially the same as that smallest diameter.
The studs S are preferably composed of suitable plastic material, although they may be composed of a glass, metal, or like rigid material.
The walls 11 and 12 are each formed adjacent its connection with the closure walls 19, 20, respectively, with enlarged, substantially rectangular openings 75, 76, respectively, which serve as viewing openings in the use of the periscope.
The body component B of the periscope as above described may be conveniently die cut from flexible sheet material such as fiberboard of the type commonly employed for the manufacture of containers or the like.
FIG. 7 shows a plan view of a die-cut blank from which the body B of the periscope may be formed. In this figure, reference numerals corresponding to those of FIGS. 1 to 6 and 8 indicate the panels or sectionsof the blank which constitute the front, rear and side walls of the body, the closure walls and locking flaps, the locking notches for the closure flaps, the flap-receiving slits, the key-hole slots for receiving the studs S, and the viewing openings in the panels constituting the front and rear walls of the body.
Parallel score lines indicated at 80, 81 and 82 are formed in the blank to provide the hinged connections between the panels of the blank which constitute the front, rear and side Walls of the body. A sealing flap 84 extends outwardly from the outer edges of panel 12 and is hinged thereto along a score line 85. Transverse score lines 87, 89 are formed in the blank to provide the hinged connection between wall panel 11 and closure 19, and the hinged connection between closure panel 19 and its locking flap 21. Corresponding transverse score lines 86, 88 are formed in the blank to provide the hinged connection between wall panel 12 and closure 20, and the hinged connection between the closure 20 and its locking flap 22.
In actual practice, the blank is folded along longitudinal score line 81 and the sealing flap 84 is secured along the outer edge of side wall panel 13, interiorly thereof, by means of suitable adhesive. The thus folded and glued blank may accordingly be shipped in the flat, collapsed form depicted in FIG. 8.
When the body has been erected, in well-known manner, from its fiat or collapsed form into its open form of rectangular cross-section, the studs S and the mirrors M-1 and M-2 may be rapidly assembled therewith for use of the assembly as a periscope.
In assembling these parts, a stud S is first inserted in each of the key-hole slots 65. As the shank 70 of a stud is pushed into the converging portion of the slot 65 formed by edges 67, the inner end of this portion of the slot will spread sufiiciently to enable the shank to enter the circular opening 68, even though, as stated above, the distance between the inner end of the edges 67 is slightly less than the diameter at the smaller end of the shank. Thus, the stud may be snapped into place, with its larger head 71 disposed interiorly of the wall 11 or 12, as the case may be, and its shank held in firm engagement with the circular opening 68.
In this position, the smaller head 72 of the stud is held in contact with the outer surface of the wall 11 or 12, and each stud is disposed with its axis at an angle of substantially 90 with respect to the plane of the wall.
Axial movement of the stud is substantially prevented by the frictional engagement of the shank with the edges of opening 68, particularly when the shank of the stud tapered as above described. The length of the shank 70 issuch that the larger head 71 of. the. stud will be disposed at a substantial distance, say three-sixteenths to.
three eighths of an inch, inwardly of the wall 11 or 12,. sufiicient. to. enable the shank and the peripheral edge of head :71 to accommodate and support the lower margin of the mirror M4 or M4.
Mirror M-l (or M-Z) is inserted thronghone open end of the body so that =the.inner or. bottom edge of the mirror: is disposed incontact with the shanks of the pair of aligned studs S1at that end of the body. I
When the mirror has thus been inserted at one end of the body, the :closure .wall 19 (or 20) at that end is then folded so as to be brought into surface contact with the rear. surface of the mirror. This enables the upper edge of the mirror to be seized at the apex ofthe angle A between the Wall and the closure..Thereupon, the closure wall maybe locked in place by inserting the outer end of the flap through the locking slit 59 until the edge 43 of notch 49 has passed slightly beyond the with the. slit59 at the intersection between theslit and the. adjacent leg portion 61a thereof. This interlocking engagement; of the flapwith the slit causes the. closure wall 19 (or 20) to be held down firmly againstthe back surface of the mirror.
The same operation is repeated forinstalling the other.
mirror at the oppositeendiof the body. i
As will beevident, one transverse edge of each mirror is firmly gripped at the. apexof angle A and its opposite transverse edge is securely. supported on the studsby the locked flaps, as above described. This, together with the. surface contact between the respective closure wallsfand.
mirrors substantially throughout the. area of the latter minimizes movement of the mirrors if the assembled pen'scope is jarred or subjected to sirhi-larrough handling.
The positioning. of: the studswithin. the slots 65, and the placing of the mirrors, as well as. the folding. and
locking of the closure at: each end of the body may be quickly accomplished While the bodyB is1held horizon.
tally, i.e., with its longitudinal axis extending in a generally horizontal. direction. This may conveniently be accomplishedwhen the body Bis held in that position on the lap of a seated person assembling the parts.
As will be evident from the foregoing description and the drawing, by providing the studs above described for supporting lower ends ofeach of the mirrors M-1 and M.2, it becomes unnecessary to rely, for such support, upon tabs formed in the wall of the body, as in the structure shown in the above-mentioned Chaimson patent. In such structure, the tabs must be pusheda certain dis:
tance into the interior of the body in orderto receive and.
2O slit, thus enabling the portion of the flapbelow the edge. 43 to snap. into position for interlocking engagement.
hold the edge of the mirror. If such .tabs are initially.
pushed into the bodyeitheo an insuflicient oran excessive extent, it becomes necessary. to reach into the .body with r the fingers in order to restore the tabs to the correct position. Moreover, repeated movement of the tabs. necessarily weakens theirholdingstrength. Furthermore, when 3 such tabs are utilized for support of the lower edge: of. the mirror, the proper placing of the mirror in assembling the periscope requires that. this :be done more or less by. feel, or while holding the body. or casing in a vertical position, thereby rendering the assembling operation rather awkward.
Still further, where tabs formed in the wall of the periscope are relied upon for supporting the lower ends of the mirrors, diflicultyfis frequently encountered wheninitially assembling the parts, or in subsequent re-assembly thereof, by reason of slight but unavoidable variations. in the dimensions of themirrors as delivered by the manufacturer thereof for use with a particular size of eriscope. Although the widthiof the mirror is notcritical, the. length.
thereof is critical. If the mirror to be assembled with the body is of a length slightly in excess of that specified, the
lower edge of the mirror during or after positioning of. the same in the body causes the tabs to beforced inwardly beyond the position in which they exert their maximum:
holding eltect, thus enabling the vmirrorito become dis placed from its 'proper angular position fornuseJOn the other hand, if the length of the mirror is slightly less than that specifiedrit is held only loosely even though, the supporting tabs maybe properly positioned. In eitherinstance, the mirror is likely to be displaced and fall from its intended position duringhandling of the periscopei: All of the foregoing defects or 'difiiculties are avoided i in :the periscope constructed according "to my invention. Thus,'normal variations inthe length of the mirrors are automatically accommodated sincethe mirrors are sup- ;portedat one transverse edgeby the shank of the studs and: confined by the enlarged end 71 thereof. Further, the holding power of the studsis not: affected by repeated use, as. is the caserwith tabs. formed in the Wall of the body and which are substantially weakened in their hold ing strength after undergoing only a relatively few re peated handlings. I
By employing the studs; S in the construction according to my invention, the periscope may be disassembled after t a given use and rte-assembled for subsequent use practi j ca-lly innumerable times. Asstated above, the holding power of the studs is not thereby affected.
This is an important consideration in the merchandising of. periscopes of the type herein referredto, particu-w larly when a number of the periscopes on hand for sale at a parade or other: such event remain unsold and must accordingly be disassembled for storage and subsequent re-assemb-ly for sale or use on a later occasion.
Disassembly of myperiscope may. be readily affected by unlocking the flaps 20, 21 with a twisting movement.
thereof in a direction towardedge 35 thereof, then;folding back the closures,lremovingithe mirrors, and collap s ingthe body into a'fiatiform such as illustrated in :FIG.
8. For that purpose, the studs S needfnot be removed from the slots 65 and can. remain in place therein :in the 1 collapsed form of the body and .duringhandling, storage:
and shipment thereof.
What is claimed is:
1. A periscope of the character set forth, and. COHIPI'iS; ing inoombination: v
(A) an elongated body foldable toPprovide a body comprising a'-front*wal1,a rear wall, a pair of side walls each connected to said. front and rear walls, and a :closure at each endof the body, one of. said. closures being hingedly connected to an end of the front wall and the other of said closures being hing-1 edly connected to the opposite end. of the rear wall,:
corresponding ends ofasaid front 33nd rear walls being longitudinally otfset with respect to one another. to. dispose each of said closures at an angleuof approxh mately 45 degrees with respect to said front and rear walls when said closures are positionedto close.
the respective opposite: endsof thevbodyi;
(B) means formed with eachiof said closures for in-.
terlockingly engaging the wall opposite the wall to i which each closure is connected;
verse end edgesof said front and rear. walls remote from the end thereof connected to. one of :saidi closures;
formed by said closure at the correspondingend of the: body, said interlocking.rneansserving also to hold. the closure at eachend of the body in surface con tact with the mirror at=said end of the body; and
(0) mirror supporting meansdisposed along the trans-.-
(E) said front wall and said rear wall being each formed-with a viewing opening adjacent one end of 3. A periscope as defined in claim 2, wherein said in- H terlocking means and said studs cooperate to constrain said first-named edge of each mirror into contact with the shanks of said studs and to hold the closure at each end of the body in surface contact with the mirror at said end of the body.
4. A periscope of the character set ing in combination:
(A) an elongated body of flexible material folded to i provide a body of substantially rectangular crosssection transversely thereof, said body having:
(1) a front wall, a rear wall, a pair of side walls hingedly connected to said front and rear walls, said front wall being formed with a viewing openingiadjacent one end thereof, and said rear wall being formed with a viewing opening adjacent the opposite end thereof;
(2) a closure hinged to said one end of saidfront forth and compriswall and a closure hinged to said opposite end of said rear wall; and ,(3) a locking flap formed with each of said clossures for interlocking engagement respectively, with said rear wall and said front wall; the respective corresponding ends of said front and rear walls being offset longitudinally a distance such that each of said closures is disposed, when said locking flap thereof is engaged as aforesaid, at an angle of approximately 45 degrees with respect to the wall to whichthe closure is hinged, the transverse edge of said front wall and said rear wall at the end thereof opposite that to which the respective closures are hinged, being each formed with a key-hole slot disposed adjacent each of said side walls;
(B) a double-headed stud removably positioned in each of said slots and having its shank extending interiorly of said body and held in frictional engagement at the inner end of the slot; and
(C) a mirror removably positioned at each end of said body at an-angle of approximately 45 degrees with respect to said front and rear walls when said closures are positioned as aforesaid, one edge thereof being supported by the shanks of the studs positioned at each endof the body, and its opposite edge .being gripped in the apex of said angle at the corresponding end of the body.
5. A peris'cope as defined in claim 4, wherein said longitudinal offset of said front and rear walls is such that each of said closures is disposed at an angle of slightly less than 45 degrees with respect to the wall to which the closure is hinged.
6. A eriscope as defined in claim 4, wherein the shanks of said Studs are of a tapered cross-section which gradually, increases axially in the direction toward the interior of said body.
7. A periscope of essentially of:
(A) a body portion of fiberboard folded to provide a body of substantially rectangular cross-section transversely thereof, said body comprising:
(1) one wall having an enlarged opening adjacent one end of the body and a locking slit adjacent the opposite end thereof;
(2) an opposite wall having an enlarged opening adjacent said"opposite end of the body and a locking slit adjacent said first-named end of the body, the corresponding ends of'said walls being longitudinally offset with respect to each other;
the character set forth, consisting (3) a closure hinged to said first-named wall and extending at an angle slightly less than 45 degrees thereto and formed with a flap for interlocking with the locking slit of said opposite wall;
(4) a closure hinged to said opposite wall and extending at an angle slightly less than the 45 degrees with respect thereto and formed with a flap for interlocking with the locking slit of said first-named Wall;
each of said walls being formed along the edge thereof remote from said opening therein with spaced slots each of which is defined by side edges inclined inwardly toward one another and leading into a circular opening connecting the inner ends of said side edges, said opening being of a diameter slightly larger than the distance between the innermost ends of said edges;
(B) double-headed studs disposed in each of said slots,
the heads of said studs being spaced from one another by a tapered shank whose smallest diameter is slightly larger than said distance the diameter of each of said heads being greater than that of said circular opening; and
(C) 'a mirror disposed at each end of the body at an angle of approximately 45 degrees with respect to said front and rear walls when said closures are positioned as aforesaid, each of said mirrors being supported at one edge thereof by the studs disposed at said end of the .body and being held firmly in place by the interlocked closure at said end of the body, the apex of said anglebetween each of said closures and the Wall to which the enclosures are respectively hinged serving as a bight for one edge of said mirror at said end of the body.
8. In a periscope, a one-piece, collapsible body, formed of flexible paperboard and comprising:
(A) a front wall, a rear wall, offset longitudinally with respect to said front wall,,and opposed side walls,
each hingedly connected to said front wall and said rear wall;
(B) an enlarged opening adjacent one end of said front wall, and an enlarged opening adjacent the opposite end of said rear wall;
(C) a closure hinged to one transverse edge of said front wall at said one end thereof and a closure hinged to onetransverse edge of said rear wall at said opposite end thereof;
(D) afiap hinged to said first-named closure and formed for interlocking engagement with said rear wall, and a flap hinged to said second-named closure and formed for interlocking engagement with said front Wall; and
(E) key-hole slots formed in thefront wall along the, edge thereof opposite the said opening therein, and key-hole slots formed in the rear wall along the edge thereof opposite the said opening therein, the slots along each of said edges being each disposed laterally outward with respect to the side edges of the flap on the closure hinged to the opposite wall and being each formed with side edges tapering toward one another in the direction away from the edge along which the slot is formed.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,155,164 4/1939 Harris 88--68 FOREIGN PATENTS 653,549 11/1928 France.
I JEWELL H. PEDERSEN, Primary Examiner.
RONALD L, WIBERT, Examiner,