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Publication numberUS3358078 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 12, 1967
Filing dateJun 27, 1963
Priority dateJun 27, 1963
Publication numberUS 3358078 A, US 3358078A, US-A-3358078, US3358078 A, US3358078A
InventorsRatliff Jr Harvey L
Original AssigneeJetru Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus for making wide-angle stereoscopic cartoons
US 3358078 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 12, 1967 H. L. RATLIFF, JR 3,358,078

APPARATUS FOR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS 6 Sheetsheet 1 I NVENTOR M 44. 6469/14.

Filed June 27, 1963 Dec. 12, 1967 H, L RATLIFF, JR 3,358,078

APPARATUS FOR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS Filed June 27, 1963 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 6 Sheets-Sheec 5 H. L. RATLIFF, JR

APPARATUS FOR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS Dec. 12, 1967 Filed June 27, 1963 &

INVENTOR W 4. WWI

Dec. 12, 1967 H. RATLIFF, JR 3 0 APPARATUS FUR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS Filed June 27, 1963 I 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 [372 ".LLZ' 2;." :"IJ": "7. I382 I as I392 Mam) 142 a) H6 5 I INVENTOR Dec. 12, 1967 H. L. RATLIFF, JR

APPARATUS FOR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed June 27, 1965 ma [IR-z FIG. 7

INVENTOR M 02. ay A.

Dec. 12, 1967 H. L. RATLIFF, JR 3,358,078

APPARATUS FOR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed June 27, 1963 INVENTOR.

FIG.

United States Patent 3,358,078 APPARATUS FOR MAKING WIDE-ANGLE STEREOSCOPIC CARTOONS Harvey L. Ratlilf, Jr., Amarillo, Tex., assignor of one hundred percent to Jetru Inc., Amarillo, Tex. Filed June 27, 1963, Ser. No. 291,198 7 Claims. (Cl. 178-65) The present invention pertains to processes and apparatus whereby wide-angle stereoscopic and stereophonic animated cartoons may be created. The term wide-angle as herein referred to means an angle of view between 120 and 180.

Understanding of the present invention is facilitated by first considering existing methods and comparing them with the methods of the present invention. Heretofore, in theproduction of animated cartoons, which had an angle of view of some 30, artists or animator(s) made sketches, each sketch showing the extreme positions of a character whose movement was to be depicted in the form of an animated cartoon photoplay. Occasionally the artists or animator(s) made one or two sketches intermediate the extreme positions for the purpose of indicating the manner in which the character moved from one extreme to the other. These sketches are sometimes termed rough and include construction lines, false lines and the other nebulous indications from which the artist derived the final representation of the character shown on the rough. This step is ordinarily followed by the production of what are known as clean-up drawings. Clean-up drawings are generally made by tracing on a separate sheet of paper the final lines of the character, thereby eliminating the construction and false lines existing on the rough drawing. These clean-up drawings are then utilized by the in-betweeners who draw in-between sketches showing the character in positions between the extremes originally drawn by the artist or animator. The number of these iii-between drawings depends upon the amplitude of movement of the character and the rapidity with which the character moves.

Each of the drawings thus made (including the cleanup drawings and in-between drawings) is then either laboriously traced upon or mechanically transferred to transparent sheets generally made from cellulose nitrate or other cellulose derivatives.

After the tracings or transfers are made, paints, generally opaque and of an appropriate color, are applied to the drawings (which have in the meantime been inked or'afiixed). The finished sheet of transparent material bearing the ink or afiixed drawings and the opaque paints iscustomarily referred to in the art as a cell. These cells are successively placed in front of appropriate background paintings (which have been created by a background painter) and are then successively photographed, the resulting film being known as an animated cartoon photoplay. It is to be understood that the simplified description hereinabove given may be modified and amplified in actual practice.

In order for a wide-angle, stereoscopic animated cartoon to appear natural to a viewing observer as defined in my prior applications Ser. Nos. 275,411, (now abandoned), 250,562, (now U.S. Patent 3,293,358) and 287,338 filed Apr. 24, 1963, Jan. 10, 1963, and June 12, 1963 respectively, each right eye view and left eye view cell must necessarily appear very distorted to the naked eye because the angular disposition of the rays leaving the images represented within 173L and 173R undergoes a great deal of expansion when viewed through LE-L and LE-R of KD. It would be extremely difficult for an animator, in-betweener, or background painter to accurately distort his drawings correctly enough to appear natural to a viewing observer without the use of special apparatus and methods.

Accordingly it is the primary object of this invention to teach processes and apparatus which makes it relatively easy for the animator, inbetweener, and background painter to each create his part of naturally appearing wide-angle, stereoscopic cartoons. Heretofore it has not been practical to create action scenes of cartoon characters which make the characters appear to be only from one to seven feet away from the viewing observer.

Accordingly it is another object of this invention to teach processes and apparatus which make it relatively simple for an animator, or in-betweener, to create cartoon characters in action which appear to be only from less than one to seven feet away from and panoramically stereoscopic to a viewing observer.

It is also an object of this invention to teach processes and apparatus which make it relatively simple for a background painter to create the sensation that each viewing observer is viewing characters within a room which is as small or even smaller than 1 foot by 1 foot by 1 foot and which has stereoscopic relief and is of course shown in a wide-angle of view. Of course in this situation the characters would have to be closer to the viewing observer than one foot.

Other objects and advantages of my invention will become more apparent from a study of the following description taken with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is an elevational view of the drawing board equipment and the kinescopic optical viewing device which are used to carry out the invention.

FIG. 2 is a side sectional view of the drawing board equipment taken along 22 as viewed in the direction of the arrows.

FIG. 3 is an elevational view of device DD which may be used to carry out the drawing of the invention when the characters or objects drawn are to appear further than seven feet from the eyes of a viewer.

FIGS. 4 and 5 are partially schematic and partially block diagrams of the electronic circuitry used to carry out the invention.

FIG. 6 is a sectional view of a lens system used to make objects appear larger, smaller, nearer, or further than the model (i.e. FIG. 8) and to thereby aid to carry out the invention.

FIG. 7 is a front view of the lens system of FIG. 6 with lens systems LL-3 and LR-3 arranged differently.

FIGS. 8 are left and right eye views of a model used to carry out the present invention.

Referring more particularly to FIGS. 1 and 2, drawing table 182 may be any well known form of drawing table which is adjustable (in a well known manner) up and down and about a horizontal axis which is in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of view of the person sitting behind table 182. Kinescopic optical viewing device KD is preferable of the type described in my copending prior patent application No. 275,411 filed Apr. 24, 1963, and is mounted as taught in my co-pending prior patent application No. 287,338 filed June 12, 1963, however, KD could be the type taught by M. L. Heilig in Patent No. 2,955,156 issued Oct. 4, 1960 for example.

Within hulls 166L and 166R are left and right eye view pick up tubes respectively which are preferably the type of simultaneous color pick-up tubes described in my co-pending above cited application 275,411. Lenses 167L and 167R are operative well known narrow angle lenses such as that shown in FIG. 1 of Patent No. 2,898,389 issued to P. K. Weimer Aug. 4, 1959.

Roughs, tracings, cells etc. may be hereinafter referred to as cells and are designated by 171, 173, and 174. The cell in point is 173. The peripheral edges 1: a of the left and right eye view cells respectively are designated by 173L and 173Rrespectively. Cells 171, 173,

and 174 are secured to table 182 by element 172 which is secured by pins and pinholes 178, 179, 180, and 181.

Semitransparent mirror 175 is secured to frame 176.

Semitransparent mirror 175 is preferably the well known type which is' primarily reflective on'its bottom and pri:

marily'transparent on its top. Frame 176 is rigidly secured totable 182 by legs 177 such that semitransparent mirror 175- reflects an image of the left eye view drawing-within 173L to lens 167L which focuses it (in nonexpanded form, .i.e. as the cell appears to the naked eye) on the target ofa pick up tube within hull 166L and ,reflects an image-of the right eye view drawing within 173R to lens 167Rwhich focuses it (in nonexpanded form, i.e.-as thecell appears to the naked eye) on the target of a pick up tube within hull 166R. Frame 176 is secured such that axis 168L and 168R respectively pass through,

theqcenterof 167Land 167Rrespectively. The pick up 7 tubes, lenses 167L and 167R, hulls 166L and 166R, table 182, and support 183 are securedtogether such that the targets of the pick up tubes are parallel to lenses 167-L and 167R respectively and such that lenses 167L and 167R respectively are perpendicular to axis 168L and.163R-respectively.-It is here pointed'out that the relative position of 175 to 182, 167L, and 167R is always the same no matter how much 182 is tilted relative to legs 185- and no matter how high up or low down table 182 is. Table 182 is supported by 184 which is made tiltably adjustable'by thumb screw 186 or in a Well known manner. Legs 185 are made adjustable up and down in a well known manner.

The peripheral rays which leave left and right eye view edges 173Land 173R respectively to be focused on the targets within hulls 166Land 166R respectively are 169L.and.169R respectively. The circles of reflection of peripheral rays 1691., and 169R respectively are 170L and 170R respectively. As indicated above the axis of theimages focused on the targets within hulls 166L and 166Rrespectively and of peripheral rays 16L and 169R respectively are 168L and 168R respectively.

The image picked up by the tubes within hulls 166L.

and 166R, is electronically conveyed to screen 36 of KD in va mannenwhich will be described in greater detail later.

The animator, artist, in-betweener, background painter.etc. ,willhereinafter be referred to as artist uncited -co-pending patent application No. 287,338.1n this manner the artist may view his drawingsin the exact form they will appear to a viewing observer later. That is he sees the images-after theangular disposition of the rays leaving therefrom has undergone a great deal of ex-- pansion because of LE-L and LE-R. He may therefore easily distort the-drawings on cells 171, 173, and 174 suchthat they will appear correctly to viewing observers later viewing through LE-L and LER or the like. After I the artist completes a cell (say within 173R), when viewed with the normal naked eye (because it is in com pressed form) it will appear to have a largedegree of barrel distortion (as defined in my above cited application No. 275,411).

Referenceis now made to FIG. 3. Device DD (which is used for drawing characters or objects to appear more than 7 feet I, from the eyes as described in more detail later) of FIG. 3 consists of pins 190L and 190R which are, rigidly secured to elements 192L and 192R respectivelyby elements 195L .and 195R respectively. When set screws 191*L land 191R respectively are loosened elements 192L and 192R respectively may be slid along element 193 in either direction but elements-192Irand 192R are held from rotation relative to element 193 in a known manner. When set screws 191L and 191R respectively are tightened elements 192L and 192R respectively are rigidly secured to element 193. Scales 196L and 196R respectively indicate howzfanapart pins L and 190R respectively areapart and therefore, how far the character or object drawn or .tracedtwith pins 190L and 190R'will appear to be froma viewing observer viewing properly into a KD set. Element-193 is free to move in either direction along or to rotate about element 194. Element 194 is rigidly'usecured :to elements 189.

Elements .189 are free to move in eithervdirection-along elements 188.:Elements188- are" made. in a well known i manner such-that they. may. be rigidly-secured: to and removed from table 182, at Will, such that, when secured to 182, element 194 is parallel to' the areaniedge of table 182'.-

Reference is nowmade to F1654. As-statedherein M above the pick up tubeswwithin:hullsi 166L -'and 166R respectively (of FIGS.rl and. 2)' areipreferablyof the simultaneous 'coloripick up tube: type iindicated by 299 and 301 respectively and described in the 'descriptionof- 1 FIGS. 4, 5, 9, l0, 11, -12, :l3,14,1'5,'and 16 of my hereinabove cited application -No."275,411. T hesignal picked up -by, left eye view red sensitive bus bar 1LR"('corre--- sponding to 43L of 275,411) is appliedto control grid 257 of the first stage .2610]? amplifier system -347-'.' The signal picked up by'left eye view green sensitivebus-bar 1 lLG (corresponding to 42L.of 275,411) is applied to control grid 247 of thefirst stage 251.!of amplifier systern 345; :The signal. picked up by left-ieyeaview blue sensitivebus bar 1LB (corresponding to. 41L Fof 275-;4'11 is applied" to control grid 237mof thekfirstwsta'ge 2'41 of amplifier system 343. :The sign-alipicke'dup by rightreye view red sensitive bussbar 1RRii('corresponding ,to 143R of 275,411) is applied to. control grid t-238- of the'=firs #1 stage 1 242, of amplifier. system' 3'44.-' The signal picked "up by righteye view'green sensitive bus' bar -l-RG (corre-- sponding to 42R-0f 2753411). is applied to control grid 248' ofthe :first stage 252 of amplifier? system 346.- The' signal picked :up by right eyeview blue sensitive'bus bar lRB (corresponding to 41R of 275,411) is applied to .control grid 2580f the.:first..stage=262 of amplifier system 348: A steadynegative D.C. biasl309-is appliedto grid; 257. through control-229(0) (which is ganged with"' 229(a) and 229(b), all threebeingzcontrolled by knob 229 of FIG. 1 in a well known'm-anneri); Steady negative 'biasing1voltages. 307 and 305*respectively are applied -to grids 247' and ,237 respectively through fcontrols 229(5) and. 229(0) "respectivelynThe parameters are such-that controls: 229(a-),,229(b), and '.229(.c may be varied f such by knob. 229, (of FIG. '1) that-.-tubes 241',=251, and 261-respectively are biased atithe plate currentcut 'off to thereby pass no picturesignalnto amplifier systems" 343, 345, and 347'respectivelyrControls"229(a), 2296b )3 and 229(0). may also be variedvsuch i-by knob-229 that tubes 241,- 251, and261 respectively pass very Lfaint-picture signals or strong picture signals. It is here pointed out that other methods of causingfknob-229to have the capacity to reduce or eliminate the left:eye viewpicture signal-from passingifrom tube 299 to screen 36 are con'- sidered within the scope of this invention.

Steady negative .D.C. biasing: voltages' 3o6; 308, and 310 are applied-togrids: 238, 248,- and 258 respectively 1 through controls l230(a') 230(5), and. 230(0) respectively (which. are all three gan ed: together and' controlled by knob'230 in a Well known manner);:.The:'parameters v are such that controls 230(-a),.230(b), and 230(6) maybe varied. such'by knob 230 that tubes 242, 252, and 262- respectively are biased 'at the platescurrentcutoff to thereby pass no picture signal to amplifierusystems 344 346;-and.348 respectively; Controls 230f(a), 230'(b-), 21Hd230(6) mayalsobe variedfsuchlby knob 230-that' tubes 242, 252, and 262 respectively pass very faint picture signals or strong picture signals. It is also pointed out that other methods of causing knob 230 to have the capacity to reduce or eliminate the right eye view picture signal from passing from tube 300 to screen 36 are considered within the scope of this invention. The plate electrodes 233, 234, 243, 244, 253, and 254 are connected to suitable source of steady plate potential 319, 320, 323, 324, 327, and 328 respectively through resistors 317, 318, 321, 322, 325, and 326 respectively. The shieldgrids 235, 236, 245, 246, 255, and 256 are connected to an intermediate point of D.C. supplies 319, 320, 323, 324, 327, and 328 respectively in a well known manner. The outputs of stages 241, 242, 251, 252, 261, and 262 are applied to the other stages of amplifier systems 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, and 348 respectively.

A vertical scanning signal is generated by system 341 and applied to terminals 225 and 226. The output of terminals 225 and 226 is applied to deflection coils 291 and 292 in a well known manner. The output of terminals 225 and 226 is also applied to amplifier system 349.

A horizontal scanning signal is generated by system 342 and applied to terminals 227 and 228. The output of terminals 227 and 228 is applied to deflection coils 293 and 294 in a well known manner. The output of terminals 227 and 228 is also applied to amplifier system 350.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 6 and 7 which show lens systems which make objects look nearer, further, larger, or smaller than the model (i.e. of FIG. 8) in a manner which will be described in more detail later. There are one or more auxiliary systems. Each auxiliary system has two wide angle lens systems such as 1L and IR (which are of the type described in the above cited 275, 411). In each auxiliary system the rays within peripheral rays 21L and 21R respectively and 22L and 22R respectively, including central rays 20L and 20R respectively pass through wide angle lens systems 1L and IR respectively, through collector lens systems 2L and 2R respectively and are reflected by reflectors 3L and SR respectively to then be reflected by 5L and SR respectively such as to be parallel to the corresponding rays before reflection from 31. and 3R respectively. From 5L and SR respectively the rays pass through lens systems 4L and 4R respectively which focus them on targets 7L and 7R respectively after passing through controllable diaphragms 6L and 6R respectively. Targets such as 7L and 7R are preferably in each auxiliary system and are for simultaneous color pick up tubes such as 301 and 302 respectively which are identical to tubes 299 and 300 described hereinabove (refer also to 275, 411). In each auxiliary system optical elements 1L, 2L, 3L, and 5L are supported by housing means HL to make up wide angle lens system LL-3 and optical elements 1R, 2R, 3R, and SR are supported by housing means HR to make up wide angle lens system LR-3. Housings HL and HR are made such as to be rotatable in turret 24' to be secured in various positions so that the centers of lenses 1L and IR may be far apart (for example 3.5 times the interpupillary distance) (3.5 2% thus making objects appear closer or smaller or close together (for example /3 the interpupillary distance) /3 X'2 thus making objects further or larger. This is done in a well known manner which will not be described here. It is contemplated that turret 24 is mounted on the turret support 23 of a housing means which is suitable to house two simultaneous color pick up tubes with their associated electronic equipment. It is here pointed out however that turret 24 containing lens systems LL-3 and LR-3 could easily be mounted on turret support 23 of MR of FIGS. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of my co-pending application .No. 275,411 cited above for the purposes of trick photography.

The images focused on targets 7L and 7R of each auxiliary system are converted into red picture signal impulses on bus bars 2LR and 2RR respectively (corresponding to 43L and 43R respectively of 275, 411), green picture signal impulses on bus bars 2LG and 2RG respectively (corresponding to 42L and 42R respectively of 275, 411), and blue picture signal impulses on bus bars 2LB and 2RB respectively (corresponding to 43L and 43R respectively of 275, 411) in a manner described in 275, 411.

In each auxiliary system the signals picked up by left eye view red sensitive bus bars 2LR, left eye view green sensitive bus bars ZLG, left eye view blue sensitive bus bars 2LB, right eye view red sensitive bus bars 2RR, right eye view green sensitive bus bars 2RG, and right eye view blue sensitive bus bars 2RB are applied to control grids 287, 277, 267, 268, 278, and 288 respectively of the first stages 29-1, 281, 271, 272, 282, and 292 respectively of amplifier systems 355, 353, 351, 352, 354, and 356 respectively. Steady negative D.C. biasing voltages 315, 313, 311, 312, 314, and 316 are applied to grids 287, 277, 267, 268, 278, and 288 respectively through ganged controls 231(0) 231(1)) 231(a), 232(a), 232(b), and 232(0). Controls 231(0), 231(b), and 231(a) are controlled by knob 231 of FIG. 1 in a well known manner. Controls 232(a), 232(b), and 232(c) are controlled by knob 232 of FIG. 1 in a well known manner. The parameters are such that controls 231(a), 231(b), and 23-1(c) may be varied such by knob 231 that tubes 271, 281, and 291 respectively are biased at the plate current cut oil? to thereby pass no picture signal to amplifier system 351, 353, and 355 respectively. Controls 231(a), 231(b), and 231(c) may also be varied such by knob 231 that tubes 271, 281, and 291 respectively pass very faint picture signals or strong picture signals. It is here pointed out that other methods of causing knob 231 to have the capacity to reduce or eliminate the left eye view picture signal from passing from tube 301 to screen 36 are considiered within the scope of this invention. The parameters are also such that controls 232(a), 232(b), and 232(c) may be varied such by knob 232 (of FIG. 1) that tubes 272, 282, and 292 respectively are biased at the plate current cut 011 to thereby pass no picture signal to amplifier systems 352, 354, and 356 respectively. Controls 232(a), 232( b), and 232(0) may also be varied such by knob 232 that tubes 272, 282, and 292 respectively pass very faint picture signals or strong picture signals. It is here pointed out that other methods of causing knob 232 to have the capacity to reduce or eliminate the right eye view picture signal from passing from tube 302 to screen 36 are considered within the scope of this invention. The plate electrodes (of each auxiliary system) 263, 264, 273, 274, 283, and 284 are connected to a suitable source of steady D.C. plate potential 331, 332, 337, 336, 339, and 340 respectively through resistors 329, 330, 333, 334, 335 and 338 respectively. The shield-grids 265, 266, 275, 276, 285, and 286 are connected to an intermediate point of DC. supplies 331, 332, 337, 336, 339, and 340 respectively in a well known manner. In each auxiliary system the outputs of stages such as 271, 272, 28 1, 282, 291, and 292 are applied to the other stages of amplifier systems such as 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, and 356 respectively.

The output of terminals 225 and 226 is also applied to the vertical deflection coils of each auxiliary system such as coils 295 and 296 of tubes 301 and 302 respectively in a well known manner. The output of terminals 227 and 228 is also applied to the horizontal deflection coils of each auxiliary system such as coils 297 and 298 of tubes 301 and 302 respectively in a Well known manner.

Reference is now made to FIG. 5. Tube 178Z is the same as tube 178 of FIG. 27 of my above cited co-pending application No. 275,411; mask 142Z corresponds to mask 142 of FIG. 27 of 275,411 and as in 275,411 mask 142Z allows the red gun beams to strike only red phosphor elements, green gun beams to strike only green phosphor elements, and blue gun beams to strike only blue phosphor elements (because of 142Z(a Also as in 7 1 275,411 mask 142Z allows the beams from the right eye view red,-blue and green guns to strike only the elements the right eye sees and the beams from the left eye view red, blue, and green guns to strike only the elements the lefteye sees (because of 142Z(b)). This is accomplished by the well known principle of parallax. Also elements 137Z, 138Z, and 139Z of screen 36 of the present invention correspond to elements 137, 138, and 139 of screen 36 of 275,411 and are described therein. Defiection'coils 377 and 379 of the present invention correspond to deflection yoke 176L'of 275,411, and deflection coils 376 and 378 of the present invention correspond to deflection yoke 176R of 275,411. Control grid 365 of the present invention corresponds to control grid 172L of the red gun of 275,411. Likewise control grids 367, 369,364, 366,

and 368 of the present invention correspond to control grids 172L of the green gun, 172L of the blue gun, 172R of the red gun, 172R of the green gun, and 172R of the blue gun respectively of 275,411. The other elements shown in FIG. 27 of 275,411 are left out of FIG. 5 of the present invention because they are mostly well known in the art (except 177L and 177R of 275,411) and are considered unnecessary to describe the present invention.

The output from amplifier systems .343, 345, 347, and 349 respectively is applied through terminals (197 and 200), (201 and 204), (205 and 208), and (209 and 212) respectively across control grids and cathodes (369 and 375 respectively), (367 and 373 respectively), (365 and 371 respectively), and deflection coil 377 respectively in a well known operative manner.

From each auxiliary system the output from each three left eye view amplifier systems such as 351, 353, and 355 is applied through terminals such as (213 and 216), (217 and 220), and (221 and 224) respectively across control grids and cathodes (369 and 375 respectively), (367 and 373 respectively) and (365 and 371 respectively) respectively in a well known operative manner.

The output from amplifier systems 344, 346, and 348 respectively-is applied through terminals (198 and 199), (202 and203), and (206 and 207) respectively, through ganged switches 358, 360, and 362 respectively across control grids and cathodes (364 and 370 respectively), (366 and 372 respectively), and (368 and 374 respectively) respectively in a well known operative manner. Terminals (197 and 200), (201 and 204), and (205 and 208) which carry the output from 343, 345, and 347 respectively are also connected across control grids and cathodes (368-and 374 respectively), (366 and 372 respectively), and (364 and 370 respectively) respectively through ganged switches 361, 359, and 357 respectively. Switches 358,- 360, and 362'are also ganged with 361, 359, and 357 to form switch 363 which is controlled by knob 363 of FIG. 1 such that when switches 358, 360, and 362 are closed by a first position of 363', switches 361, 359, and 357 are opened and when switches 358, 360, and362 are opened by a second position of 363', switches 361, 359, 357 are closed.

From each auxiliary system the output from each three right eye view amplifier systems such as 352, 354, and 356 is applied through terminals such as (214 and 215), (218 and 219), and (222 and 223) respectively through ganged switches 358, 360, and 362 respectively across control grids and cathodes (364 and 370 respectively), (366 and 372 respectively), and (368 and 374 respectively) respectively, in a well known operative man ner. Terminals such as (213 and 216), and (221 and 224), which carry the output from 351, 353;"and -355-respectively are also connected across control'grids and cathodes (368 and 374 respectively), (366 and 372 respectively), and (364 and 370" respectively) respectively through ganged switches 361,359, and 357 respectively:

The outputzfrom amplifier system 350 is applied through terminals 210 and 211 across horizontal deflection coils 376and 379 in a well known operative manner. When (217 and 220'),

the artist is confronted withcreating a character or ob-- ject which is to appear to be greaterthan some7 feet from the viewing observers viewing into KD sets later,-he has a relatively'simple problem in that said character or object would appear-virtually the same to the left eye as it would to the right. The difference under these conditions betweenthe righteye view picture and the left eye view picture would be only in the relationship between the various characters and background objects-not in the 1 characters themselves.

In other words by way of example if an image of an object is placed before the right eye on a screen which is 3 inches away from and where I is the interpupillary distance and D is the distance the object will appear to be from the eyes, D is the distance the object will appear to be from the screen, and d is the distance between the image before the right eye expanded from that on the screen and the image before the left eye expanded from that on the screen. If D, is 84 inches (7 feet) or greater, the right eye view image of the object or character may be identical to the left eye view image of the object or character with negligible loss in realism after expansion of the image. If for example D is to be 84 inches, then D is 81 inches, and of course I is always'2 or 2.562 inches; therefore d is some 2.471 inches. However if D, is less than 84 inches, say for example 18 inches, the right eye view image of the object or character may not be identical to the left eye image if realism is to be maintained. If D to to be 18 inches, the

D is 15 inches, and of course I is always 2.562 inches;

therefore d is some 2.14 inches and the right eye view image (for example seeFIG. 8(R)) must appear correctly differentfrom the left eye view image (for example see FIG. 8(L)).

The contemplatedmode of carrying out the inventionv (when the characters or objects are to appear more than seven feet away from viewing observers viewing into KD sets later) will now be set forth:

The electronic equipment is :turned on by on-off switch .164 (which operates in a well known manner). Second- .tronic systems may, if desired, be placed to pick up any desired foreground character, foreground objects, or background characters or objects. Knobs such as 231 are regulated as desired to make the images picked up by the auxiliary systems as faint or clear as desired at different inst-ants of time. Knob 229 is regulated as desired to make the image picked up of the drawing within 173L as faint or clear as desired at different instants of time. In the third step the rough drawings are made either from memory or by tracing the various desirable images picked up by the auxiliary equipment. It is understood, of course, that the drawings and images picked up by the auxiliary equipment is observed through the KD set and therefore, do not appear distorted to the artist although the drawings within 173L appear to have a lot of barrel distortion to the naked eye because they are in compressed perpendicular to the optical axis of the right andleft eye of a viewing observer and an form. Fourth device DD is used to trace two pictures of the rough drawings (because the two images occupy substantially the same relative position, i.e. d 2.471 and d 2.562, one within 173L and one within 173R) after knob 363' is turned such that ganged switches 357, 359, and 361 are opened there-by closing ganged switches 358, 360, and 362 to thereby throw the right eye view images picked up by 300 and the right eye view auxiliary pick up tubes such as 302 before the artists right eye and the left eye view images picked up by 299 and the left eye view auxiliary pick up tubes such as 301 before the artists left eye. In the fourth step pins 190L and 190R are set on scale 196L and 196R respectively such that (d) as described hereinabove is the proper distance to make D as desired. In the fourth step the clean up drawings are made. Fifth the in-between drawings are made in the same manner set forth in steps three and four. Sixth the paints of proper opacity and color are applied. After step six the techniques which are well known in the art are used to produce a wide-angle stereoscopic stereophonic cartoon photoplay. The techniques described in my co-pending above cited prior application No. 287,338 may be used to produce the stereophonic sound associated with the cartoon. As an alternative method of producing the stereoscopic effect produced by the use of DD is the manipulation of pins and pin holes such as 178, 179, 180, and 181 and cells such as 171, 173, and 174 as taught by W. E. Garity in Patent No. 2,776,594. Of course Garity teaches nothing about correctly distorting the pictures for wideangle viewing, also Garitys technique will only be realistic when D (as hereinabove described) is more than some seven feet.

The contemplated mode of carrying out the invention (when the characters or objects are to appear less than seven feet away from viewing observers viewing into KD set later) will be now set forth.

The electronic equipment is turned on by the on-of't switch 164. Second knob 363' is turned such that ganged switches 357, 359, and 361 are opened thereby closing ganged switches 358, 360, and 362 (this throws the left eye view image within 173L and various auxiliary left eye view images properly before only the left eye and the right eye view image within 173R and various corresponding auxiliary right eye view images properly before only the right eye).

In order to explain step three more completely reference is again made to FIGS. 6, 7, and 8. As indicated above each auxiliary system has a wide-angle lens system such as that shown in FIGS. 6 and 7. In order to aid the artist in creating realistically appearing characters, he may choose to use a manikin or model such as shown in FIG. 8. Because of joints such as the thirteen joints 380, the manikins or models can assume virtually every position of action. The manikin of FIG. 8 is a model of a man however it is obvious that a model with joints such as 380 could be made for any desired cartoon character, and said model could be placed in and whence drawn and painted in the successive positions needed to create a wide-angle stereoscopic cartoon photoplay.

Lens systems LL-3 and LR-3 could be placed such that 20L and 20R (in other words the centers of 1L and IR) are the proper distance apart to make the manikin or model (and thereby the cartoon character) appear to be the proper size (i.e. larger or smaller than it is in fact) and the proper distance (i.e. nearer or further than it is in fact) away from the artist and thereby viewing observers later. If, for example, 20L and 20R are the interpupillary distance apart (2 and a 16" tall manikin is some 18 inches from each lens 1L and IR, the left eye image would appear approximately as FIG. 8(L) before only the left eye of the artist and the right eye image would appear approximately as FIG. 8(R) before only the right eye of the artist. Of course the drawings of FIG. 8 are not perfect. When the artist placed lines within 173L such as to reproduce the image of FIG. 8(L), the drawing within 173L would have a great deal of barrel distortion when viewed with the naked eye, and when the artist placed lines within 173R such as to reproduce the image of FIG. 8(R), the drawing within 173R would also have a great deal of barrel distortion when viewed with the naked eye. Of course a face, hands, feet and clothes having the various desired characteristics could be placed on a manikin or model having joints similar to 380 such that the manikin or model could assume all the positions of action. After this is done it is only a small problem for the artist to draw in the proper facial expressions and hand and foot positions when he is aided with the equipment of the present invention.

In step three of the present close up drawing method, the left eye view of each wide angle cell (the extreme position, in-between position, and background) is almost traced within 173L while the artist views his work (and what he is almost tracing into KD and regulates knob 229 to make the image of his work within 173L as faint or clear as desired and regulates knobs such as 231 to make the image of the characters, objects or background objects (such as objects within a small room a mouse would live in 1 foot x 1 foot 2; 1 foot for example) which he is almost tracing as faint or clear as desired.

Also in step three of the close up drawing method, the right eye view of each wide-angle cell is almost traced within 173R while the artist views his work (and what he is almost tracing) into KD and regulates knob 230 to make the image of his work within 173R as faint or as clear as desired and regulates knobs such as 232 to make the image of the character, object, or background objects which he is almost tracing as faint or clear as desired.

For the reasons (i.e., to make objects appear larger, smaller, nearer, or further than the actual model) pointed out in my co-pending prior application Ser. No. 237,795, now abandoned, it is desirable to place lenses 1L and IR different distances apart in the manner set forth hereinabove in the performance of step three of the close up drawing method.

Fourth, the paints of proper opacity and color are applied while still using the equipment set forth in the present specification. After step four the techniques which are well known in the art are used to produce a wideangle stereoscopic stereophonic cantoon photoplay. The hereinabove described distant drawing method including steps 1-6, the hereinabove described close up drawing method including steps 14, the hereina'bove indicated steps that are well known in the art, and the stereophonic system of 287,338 are applied as needed to produce a wide-angle stereoscopic, stereophonic cartoon photoplay which will appear realistic when the objects appear less than one foot away or up to an infinite distance away from viewing observers viewing properly into KD sets. It is here pointed out that among the techniques of the prior art which could be used with small alterations as a great benefit to the performance of the present invention (a finished wide-angle stereoscopic, stereophonic cartoon photoplay which will appear realistic at substantially every depth) are: W. E. Disneys No. 2,201,689, L. B. Pickleys No. 2,314,629 and No. 2,260,092, W. B. Justices No. 2,348,983, W. E. Garitys No. 2,312,158, F. W. Jackmans No. 2,147,038, and of course others.

While the invention has been disclosed and described in some detail in the drawings and foregoing description, they are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character, as other modifications may readily suggest themselves to persons skilled in the art and within the broad scope of the invention, reference being had to the appended claims.

What I claim is:

1. In apparatus for hand rendering, in compressed and therefore distorted form, wide angle stereoscopic pictures 1 1 uponfiat surfaces with the angle. of view exceeding 120 in the horizontal plane and 100 in the vertical plane;

at least one right eye-view and at least one left eye view picture surface within corresponding cells for'retaining hand rendered images thereupon, said images being hand rendered in compressed and therefore distorted form;

first means of supporting the picture surfaces;

wide angle stereoscopiciviewing apparatus which expands theangular disposition of rays of light which are representative of the distorted images onsaid picture surfaces from a compressedangular disposition to an expanded wide angle, disposition substantially free of distortion whereby the rays which are-representative of the peripheral areas of said picture surfaces enter theteyesto create the sensation of a view greater than said 120 in said horizontal plane and and said 100 in said vertical plane;

second means of supporting said wide angle stereoscopic viewing apparatus in position to be looked into by the eyes of an observer;

thus enabling said observer to hand render flat wide angle stereoscopic pictures within said picture surfaces in compressed form and therefore, necessarily very distorted to the naked eye.

2. In combination with the apparatus of claim 1:

auxiliary wide angle stereoscopic apparatus which compresses the angular disposition of rays from a real life scene into a compressed narrow angle disposition and focuses them in compressed, and therefore, necessarily very distorted form upon an auxiliary surface;

third means of alternately causing said viewing apparatus to expand the angular disposition of the rays which are representative of images on the surfaces within said cells and those on said auxiliary surface;

thus enabling said observer viewing into said viewing apparatus to alternately observe said picture surfaces after they are in expanded'form and said real life scene from said auxiliary surface as said scene naturally appears; I

3. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said wide angle stereoscopic viewing apparatus comprises:

a semitransparent mirror which reflects the rays from said surfaces while allowing said observer to see therethrough;

two video pick up means supported in thepath'of the rays reflected from said-mirror to focus the rays of said surfaces received-from saidmirror upon the targets of said pickup means in substantially "the same compressed distorted form as each appears to the naked eyewhen viewed alone and-converting'the images focused upon the respective said targets into respective electronic signals; means of'communicating said signals to a wide-angle kinescopic optica l viewing device which is supported by said second means in position to be looked into by said observer; said wide angle kinesc-opic optical'viewing device convetting said signals into visual images andexpanding said imagesfrom said compressed, distorted form into a wide angle non-distorted, non-compressedform. whereby the rays from said imagesenter the eyes of 4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said first means.

comprises:

a desk with a cell supporting table which is fixedly rotatable about an axis which is horizontal and substantially perpendicular to the axis of view of said observer and which is fixedly movable up and down framework which supports said kinescopic optical viewing device such that saidobserver may move said viewing device into a comfortable viewing position.

6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein said first means comprises:

observer and which is fixedly movable up and down to allow adjustment for different angular dispositions of said table and for different heights respectively. 7. In combination with the apparatus of claim 6:

auxiliary wide angle stereoscopic apparatus which com-- presses the angular disposition of rays from a reel life scene into a compressed narrow angle dispositionand focuses them in compressed, and therefore, neces- 1 sarily very distorted form upon an auxiliary surface;

means of alternately causing said viewing device to'expand the angular disposition of the rays'which are representative of images on the surfaces within'said cells and those on said auxiliary surface;

thus enabling said observer viewing into saidviewi=ng-v apparatus to alternately observe said'picture surfaces after they'are in expanded form and said-real'life r: scenefromsaid'auxiliary surface as said scene nat--' urally appears.

P. SPERBER, R. L. RICHARDSON; J. A. ORSINO, H

. Assistant Examiners.

a desk with a cell supporting table which is fixedly rotatable about an axis which is horizontal-and substantially perpendicular to the axis of view of said 4/1960 Barnett 178'-6.5

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2933008 *Jan 24, 1955Apr 19, 1960Photographic Analysis IncApparatus for contour plotting
US2955156 *May 24, 1957Oct 4, 1960Heilig Morton LStereoscopic-television apparatus for individual use
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3818125 *Oct 26, 1971Jun 18, 1974Butterfield JStereo television microscope
US4505061 *May 9, 1983Mar 19, 1985Datapic Systems, Inc.Graphic display
US5903306 *Oct 20, 1997May 11, 1999Westinghouse Savannah River CompanyConstrained space camera assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification348/47, 352/87, 352/50
International ClassificationG03B15/08
Cooperative ClassificationG03B15/08
European ClassificationG03B15/08