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Publication numberUS3358760 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 19, 1967
Filing dateOct 14, 1965
Priority dateOct 14, 1965
Publication numberUS 3358760 A, US 3358760A, US-A-3358760, US3358760 A, US3358760A
InventorsLeon Blagg
Original AssigneeSchlumberger Technology Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for lining wells
US 3358760 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 19, 1967 L. BLAGG METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR 1.1mm WELLS 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Oct. 14, 1965 Leon I E/ayg INVENTOR. 33% W ATTOR/VE) Dec. 19, 1967 1.. BLAGG 3,358,760

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LINING WELLS Filed Oct. 14, 1965 55 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 ear? B/ayy INVENTOR.

, Afro/PMS) Dec. 19, 1967 L. BLAGG METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LINING WELLS Filed Oct. 14, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.

ATTORNEY Zea/7 United States Patent 3,358,760 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LINING WELLS Leon Blagg, Channelview, Tex., assignor to Schlumberger Technology Corporation, Houston, Tex., a corporation of Texas Filed Oct. 14, 1965. Ser. No. 495,864 25 Claims. (Cl. 16614) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE As one embodiment of the invention disclosed herein, an expansible tubular liner is disposed between relatively movable members, with an expander on one of these members being adapted to move through the liner as a hydraulic motivating pressure is developed by reciprocation of one of the members in relation to the other.

Accordingly, as will subsequently become apparent, this invention relates to methods and apparatus for lining wells and, more particularly, to methods and apparatus for expanding a liner in a well and especially in a well casing to repair leaks or perforations therein.

Casing leaks are one of the most critical and costly problems encountered in the maintenance of well production. This is particularly true in older fields, where corrosion and electrolysis have acted upon well casing to produce this problem. In such older fields, the producer usually cannot afford costly operations for repairing leaks in casing. Casing leaks also result from parted or split casing, collar or thread leaks, and perforated intervals. In addition to repairing such casing leaks, the methods and apparatus described herein may also be used to alter the production characteristics or to vary injection rates into various formations in flooding operations. Another use is found in closing off an existing set of perforations for down-casing treatment of deeper formations.

There has been a need for a means of downhole casing repair to supplement the older established methods of squeeze cementing, setting of casing liners, and isolating of leaks by means of straddle packers. An apparatus for repairing such casing leaks has recently been developed which utilizes fluid pumped from the surface through a tubing to operate hydraulic rams which in turn expand a corrugated steel liner within a casing. Other solutions to the problem suggest the use of an explosive means for expanding the liner or a combination of explosive and mechanical means.

These solutions to the problem of setting a liner in a casing are expensive both from an equipment standpoint and from the standpoint of down time on the well. Furthermore the use of an explosive to provide the force for expanding the liner within a casing presents problems concerned with misfires, inadvertent explosions and nonuniform forces. Liquids in the well present additional problems in conjunction with the explosive forming of a r liner.

Therefore, in accordance with the present invention, a wireline-operated device is provided for forcing an expander through a corrugated liner to set the liner within a casing. Means are provided for anchoring the device to the casing, such means being selectively operable to permit positioning of the linerat a point within the easing where it is desired to set the liner. The anchoring means prevents the liner from moving longitudinally within the pipe. The wireline or other suspension means is then alternately tensioned and relaxed to generate a downhole force on the expander to move the expander through the liner thereby expanding the liner within the pipe. Means are responsive to the movement of the ex ander 3,358,760 Patented Dec. 19, 1967 through the liner to release the tool for retrieval to the upper end of the pipe.

A complete understanding of this invention may be had by reference to the following detailed description when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings illustrating an embodiment thereof, wherein:

FIGS. 1A and 1B are successive views of a setting tool illustrating principles of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a detailed view of the slip arrangemept in the tool;

FIG. 2A shows a further detail of the slips;

lilG. 3 is a detailed view of a check valve utilized in the too FIG. 4 is a detailed view of the expander mechanism; and

FIG. 5 is an isometric view of an expandable liner or sleeve for use with the tool.

Referring now to FIGS. 1A and 1B, a setting tool 10 is shown for expanding a sleeve within a well bore. The tool includes a main cylindrical housing or body 12 and a mandrel '14 telescopically received therein. The mandrel 14 is adapted for connection to a wireline or the like for lowering the setting tool 10 into a well bore. A chamber 16 in the mandrel 14 provides a fluid supply reservoir. A supply piston 18 is positioned in the reservoir 16 above the fluid supply and is slidable about a tubular member 20 extending axially within the chamber. A pressure spring 22 is positioned between the supply piston 18 and the upper end of the chamber to force the supplypiston downwardly against the fluid in the reservoir 16.

A piston rod 24 extends from the lower end of the mandrel, the piston rod having a pressure piston 26 located at its lower end. A vertical passageway 28 extends axially through the piston rod to a point within the pressure piston. The upper end of the passageway 28 is in communication with the fluid supply reservoir 16. A solenoid operated valve 30 is positioned in the upper end of the passageway 28 to open and close the passageway. Electrical circuit wires (not shown) extend from the wire line through the tubular member 20. A spring contact 31 provides an electrical path between the circuit wires and the solenoid valve. A check valve assembly 32 which is positioned in the passageway 28 below the solenoid valve 30, will hereinafter be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 3 of the drawings.

An annular wall 34 extends downwardly from the lower end of the mandrel 14 about the piston rod 24, the annular wall having an inwardly extending shoulder 36. The piston rod 24 has a necked portion 38 thereon which provides a weak point in the rod. An outwardly extending annular shoulder 40 on the rod 24 is arranged below the weak point 38 to engage the inwardly extending shoulder 36 on the annular wall in the event the weak point is severed due to extreme tensile stresses on the piston rod. A port 42 is provided in the wall of the main housing opposite the weak point. A pair of L shaped passageways 44, 46 are shown extending through the lower end of the mandrel between the supply reservoir 16 and respective ports 48, 50 in the wall of the main housing. A relief valve 52 is positioned in passageway 44 and a check valve 54 is positioned in passageway 46. The check valve in passageway 46 provides a means for filling the reservoir 16 from the exterior of the tool. The relief valve in passageway 44 prevents excess pressure from building up in the reservoir.

A flange member 56 closes off the internal bore of the main housing 12 below the portion of the main housing which receives the mandrel 14. An opening 58 is centrally located in the flange member for receiving the piston rod 24 therethrough. The flange member forms the upper end of a hydraulic cylinder. A force piston 60 is positioned in the hydraulic cylinder and is slidably received about the piston rod 24 above the pressure piston 26. A return spring 61 is positioned between the flange member 56 and the force piston 60. An annular cylinder 62 (referred to hereinafter as the pressure piston cylinder) extends downwardly from the force piston 69 and slidably receives the pressure piston 26 therein. A jack rod 64 extends from a lower end portion 66 of the pressure piston cylinder. A passageway 68 extends from the lower end portion of the pressure piston cylinder 62 through the end portion 66 and jack rod 64 to a port 70 in the jack rod. This passageway and port provide communication between the pressure piston cylinder 62 and the fluids in the well bore. An annular main slip expander piston 72 is positioned in the space between the exterior surface of the pressure piston cylinder 62 and the wall of the main housing 12. The main slip expander piston 72 is sized to provide an annular space 74 between the slip expander piston and the pressure piston cylinder 62.

One or more transverse ports 76 are formed in the wall of the upper end of the pressure piston cylinder 62. These ports provide hydraulic fluid communication between the upper face of the pressure piston 26 and an area 80 between the lower end of force piston 60 and the upper end of the main slip expander piston 72. A transverse passageway 78 in the piston rod 24 just above the pressure piston 26 provides for fluid communication between the passageway 28 in rod 24 and the annular space 80 between the force piston 60 and main slip expander piston 72. An annular slip expander cone $2 is positioned directly below the lower end of the slip expander piston 72 and is held in contact therewith by a slip expander spring 84.

A flange portion 86 extends inwardly from the lower end of the slip expander piston 72 into sliding and sealing engagement with the jack rod 64. The top surface of the flange portion 86 provides additional surface area for hydraulic fluid to act on in holding the slip expander piston down.

A plurality of slips 88 are movably mounted in the housing 12 around the slip expander cone 82 as shown in greater detail in FIG. 2. The slips are extendible through openings 90 in the wall of the main housing in response to downward movement of the expander cone 82 relative to the slips. A portion 92 of the jack rod 64 adjacent the slip spring, is enlarged to provide upper and lower annular shoulders 4 and 96, respectively. The upper or unlatching shoulder 94 is arranged to engage and unseat the slip expander cone 82 from behind the main slips 88 as will be hereinafter described. The lower shoulder 96 limits the downward movement of the jack rod 64 within the hous- A second set of lower or auxiliary slips 102 are arranged about the main housing 12 and are slidably attached to a stationary auxiliary slip expander 164. The auxiliary slips are dovetailed to the expander 104 in a well known manner for arranging slips and expanders. The auxiliary slips 102 are extendible through elongated openings 166 in the main housing. The auxiliary slips are actuated by means of a longitudinally movable sleeve 108 which surrounds the housing and engages the lower end of the auxiliary slips 102 to move the slips upwardly on the expander 104. The sleeve 168 in turn is moved against the auxiliary slips 'by means of an auxiliary slip piston 110. The auxiliary slip piston 110 is in the form of an annular member slidably mounted about a recessed portion 112 ofthe main housing below the auxiliary slips 162. An outwardly projecting annular shoulder 114 is formed on the lower end of the auxiliary slip piston 11%. An overtravel spring 116 is positioned between'the shoulder 114 on the slip piston and the lower end of the sleeve 1'68. Hydraulic fluid under pressure communicates with the underside of the auxiliary slip piston 116 by means of a transverse passageway 118 in the housing 12. The transverse passageway 118 is in communication with a vertical passageway 120 extending through the jack rod 64. Another transverse port or passageway 122 in the upper end of the jack rod communicates vertical passageway 12% with the annular space 74 and provides fluid communication therebetween. A check valve 124 is positioned in the transverse passageway 118 to permit hydraulic fluid from passageway 120 to communicate with the space below the auxiliary slip piston 110 but prevents fluid from flowing in a reverse direction into the passageway 120. An enlarged, annular, outwardly extending flange 126 on the main housing protects the auxiliary slip piston, spring 116, etc. from bumping on the casing.

Referring to FIG. 113, a transverse port 128 is provided in the wall of the main housing below the passageway 118. The port 128 is closed by mean-s of an annular shear valve 130. The interior bore of the main housing 12 has an annular relieved portion 132 providing a clearance 132 between the internal wall of the main housing and the external surface of the jack rod. This clearance permits fluid communication between the transverse port 128 and the transverse passageway 118 for purposes to be hereinafter described.

A series of upwardly directed ratchet teeth 134 are formed along the jack rod 64 toward its lower end. An expander assembly 136 is positioned about the jack rod adjacent the ratchet teeth. The expander assembly is held in position by means of a booster spring 138 arranged between a spring retainer 140 at the lower end of the jack rod and the lower end of the expander assembly. A plurality of contractible split-nuts or jack catch members 142 having downwardly directed teeth 146 for cooperation with the ratchet teeth 134 are provided to couple the expander assembly and the jack rod for relative movement in one direction. The jack catch members 142 are urged inwardly about the jack rod ratchet teeth 134 by means of garter springs 144. The garter springs about the mem bers permit the teeth on the jack catch to cam the jack catch members outwardly upon downward movement of the expander mechanism with respect to the jack rod. The upper surface 148 of the notches 146 are angled downwardly to matingly receive the upwardly slanted surface 150 of the ratchet teeth. The ratchet teeth 134 are enlarged at their upper surfaces 150 and taper down in the shape of conical sections 152 to the jack rod. When it is attempted to move the jack rod up relative to the jack catch members 142 the ratchet teeth 134 are received Within the notches, the slanted upper surface of the teeth engaging the slanted upper surface 148 of the notches. The garter spring- 144 force the ratchet elements to close about the teeth. However, when the jack rod 64 moves down relative to the jack catch members, the conical surface 152 on the teeth cams the jack catch members 142 outwardly against the force of the garter springs to permit relative movement in this direction.

A cylindrical liner or casing patch stop 154 is positioned about the main housing a spaced distance above the expander assembly 136. The liner stop is held in this position by means of a segmented ring 156 which is positioned in an annular groove about the lower end of the main housing. Inwardly extending shoulders 153 on the stop 154 engage the lower edge of the ring to prevent upward movement of the stop. A retainer ring 166 is positioned over the segmented ring to maintain the ring in place. A release probe 162 extends downwardly from the retainer ring. The release probe is engageable by upward movement of a releasing sleeve 164 which is slid-- ably received about the main housing. An annular shoulder 166 formed on the exterior surface of the releasing sleeve 164 is engageable with a mating shoulder 168 on the inner surface of the liner stop 154 to limit downward movement of the releasing sleeve. A casing patch or liner 170 as will subsequently be explained is positioned between the lower end of the liner stop 154 and an expander cone 172 forming a part of the expander as;

sembly. The expander mechanism 136 will be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 4.

Referring now to FIG. 2, the main and auxiliary slip mechanisms 88 and 102 will be described in greater detail. The lower end of the main slip expander piston 72 is shown having an annular lug member or shoulder 174 extending outwardly therefrom to center the expander piston within the main housing 12. Vertical holes 176 are provided through the annular lug 174 to permit well fluids to communicate with the space above the lugs. The main slip expander 82 has upper and lower downwardly sloping portions 178, 180 which slidably mate with matched sloping portions on the interior surface of slips 88. Bolts 182 are positioned through longitudinal slots 184 in each of the slips to slidably hold the slips against the expander. In this manner the expander is permitted to move downwardly relative to the slips. Such downward movement of the expander 82 causes the slips S8 to ride upwardly and outwardly on the sloping portions 178 and 180 of the expander and thereby move through the openings in the main housing 12 into engagement with a well casing.

In the auxiliary slip mechanism, hydraulic fluid acts on the lower edge of a shoulder forming the auxiliary slip piston head 110 to move the piston upwardly relative to the housing. Such upward movement of the piston 110 forces the spring 116 to move upwardly against the slip expander sleeve 108. The sleeve 108 pushes the auxiliary slips upwardly along the tapered surface of the auxiliary slip expander 104 which causes the slips to move outwardly relative to the tool housing. A longitudinal slot 186 is formed in the slip expander sleeve 108. A pin 188 is positioned through the slot and is fitted into the main housing to prevent the sleeve 108 from rotating relative to the housing while permitting relative longitudinal movemen. A lip 194 extends inwardly from the lower end of sleeve 108 and engages a shoulder 196 on the head of piston 110. This engagement prevents the sleeve 108 from moving upwardly past the upper end of the piston 110.

In FIG. 2A, a tan-g 190 is shown formed on the auxiliary slip expander sleeve 108. A similar tang projects into a recess 192 on each of the slips 102 to prevent the slips from being inadvertently set should the slips strike an obstruction as the tool is being lowered into position.

FIG. 3 shows a detailed view of the check valve assembly 32 which is positioned in the passageway 28 leading from the lower end of the fluid supply reservoir 16. The check valve assembly 32 comprises a valve body 193 which is slidable within the passageway 28. The valve body contains a conventional spring loaded check valve. Movement of the check valve body 193 is limited in one direction by a restrictive member 197 in the passageway. A plug 198 is positioned in the passageway on the side of the check valve opposite the restrictive member 197. The plug 198 is also slidable within the passageway 28. A longitudinal opening 200 through the plug permits fluid flow therethrough. A conically shaped notch or recess 202 is provided transversely through the plug and is sized to receive a tapered end portion 204 of a pin member 206. The pin member 206 having an O ring seal 207 thereon, is threadedly received in the wall of the tool housing. The tapered end portion 204 projects in some degree into the notch 202. Means are provided on the outer end of the pin for receiving a screwdriver, wrench, or the like, for rotating the pin member. Rotation of the pin member 206 in one direction moves the tapered portion 204 of the pin further into the conical notch 202 to shift the plug to a desired position in the passageway. Such shifting of the plug will move the slidable check valve body 193 in the passageway for a purpose to be hereinafter described. FIG. 3 also shows the solenoid valve 30 closing a port 195 communicating with the fluid supply reservoir 16.

FIG. 4 illustrates details of the casing patch expander mechanism of the present invention. Prior art devices for expanding liners within a well casing have utilized an expander mechanism which tends to expand the casing patch or liner to a diameter greater than that of the external diameter of the expander mechanism. In these devices, a liner-contacting portion of their expander cone has usually been constructed with a large degree of taper and included a spring collet with a rounded portion for contacting the inner bore of the liner. This and similar configurations for such expander mechanisms have been found to present problems under certain operating conditions. As will be described hereinafter with reference to the operation of the setting tool of the present invention, however, in order to insure proper operation of the tool 10, the expander is retained in the casing patch by surface friction between the expander and the casing patch during the downstroke of the tool. If the casing is enlarged at the point where the liner is being set, such prior expander mechanisms will cause the liner to expand excessively to an inside diameter greater than the outside diameter of the expander mechanism. This over-expansion is the result of a wave action of the patch material in flowing outwardly around such an expander mechanism. When over-expanded in this manner, there is no longer sufiicient friction between the expander and the patch to permit continued proper operation of the tool. With the apparatus disclosed herein for expanding the liner in the well bore, however such improper operation of the tool will prevent retrieval of the tool 10 from the well bore by ordinary operation of the tool.

In order to overcome this difiiculty, the configuration of the expander mechanism 136 in the present invention is such that the inside diameter of the casing patch, when expanded in the casing, is slightly less than the outside diameter of the expander mechanism. This configuration is achieved by shaping the expander mechanism in the form of a self-locking or self-holding taper. A self-locking taper is defined as one wherein the tangent of the angle of the taper is less than the coeflicient of friction between the engaging materials. (See Marks Handbook, McGraw- Hill, 5th edition, pages 219 and 224.) In the present case, the angle a as shown in FIG. 4 describes the slope on the outside surface of the expander. The angle a has a tangent less than the coefficient of friction between the expander mechanism and the inner wall of the liner. This corresponds to the above-defined self-locking taper between two surfaces wherein the tangent of the angle between the surfaces is less than the coeflicient of friction between the surfaces. A taper corresponding to the angle of static friction would hold the expander mechanism from moving downwardly if there were no forces acting on the expander. In the present invention, however, the weight of the expander mechanism plus frictional force from the downwardly ratcheting jack rod place a. sufiicient downward force on the expander mechanism. Therefore, the angle of taper must be a self-locking taper.

The amount of taper required to make the expander mechanism self-locking under the force conditions on the expander mechanism may be determined by reference to The Engineers Manual, by Hudson, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, pages 101 and 104. By solving Equations 1 and 2 below, the force which a certain estimated taper will hold when the jack rod is lowered may be determined.

(2) F =2W tan (a) where F =force required to move the expander through an expanded patch, v F =force required to hold the expander from slipping in the patch due to the weight of the apparatus and friction from the downwardly ratcheting jack rod, =the force in pounds opposing motion of the expander, a=angle of inclination of taper, and =angle of friction (tan =coefficient of friction).

From experimentation, it has been found that a force of approxiately 2000 pounds is required to pull the expander through a previously expanded patch. It may be assumed that the coefi'icient of friction between the expander and patch is .1. Therefore, the tan of qb equals .1 and equals 5.7". The force F including a safety factor, is estimated to be approximately 500.

By combining Equations 1 and 2, the resulting equation can be solved for oz. From the values above which have been given the unknowns in the equations, or is calculated to be 323. Therefore, an angle of taper equal to or less than 323 should hold the expander within the patch. It has been found that a self-locking taper of A" per foot or an angle of taper of 147 works well in the present invention.

The expander mechanism 136 of the present invention is comprised of a spring collet section 208 received over the upper cylindrical end 210 of an expander mandrel 212. The lower end of the collet abuts a shoulder 214 formed on the mandrel Z12. Spaced longitudinal slots 216 extend from the upper end of the collet to a point near the lower end of the collet section 208. These slots divide the collet into resilient fingers 218 which bend inwardly as they travel through the casing patch. The outer surface of the collet section is tapered near its upper end. This surface tapers outwardly and downwardly to a max mum diameter at 220. The maximum diameter 229 determines the maximum diameter of expansion of the patch. The angle on of the slope of this surface defines a self-locking taper. The expander cone 172 is threadedly connected to the upper end 210 of the mandrel. The cone also has an enlarged expander portion 222, the surface of which defines a self- ]ocking taper.

FIG. 5 shows a liner or patch 170 for use with the present apparatus. The liner 170 is constructed of a steel .tube 224 having longitudinal corrugations impressed therein to decrease the outside diameter of the liner to a dimen sion less than the outside diameter of the liner when it is in an expanded condition. A layer of neoprene rubber 226 is bonded to the outside surface of the steel tube. The rubber material has been found to provide excellent sealing conditions between the liner 17 0 and the casing.

The patch 170 is positioned on the tool :by removing the spring retainer 140, spring 138, and expander assembly 136 from the lower end of the tool (FIG. 1B). The patch 170 is then run up over the jack rod 64 until it abuts the liner stop 154. The removed parts are then reassembled to hold the liner 170 between the expander mechanism 136 and the shoulder 168 of the liner stop 154.

In operation of the apparatus of the present invention, the setting tool 16 as shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B is lowered into a well bore to a desired depth at the end of a wireline cable. The tool is shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B in a running-in condition. Upon reaching the desired depth in the well bore, lowering is stopped. An electrical circuit in the wireline cable is used to energize the solenoid-operated valve 30 at the upper end of the tool 10. Energization of the solenoid valve opens the upper end of the passageway 28 to the supply reservoir 16. T he pressure spring 22 acting on the supply piston 18, forces oil in the supply reservoir 16 to flow downwardly through the check valve 32 in the passageway 28, through the passageways 23 and 78 in the piston rod 24 and into the space 80 between the force piston 66 and the main slip expander piston 72. This pressured fluid forces the main slip expander piston 72 to move downwardly which in turn forces the slip expander 82 downwardly to cam the main slips 88 outwardly into engagement with the well casing. At the same time that the main slips 88 are setting, hydraulic fluid from the space '80 moves through the annular space 74 and through the passageway 120 in the jack rod 64 to the port 118 opening to the space just below the auxiliary slip piston 110 (see FIG. 2). Therefore, it is seen that by opening the solenoid valve 30 at the lower end of the supply reservoir 16, h

draulic fluid under pressure causes the upper and lower slips 88 and 192 to be set against the well casing. Setting of the slips 88 and 102 causes the tool housing 12 and casing patch 170 to be held from movement within the casing.

The solenoid valve 39 is kept open by a continuing application of electrical energy to the solenoid. The wireline cable (not shown) which is attached to the upper mandrel 12 is then slacked to lower the mandrel 12 so as to move the pressure piston 26 to the bottom of the pressure piston cylinder 62. As the pressure piston 26 moves to the bottom of its stroke in the cylinder 62, hydraulic fluid under the continued pressure from the supply piston 18 flows into that portion of the pressure piston cylinder 62 above the pressure piston through the check valve 32 and passageways 28 and 78 in the pressure piston rod 24. In the event the pressure piston 26 is lowered rapidly, a resulting momentary pressure drop may occur in the pressure piston cylinder. Such a pressure drop would decrease the fluid pressure in space 8% to possibly cause a relaxation of pressure on the main slip expander piston '72. This, in turn, could permit unsetting of the main slips. Should this occur, however, the auxiliary slips 88 would keep the tool 16 from dropping. Pressure transmitted through the annular space 74 and passageways 122 and 118 to the auxiliary slip piston is maintained on the auxiliary slip piston 110 by the check valve 124 at the lower end of the passageway 122 in the jack rod 64.

Subsequent to lowering of the cable and movement of the pressure piston 26 to the bottom of its stroke, tension is applied to the cable to pull upwardly on the upper housing 14 and attached pressure piston 26. Such upward movement of the pressure piston 26 applies pressure to the oil now filling the pressure piston cylinder 62 above the piston 26. The pressured oil flows through the transverse passageway 78 into the space S!) to thereby move the force piston es upwardly while maintaining the force on the slip expander pistons 72 and 110. This pressuring of hydraulic fluid by the cable pull on the pressure piston 26 is multiplied in the ratio of the piston areas exposed to fluid under pressure (about 20 to 1) to provide a much greater force to the underside of the force piston 60. The resulting upward movement of the force piston 60 and depending jack rod n4 is transferred by means of the jack catch members 142 to the expander mechanism 136. Since the casing patch 1'70 is held from upward movement by the action of the slips 88 gripping the casing, such upward movement of the expander mechanism 136 forces the mechanism into the casing patch. Subsequent relaxation of tension on the wireline cable permits downward movement of the pressure piston. Likewise the force piston 60 and its attached parts including the jack rod 64 move downwardly due to the weight of the jack rod, the jack rod ratcheting through the jack catch members 142. The return spring 61 positioned above the force piston 60 provides an additional force for such downward movement of the jack rod 64.

Sequential up and down motion of the force piston 60 and the jack rod 64, which is changed into an upward movement of the expander mechanism 136 by the ratcheting jack catch members 142, incrementally forces the expander mechanism upwardly through the liner 170. During this jacking operation to force the expander 136 through the patch 17!), an operator at the surface may determine from weight and depth indicators when the cable should be raised and lowered. By observing the weight or tension on the wireline, the operator determines when the top of the stroke is reached. He then releases tension on the wireline to lower it a sufficient distance to permit the jack rod 64 to ratchet back through the jack catch members 142 in order to begin another stroke. Again tension is applied to the wireline whereupon the teeth 134 on the jack rod 64 engage the surfaces 148 on the jack catch members to lift the jack catch and expander mechanism 136 upwardly a certain increment until the tension on the cable reaches a predetermined amount, the amount being substantially less than that required to break the cable or a weak point on the cable. The cable is again lowered and the operation repeated until the expander mechanism 136 is forced completely through the patch 170.

When operating the apparatus in conjunction with a force-indicating device on the cable, such as a weight indicator, it will be observed that during the upstroke of the cable, tension on the cable will increase until the expander mechanism 136 begins to move. During movement of the expander mechanism 136 through the patch 170, the tension on the cable will remain substantially constant. When the jack rod 64 in the tool 10 has reached the top of its stroke, the forces on the cable will increase sharply indicating that cable tension should be relaxed and the cable lowered in order to initiate another stroke.

The booster spring 138, which is positioned between the bottom of the tool 10 and the expander mechanism, retains the expander mechanism 136 in the liner 170' during the first few strokes or cycles of the tool until the frictional engagement between the expander mechanism and the liner is suificient to hold the expander 172 within the liner during the downstroke of the jack rod 64. This frictional engagement is insured in enlarged casing by the self-locking taper on the outer surfaces of the cone 172 and spring collet 208. After the expander mechanism 136 has moved into the patch a sufiicient distance to expand a portion of the liner 170 into contact with the casing, the solenoid valve 30 may be de-energized, there being suflicient fluid in the hydraulic system to insure its continued operation.

As the expander cone portion 172 of the expander mechanism 136 nears the top of the liner or casing patch 170, the upper end of the cone engages the release sleeve 164 movable within the liner stop 154. The release sleeve moves upwardly with the cone until its upper end engages the release probe 162 depending from the retaining ring 160. Upward movement of the probe 162 pushes the retaining ring 160 away from the segmented ring 156. This allows the segmented ring 156 to pop out of its recess in the housing. When the segmented ring is released, this in turn releases the liner stop shoulder 158 and thus the liner stop for upward movement relative to the tool housing upon further upward movement of the expander mechanism. Such further travel of the expander mechanism through the liner stop 154 and retainer ring 160 thereabove against the shear valve 130 to break the valve. This shearing of the valve opens the port 128 in the housing wall to permit the release of hydraulic pressure on both the main and auxiliary slip pistons 72 and 110. Such release of pressure on the slip pistons permits retraction of the main and auxiliary slips 88 and 102 from engagement with the casing. The setting tool 10 is then retrieved to the surface leaving the casing patch 170 expanded within the casing.

Should the main slips 88 not readily disengage from the casing, it is seen that further relative upward move ment of the jack rod 64 within the tool housing 12 will cause the unlatching shoulder 94 on the jack rod to strike the lower end of the slip expander 82 to forcibly disengage the slips 88 from the casing, said slips being slidably attached to the slip expander. Should the auxiliary slips 102 not readily disengage, subsequent upward movement of the tool housing 12 within the easing will cause the auxiliary slips to ride downwardly on the auxiliary slip expander 104 thereby releasing the auxiliary slips from engagement with the casing.

If during the operation of the setting tool, the tool 10 malfunctions and the apparatus becomes stuck i the ipe, the weak point 38 in the piston rod 24 provides means for retrieving the apparatus from the pipe. First suflicient tension is applied to the cable to break a Weak point as typically used between the cable and tool 10. A typical fishing tool (not shown) is then used to retrieve the stuck tool. The fishing tool engages the mandrel 14 on the tool 10 and tension is applied to break the weak point 38. Thereafter, the shoulder 36 attached to the upper housing engages the shoulder 40 on the jack rod to keep the lower portion of the apparatus connected to the wireline. Breaking of the weak point 38 opens the passageway 28 through the jack rod to communication with the port 42 in the main housing. This permits release of hydraulic pressure on the main slips 88. The auxiliary slips 102 are constructed so that upward movement of the housing causes the slips to ride downwardly on the auxiliary expander 104. Thus both sets of slips are releasable upon breakage of the weak point 38 to permit retrieval of the apparatus from the well bore, Ifthe patch 170 is firmly anchored in the casing, suflicient pull may may be applied in the fishing tool to force the expander 172 through the atch.

In order to fill the hydraulic section of the tool through port 50 (FIG. 1A), the solenoid valve 30 is held open. Fluid entering through port 50 first fills the hydraulic section of the tool below the solenoid valve 30, the tool parts being in the running-in position shown in FIGS. 1A and 1B. The solenoid valve is then closed to permit filling of reservoir 16. Pressure is applied to the incoming fluid to pump up the supply piston 18. After the dosing of solenoid valve 30, hydraulic fluid is trapped between the valve 30 and the check valve assembly 32 at atmospheric pressure. The space in the upper housing above the pressure piston 18 is open to hydrostatic fluid pressure. The fluid in the reservoir 16 above the solenoid valve 30, which is subjected to temperature increases in the well, is prevented from reaching an excessive pressure above hydrostatic pressure by means of the relief valve 52. This pop valve is set to release differential pressure above say psi. to help insure the proper operation of the solenoid valve 30. However, since the reservoir 16 is subjected to hydrostatic pressure and the lower side of the solenoid valve is at atmospheric pressure to start with, there is a potential for a large differential pressure to build up across the solenoid valve. In order to prevent this, the check valve body 193 is slidably arranged in the passageway 28 as shown in FIG. 3. The hydraulic system below the check valve assembly is also subjected to hydrostatic pressure of the well. Therefore, as hydrostatic pressure increases, the check valve body 193 moves up in the passageway against the lesser atmospheric pressure thereabove to maintain hygigostatic pressure on the underside of the solenoid valve After the tool has been used and is refilled with oil, the check valve is repositioned at the bottom of the passageway 28 by running the tapered pin 204 into the conical recess 202 in the slidable plug 198. The plug 198 moves down against the check valve body 193 to reset the check valve body at a position to again provide pressure compensation to the lower side of the solenoid valve. The tapered pin is then withdrawn from the recess to the position shown in FIG. 3. During the resetting of the plug, the solenoid valve is opened and pump pressure is slowly applied to the hydraulic system so that the space between the plug and solenoid valve will be pressure balanced and at atmospheric pressure with the rest of the hydraulic system before the tool is lowered into the well.

While a particular embodiment of the present inven- 0 tion has been shown and described, it is apparent that changes and modifications may be made without departing from this invention in its broader aspects and, therefore, the aim in the appended claims is to cover all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A method for expanding a tubular liner within a tubular member comprising the steps of: positioning within a tubular member to be lined a tool having a body carrying a movable expander and supporting a liner at a location where it is desired to expand the liner into engagement with the interior surface of the tubular member anchoring the tool against longitudinal movement in either direction in the tubular member, and moving the body with a first force to generate a greater second force on the expander to force the expander through the liner thereby expanding the liner.

2. A method for expanding a tubular liner within a Well bore comprising the steps of: lowering on a suspension member into a well bore a tool having a body carrying a movable expander and supporting a liner above the expander to a position where it is desired to expand the liner into engagement with the interior surface of the well bore, anchoring the tool on the interior surface of the well bore to prevent the tool from moving longitudinally relative to the well bore, and reciproeating the suspension member with a first force to generate a greater second force on the expander sufiicient to move the expander through the liner thereby expanding the liner.

3. A method for expanding a liner within a pipe comprising the steps of: lowering on a suspension member into a pipe a tool having a movable expander and supporting a liner, positioning the tool and liner in the pipe at a point where it is desired to expand the liner into engagement with the interior surface of the pipe, repeatedly moving the suspension member up and down to operate a downhole force generating mechanism which forces the expander through the liner thereby expanding the liner, and observing a device connected to the suspension member which indicates the forces applied to said suspension member in order to determine when the suspension member should be moved up and down.

4. A method for expanding a liner within a pipe comprising the steps of: lowering on a cable into a pipe a tool supporting an expandable liner between a pair of telescoping portions to a position in the pipe where it is desired to expand the liner into engagement with the interior surface of the pipe, actuating wall-engaging members on one or" the telescoping portions into gripping en gagement with the interior surface of the pipe to anchor one of the telescoping portions and the liner from movement relative to the pipe, repeatedly applying tension to the cable and releasing the tension to operate a jack mechanism in the tool for moving the other telescoping portion through the liner thereby expanding the liner, releasing the wall-engaging members, and retrieving the tool to the upper end of the pipe.

5. Apparatus for expanding a sleeve in a well bore, said apparatus comprising: telescopic members movable relative to one another, releasable wall-engaging means on one of said members adapted for releasably securing said one member against movement in either direction in a well bore, said members being arranged to carry an expansible sleeve therebetween, said other member having expansion means including an expander member adapted for progressive movement through such a sleeve, and means including a body adapted for connection to suspension means and responsive to the reciprocation of such suspension means for progressively moving said expander member through an expansible sleeve carried between said members to expand such a sleeve within a well bore.

6. Apparatus for expanding a sleeve in a pipe, said apparatus comprising: telescoping members movable relative to one another and supporting a sleeve thereon, one of said members having an expander means for radially expanding said sleeve, means for anchoring the other of said members relative to the pipe, said one member being arranged for reciprocal movement in said other member, and clutch means coupling said expander means to said one member whereby said expander means can move relative to said one member in response to reciprocal movement of said one member.

7. Apparatus for expanding a liner Within a tubular member, said apparatus comprising: first and second members movable relative to one another and arranged to support an expansible liner thereon, expander means on one of said members including an expander member adapted for progressive movement through such a liner, and means including a body adapted for connection to suspension means; and means responsive to the reciprocation of said body for forcing said expander member through such a liner to expand it within a tubular member.

8. Apparatus for expanding a liner against a wall in a well bore, said apparatus comprising: first and second members movable relative to one another, an expansible tubular liner mounted on said members, a cable coupled to one of said members, expander means on one of said members and including an expander member adapted to be forced through said liner, selectively-operable wallengaging means on the other of said members adapted for anchoring said other member against movement in a Well bore, stop means on the other of said members adapted for preventing said liner from moving in relation to a well bore wall when said wall engaging means are operated to anchor said other member, and means operated by the reciprocation of said cable and adapted for forcing said expander member through said liner to expand said liner against a wall in a well bore.

9. Apparatus adapted to be positioned in a pipe by a suspension member for expanding a liner within the pipe, said apparatus comprising: telescoping members movable relative to one another and means for supporting a liner thereon, expander means on one of said telescoping members and arranged for movement through the liner to expand the liner within the pipe, selectively operable pipeengaging means on the other of said telescoping members for anchoring said other telescoping member against movement in the pipe, stop means on the other of said telescoping members for preventing the liner from moving longitudinally relative to the pipe when said pipe-engaging means are operated to anchor said other telescoping member to said pipe, and hydraulic responsive to the manipulation of the suspension member for operating said pipeengaging means and for providing the force necessary to move said expander means through the liner.

It). Apparatus adapted to be suspended from a cable for expanding a liner within a well casing, said apparatus comprising: first and second members movable relative to one another and supporting a liner, expander means on one of said members for expanding the liner within the pipe, the liner being positioned above said expander means, hydraulic means operable through a single stroke in response to the application of force to the cable for forcing said expander meanspart way through said liner, and means operable upon relaxation of force applied to the cable for placing said hydraulic means in condition to operate through another stroke.

11. A wireline apparatus for expanding a liner within a pipe, said apparatus comprising: telescoping members movable relative to one another, one of said members being adapted for connection to a wireline, expander means on one of said members and arranged for movement through the liner to expand the liner within the pipe, selectively operable pipe-engaging means on the other of said members for anchoring said other member against movement in the pipe, stop means on the other of said members for preventing the liner from moving longitudinally in the pipe when said pipe-engaging means are operated to anchor said other member to said pipe, said expander means and stop means being arranged to support the liner therebetween, means responsive to the manipulation of the Wireline cable for supplying hydraulic pressure to operate said pipe-engaging means and to move 13 said expander means through the liner, and means responsive to the movement of said expander through the liner for releasing the hydraulic pressure on said pipeengaging means.

12. Apparatus for expanding a liner within a pipe in a well bore and adapted for suspension therein on a cable, said apparatus comprising: first and second telescoping members movable relative to one another, one of said members being adapted for connection to a suspension cable, an expansible liner carried on said members, expander means on one of said members including a movable expander member and arranged for movement through said liner to expand it within a pipe, pipe-engaging means on the other of said members, selectively operable means for actuating said pipe-engaging means to anchor said other member against upward and downward movement in a pipe, stop means on the other of said members and engaging the upper end of said liner for preventing movement thereof longitudinally upwardly in a pipe when said pipe-engaging means are operated to anchor said other member to a pipe, said expander means and stop means being arranged to support said liner therebetween, means operated by reciprocation of a suspension cable for moving said expander member through said liner, and means responsive to the movement of said expander through said liner for releasing said pipe-engaging means.

13. A wireline apparatus for expanding a liner within a pipe, said apparatus comprising: telescoping members movable relative to one another, one of said members being adapted for connection to a wireline, expander means on one of said members and arranged for movement through the liner to expand the liner within the pipe, selectively operable pipe-engaging means on the other of said members for anchoring said other member against movement in the pipe, stop means on the other of said members for preventing the liner from moving longitudinally in the pipe when said pipe-engaging means are operated to anchor said other member to said pipe, said expander means and stop means being arranged to support the liner therebetween, hydraulic means operable through a single cycle in response to the application of an upward force to the wirel-ine for moving said expander means part way through said liner, means operable upon the relaxation of said upward force applied to the wireline for conditioning said hydraulic means to operate through another cycle, said hydraulic means also supplying hydraulic pressure to operate saidpipe-engaging means, and means responsive to the movement of said expander through the liner for releasing the hydraulic pressure on said pipe-engaging means.

14. Apparatus for expanding a sleeve into engagement with a pipe, comprising: a first member, first anchoring means on said member operable for preventing movement of said member in one direction in the pipe, second anchoring means on said member operable for preventing movement of said member in an opposite direction in the pipe, a second member movably received in said first member and having an upper end for attachment to a suspension means and a lower end for moving an expander element, an expander element clutched to said lower end for movement relative to said second member in only one direction, said first member and expander element being arranged to receive an expansible tubular sleeve therebetween, first power means for selectively operating said anchoring means, second power means for maintaining at least one of said anchoring means operated and for moving said second member relative to said first member, and means for deactuating said power means.

15. Apparatus for expanding a tubular sleeve into engagement with a pipe, comprising: a first member, first anchoring means on said member operable for preventing movement of said member in one direction in the pipe, second anchoring means on said member operable for preventing movement of said member in an opposite direction in the pipe, a second member movably received in said first member and having an upper end for attachment to a suspension means and a lower end for moving an expander element, an expander element clutched to said lower end permitting said second member to move downwardly relative to said expander element, said first member and expander element being arranged to receive an expansible tubular sleeve therebetween, first power means including a hydraulic actuator for operating said first anchoring means, second power means including a hydraulic actuator for operating said second anchoring means and for moving said second member relative to said first member, and means responsive to a predeter mined travel of said second member relative to said first member for deactuating said power means.

16. Apparatus for expanding a tubular sleeve into engagement with a pipe, comprising: a first member, first anchoring means on said member responsive to hydraulic pressure for preventing downward movement of said member, second anchoring means on said member responsive to hydraulic pressure for preventing upward movement of said member, a second member movably received in said first member and having an upper end for attachment to a suspension means and a lower end for moving an expander element, an expander element clutched to said lower end permitting said second member to move downwardly relative to said expander element, said first member and expander element being arranged to receive an expansible tubular sleeve therebetween, hydraulic means for providing hydraulic pressure to said anchoring means including a first hydraulic pressure generator, a second hydraulic pressure generator and a closed fluid system coupled between said pressure generators and said anchoring means, and means for selectively opening said closed fluid system.

17. Apparatus for expanding a tubular sleeve into engagement with a pipe, comprising: a first member, first anchoring means on said member responsive to hydraulic pressure for preventing downward movement of said member, second anchoring means on said member responsive to hydraulic pressure for preventing upward movement of said member, a second member movably received in said first member and having an upper end for attachment to a suspension means and a lower end for moving an expander element, an expander element clutched to said lower end permitting said second member to move downwardly relative to said expander element, said first member and expander element being arranged to receive an expansible tubular sleeve therebetween, hydraulic means for providing hydraulic pressure to said anchoring means including a first hydraulic pressure generator, a second hydraulic pressure generator and a closed fluid system coupled between said pressure generator and said anchoring means, means for selectively operating said first pressure generator, means for selectively operating said second pressure generator, and means for selectively opening said closed fluid system.

18. Apparatus for expanding a tubular sleeve into engagement with a pipe, comprising: a first member, first anchoring means on said member including a slip and expander means coupled to an expander piston which is responsive to hydraulic pressure for preventing downward movement of said member, second anchoring means on said member including a slip and expander means coupled to a second expander piston which is responsive to hydraulic pressure for preventing upward movement of said member, a second member including an interconnected piston and cylinder, said cylinder having an outer piston portion slidably received in a cylinder portion of said first member, said piston having an upper end for attachment to a suspension means and said cylinder having a lower end for moving an expander element, an expander element clutched to said lower end permitting said second member to move down-ward relative to said expander element, said first member and expander element being arranged to receive an expansible tubular sleeve therebetween, hydraulic means for providing hydraulic pressure to said anchoring means including a fluid system coupled to said expander pistons, said outer piston portion and said interconnected piston and cylinder for providing hydraulic pressure, and means for deactuating said hydraulic means.

19. Apparatus for use in a well bore, comprising: a body member, first hydraulically actuated anchoring means on said member selectively operable in response to hydraulic pressure for preventing downward movement of said member in a well bore, second hydraulically actuated anchoring means on said member selectively operable in response to hydraulic pressure for preventing upward movement of said member in a well bore, first selectively operable power means for supplying hydraulic pressure to said first and second anchoring means, second selectively operable power means for applying additional hydraulic pressure to said second anchoring means, and means for deactuating said power means for removing said body member from a well bore.

20. Apparatus for expanding a sleeve into engagement with a pipe, comprising: a first member, first anchoring means on said member for preventing downward movement of said member, second anchoring means on said member for preventing upward movement of said member, a second member movably received in said first members and having an upper end for attachment to a suspension means, and a lower end for moving an expander element, an expander element clutched to said lower end for relative movement in only one direction, said first member and expander element being arranged to receive an expansible tubular sleeve .therebetween, first hydraulic means operable to selectively set said first anchoring means, second hydraulic means operable to set said second anchoring means and move said second member relative to said first member, means responsive to a predetermined travel of said second member relative to said first member to deactuate the hydraulic means.

21. Apparatus for use in a well bore, comprising: a body member, first hydraulically actuated anchoring means on said member selectively operable in response to hydraulic pressure for preventing downward movement of said member in the well bore, second hydraulically actuated anchoring means on said member selectively operable in response to hydraulic pressure for preventing upward movement of said member in the well bore, first selectively operable power means including a hydraulic actuator for supplying hydraulic pressure to said first and second anchoring means, second selectively operable power means including a hydraulic actuator for applying additional hydraulic pressure to said anchoring means, said hydraulic actuators being coupled by a closed fluid system, volume compensation means in said apparatus for relieving pressure on said closed fluid system containing hydraulic fluid, said volume compensation means including a member movable in response to increases in the pressure of said fluid, and means for resetting said movable member to its position before its movement in response to increases in the pressure of said fluid.

22. In a well tool for use in a well bore, hydraulically actuated means on the well tool, hydraulic power means for operating said hydraulically actuated means, said power means including a normally closed section for 16 receiving hydraulic fluid, a hydraulic fluid supply reservoir, valve means within a valve body, said valve body being movably mounted between said reservoir and said normally closed section, and means accessible from the exterior of said well tool for moving said valve body to a predetermined position.

23. Apparatus for expanding a sleeve into engagement with the interior surface of a substantially hollow body comprising: a device for positioning .the sleeve at a location in the hollow body where it is desired to expand the sleeve, expander means on said device, said expandermeans having an outer surface for engagement with the interior surface of the sleeve, said outer surface of said expander means being tapered away from said sleeve to an enlarged cross section, the tangent of the angle of said taper being less than the coeflicient of static friction between said expander means and the sleeve, and power means for forcing said expander means through said sleeve to expand said sleeve into engagement with said hollow body.

24. A tool for use in a well bore to expand a sleeve into engagement with the interior surface of a substantially cylindrical hollow body comprising: an apparatus for positioning the sleeve at a location in the hollow body where it is desired to expand the sleeve into engagement with the interior surface of said hollow body, and expander means on said apparatus for expanding said sleeve into engagement with said hollow body, said expanders means including a cone portion and a spring collet portion, each of said portions having an outer surface for engagement with the interior surface of the sleeve, said outer surface of said portions on said expander means tapering to an enlarged cross section toward the lower end of said expander means in the form of a self-locking taper.

25. A tool for use in a well bore to expand a sleeve into engagement with the interior surface of a substantially cylindrical hollow body comprising: an apparatus for positioning the sleeve at a location in the hollow body where it is desired to expand the sleeve into engagement with the interior surface of said hollow body, expander means on said apparatus for expanding said sleeve into engagement with said hollow body, and said expander means including a cone portion and a spring collet portion, each of said portions having an outer surface for engagement with the interior surface of the sleeve, said outer surface of said portions on said expander means tapering to an enlarged cross section toward the lower end of said expander means, the tangent of the angle of taper of said outer surface of said portion being less than the coefiicient of friction between said portions and the interior surface of said sleeve.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS a 3,139,140 6/1964 iBrown 166120 3,162,245 =12/ 1964 Howard et al 1662()7 3,191,677 6/1965 Kinley 166 2()7 3,203,483 S/ 1965 Vincent 166207 3,211,227 10/1965 Mott 16612O CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.

JAMES A. LEPPINK, Examiner,

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,358,760 December 19, 1967 Leon Blagg It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereb; corrected as shown below: Column 4, line 17, cancel "132", second occurrence; line 19,

after "clearance" insert 132 Column 5, line 35, "movemen" should read movement Column 7, line 2, "approxiately" should read approximately Column 9, line 48, after "liner" insert finishes the expanding operation and pushes the liner Column 10, line 18, cancel "may", second occurrenc Column 11, line 7, after "member" insert a comma. Column 12, line 43, after "hydraulic" insert means Column 16, lines 28 and 29, "expanders" should read expander Signed and sealed this 13th day of January 1970.

(SEAL) Attest: Edward M. Fletcher, Jr. 7 WILLIAM E. SCHUYLER, JR.

Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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Classifications
U.S. Classification166/277, 72/370.7, 72/370.8, 166/207
International ClassificationE21B29/10, E21B23/00, E21B43/10, E21B23/04, E21B43/02, E21B29/00
Cooperative ClassificationE21B29/10, E21B43/103, E21B23/00, E21B23/04
European ClassificationE21B23/04, E21B23/00, E21B43/10F, E21B29/10