US 3359022 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 19, 1967 G. c. RUSSELL PANEL JOINT 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 18, 1966 INVENTOR. GORDON C. RUSSELL Dec. 19, 1967 G. c. RUSSELL 3,359,022
PANEL JOINT Filed Feb. 18, 1966 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 2O 24 28 36 4,0 50 44 45A45 2O I4 INI/ENTOR. GORDON C. RUSSELL Agent Dec. 19, 1967 G. c. RUSSELL PANEL JOINT 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Feb. 18, 1966 INVENTOR.
GORDON C. RUSSELL Agen United States Patent C) 3,359,022 PANEL JOINT Gordon C. Russell, Studio City, Calif., assigner to Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Burbank, Calif. Filed Feb. 18, 1966, Ser. No. 528,423 14 Claims. (Cl. 287-189.36)
This invention relates to the apparatus for connecting preformed building panels and more particularly to the apparatus for coupling an inner non-load-bearing panel to an outer load-bearing panel.
In the past there has been a need for prefabricated or preformed buildings which can be constructed or erected by semiskilled or unskilled labor. Typically, a preformed building is yformed with a concrete oor and a series of wall panels formed from a cementitious material such as concrete or a similar material. Some difficulty has been experienced in the prior art types of construction in that the unskilled workers have difficulty in aligning adjacent panels and tying the structure into rigid unit Without the need of a sophisticated type of fastener or aligning device.
The problems relating to such preformed buildings are twofold. An initial problem is hinged upon the complexity of the construction and the level of skill required for the labor needed to construct these buildings.
A second problem is directed to the cost of the materials used in the buildings in addition to the cost of labor in construction. Naturally, the lowest cost building includes the simplest design with the lowest amount of labor needed to construct the panels and fabricate these panels into a functional building without undue delay and with acceptable qualities.
During the construction of a preformed building, it is customary to erect all load-bearing outer walls during a first phase of the construction. Thereafter, the interior non-load-bearing walls are installed and a roof is tied to all walls to complete the structure.
In the past, a number of different types of fasteners or aligning devices have been used to couple or link the interior walls to the exterior walls. This type of fastener aligning devices have been somewhat disadvantageous in that the position of the wall must necessarily be predetermined before the building is erected. The manner of placing the prior art fastener or aligning devices on the walls has been cumbersome and requires great accuracy in forming the panels and also in constructing the building itself.
In accordance with the present invention, the disadvantage of the prior art building construction has been eliminated by a particular arrangement of mounting interior walls to exterior load-bearing walls by apparatus which may be installed and erected in a manner which is so simple that unskilled labor are able to construct the building without extensive training. This particular construction is of such a nature that a single type of locking band used to encase a cementitious panel may be used to both serve for exterior wall panels to link adjacent panels together and also in addition may be used to link the interior wall panels to the exterior wall panels. More specifically, a retainer strip is used to link the locking band to the wall panel by a mechanical fastening apparatus with a construction of such simplicity that complex alignment devices and fastening means are eliminated.
In its broadest aspects, one embodiment of the present invention is directed to an architectural joint used to engage an outer load-bearing first panel to an inner nonload-bearing second panel with the second panel being disposed at right angles to the first panel. Each panel has ends and a sidewall with an elongated locking band secured to the non-load-bearing second panel. This lock- ICC ing band has a base abutting the panel end and a pair of parallel flanges extending at right angles from the base and coplanar with panel walls. A means for aligning the second panel relative to the first panel is secured to the second panel. A means for preventing lateral movement 4of the second panel abuts the panel and thereby secures the first panel to the second panel.
Another aspect of the present invention extends to the locking band being formed with a constant cross-section strip and the cross-section -comprises a flat base and first and second parallel flanges extending in the same direction from the base at right angles thereto. The flanges each have a depression formed therein with a depression in the first flange extending toward the second flange and the depression in the second flange extending toward the first flange. A ledge extends from each of the flanges.
More advantages and features will be come apparent upon review of the attached description and the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a front elevation of the building shown partly broken away and being formed from a series of panels;
FIGURE 2 is an exploded perspective drawing from an architectural joint of a first non-load-bearing panel being secured to a second load-bearing panel;
FIGURE 3 is a cross-sectional view of an architectural joint with a section taken along line 3 3 of FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 4 4 of FIGURE l and illustrating another embodiment of the present invention in an architectural joint; and
FIGURE 5 is a typical cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the present invention and is similar to the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4.
Referring now to FIGURE 1, the present invention is best applied to an architectural structure such as a building 10 that is composed of a floor 12 and a series of identical wall panels 14 each being supported upon the floor. In the present embodiment the panels 14 are formed from a cementitious material such as concrete and the panels 14 are considered to be outer load-bearing panels which would be formed on an outer periphery of the building 10. A series of vertical rods 16 extend into the floor 12 and are used to support the panels 14. The details of this support structure are not a part of this invention and these details are identified in detail in a copending application bearing Ser. No. 447,366, filed Apr. 12, 1965, and assigned tol the same assignee as this application. As is customary in most conventional buildings, some separations or room units in the form of cubicles (not shown) are considered to be necessary or advantageous for most applications. Therefore, an inner non-load-bearing panel 18 is mounted on the floor 12 and abuts the outer load-bearing panel 14.
The material used to form the panels 14 and 18 may be of many different varieties depending upon the cheapest building materials available in a particular area for known weather conditions. Some suitable materials are concrete, adobe, foamed plastics, and generally any type of material which can be formed in a slurry-like consistency and poured into a form to form a flat wall. For purposes of the present embodiment, the use of concrete is considered to be the best material for a particular application and will be used in the description of the following explanatory material of this invention.
Referring now to FIGURE 3, the identical outer loadbearing panels 14 are each formed with side walls 20 and 21 and ends 22. A locking band 24 is mounted on the periphery of each panel 14 and is installed while the panel is being fabricated. The locking band 24 is preferably formed from aluminum, which is not corroded by moisture-bearing material-such as concrete. Each locking band 24 is formed from a constant cross-section strip, the strip including a base 26 extending across the end 22 of the panel 14 with a pair of parallel flanges 28 and 30 extending from the base 26 substantially parallel and at right angles to the base and respectively coplanar with the side walls and 21 of the panel. An elongated depression 32 and 34 is formed in each respective flange 28 and 30. An upstanding ledge 36 and 38 extends outwardly from each respective depression 32 and 34 and is spaced from the base 26. A rectangular perforation 40 and 42 extends through each respective ange 28 and 30 with these perforations disposed adjacent to the respective ledges 36 and 38 and the base 26. It is to be noted as shown in FIGURE 2, that the perforations 40 and 42 in abutting locking strips 24 are disposed opposite each other so that a locking clip 44 can extend through these perforations and prevent movement of the panels 14 when in the assembled condition. A series of ridges 46 are formed 0n the base 26 in juxtaposition to the perforation 40 and are used to mate with similar serrations 48 formed on the locking clip 44. Similar serrations are formed on the base adjacent to each perforation and on the clips 44 ywhich are disposed at pre-determined intervals.
In this embodiment the locking clips 44 are formed from aluminum extrusions with each having a foundation 50 and a pair of arms 51 and 52 extending at right angles therefrom so as to form a U-shaped fastener having a constant cross-section. As best shown in FIGURE 3, the clip 44 has its foundation 50 abutting the ledge 36 on each locking band 44 and thereby helps prevent lateral movement of the locking bands when in an assembled condition and also prevents bending, twisting, or bowing of the walls under extreme weather conditions.
The locking band base 26 has a hemispherical depression 54 which is used to admit the support rod 16 which passes between each locking band and is mounted between each panel 14 as best shown in FIGURE 1. An inverted T-section 56 extends from the depression 54 into the interior of the panel 14 and this T-section 56 extends along the entire length of the locking band and thereby ties the locking band into the panel. The concrete 17 in the panel 14 interlocks around the T-section and prevents movement of the locking band once the concrete has finally set.
A sealing gasket 45 having a constant cross-section and formed from a plastic such as polyvinyl chloride has a pair of I-shaped legs 47 and 49 extending from a flat base 45A. A series of grooves 53 formed in the locking band coact with the J-shaped leg 49 and prevent removal of the gasket once it is assembled. This gasket serves to improve the appearance of the outer walls and also to prevent wind and rain from passing between the outer panels 14.
Referring to FIGURE 3, the non-load-bearing inner panel 18 has outer side walls 60 and 62 and ends 64 and 66. Locking bands 24 are mounted on the respective ends 64 and 66 of the panel 18 in a manner which is substantially identical to the mounting of the similar locking band on the outer wall panels 14. These locking bands 24 on the inner panels 18 serve the identical purpose as that served on the outer panels even to the extent of a support rod 68 which extends between the inner panels 18.
For purposes of joining the inner panel 18 to the outer panel 14, an elongated retainer strip 70 is secured to the outer panels 14 by a metal drive pin 72 which penetrates the retainer strip 70 and extends between the bases 26 on the abutting locking bands 24. This retainer strip 70 has a constant cross-section and includes a flat central section 74 and a pair of lianges 76 and 78 extending from opposite sides of the central section 74. As best shown in FIGURE 3, the fiat central section 74 has a width which is substantially equal to the width Of the base 26 on the locking band which it abuts. Each of the anges 76 and 78 are formed in two respective sections 76A and 76B along with 78A and 78B. When mounted on inner panel 18 or outer panels 14, the locking panel 24 abuts the central section 74 and the anges 7S are bent around the locking band until the section 76B and 78B abut the ledges 36 and 38 and the second sections 76A and 78A are bent around the ledge to interlock the retainer strip to the locking band. The retainer strip is preferably joined as an aluminum extrusion. In order to complete the assembly, a constant cross-section plastic gasket 80, formed from a fiexible material such as polyvinyl chloride, is inserted between the joint of the inner panel 18 and the outer panels 14 to improve the appearance and to prevent wind and rain from seeping through this joint. This gasket 80 has a at backbone 82 and a pair of legs 84 and 86 which extend within the locking band. The leg 84 has a series of serrations 86 formed thereon which mate with the serrations 53 formed in the locking band depression 32. These serrations prevent withdrawal of the gasket 80 once it is placed into position. The second eg 86 abuts the retainer strip 70. The interior of the gasket 80 is hollow and includes an elongated opening 88 which permits the gasket to conform to the shape of the retainer strip flange 76 when disposed in position.
Referring now to FIGURE 4, another embodiment of the present invention is shown where the inner panel 18 is mounted upon an outer panel 14 which is a position intermediate its ends. This type of construction is somewhat different than that illustrated in FIGURES 2 and 3 wherein the inner panel 18 is mounted at the joint of two outer panels 14. In this embodiment, referring to FIGURE 4 again, the retainer strip 70 is secured to the inner panel by a metal drive pin 70 extending through the retainer strip and entering the panel 14. As is customary in the building trade, the retainer strip 70 would be disposed vertically on the panel 14 before the pin 72 is driven through the strip and entering into the panel. The assembly of the inner panel 18 upon the retainer strip 70 would be repeated in a manner similar to the previous embodiment shown in FIGURES 2 and 3 whereby the flanges 76 and 78 would be folded upon and around the ledges on the locking band. Gaskets 88 would be disposed in position as shown in FIGURE 4 in a manner consistent with the previous embodiment.
Referring now to FIGURE 5, another embodiment of the present invention is illustrated which is quite similar to the embodiment illustrated in FIGURES 3 and 4. A retainer strip in the form of a channel 90 having a constant cross section is mounted upon the panel 14 by a driven pin 72 extending through the channel and secured to the panel 14. The channel includes a base 91 and a pair of parallel anges 92 and 93 extending from opposite sides of the base and extending in the same direction. The channel has a size which is large enough to accept the insertion of the interior panel 18 and a locking band 24 coupled thereto. As in the previous embodiments, the inner panel is secured in position by a support rod 68 engaging the locking band 24 disposed at the opposite end of the panel. In this embodiment, the combination of the channel 90 and the support rod 68 prevent lateral movement of the panel. This embodiment has some advantages over the embodiment of FIGURES 3 and 4 in that the channel need not be crimped over the locking band but aligns the panel 18 relative to the outer panel 14 and does not require further application of gaskets 80 as was required in the previous embodiments. The remainder of the construction illustrated in FIGURE 5 is substantially identical to the construction of FIGURES 3 and 4 and a reiteration of the same components is considered unnecessary. While not illustrated, the channel 90 can be used in a similar manner as the embodiment illustrated in FIGURE 3 wherein the drive pin 92 can be driven between the abutting locking bands 24 rather than into the outer panel 14 as shown in FIGURE 5; essen-` tially, the position of the inner Wall with respect to the outer is not limited in any manner.
While a particular configuration of the locking band has been illustrated, it is to be recognized that this Shape can be altered without departing from the present invention. The particular manner of securing the retainer strip to the outer Wall panel can be changed Without departing from the spirit of the present invention along with the manner of securing the retainer strip to the locking band. These alternative instructions are considered to be Within the skill of the art and are not predicated upon a particular shape or configuration as illustrated in the drawings.
1. An architectural joint used to engage an outside load-bearing first panel to an interior nonload bearing second panel with the second panel at right angles to the first panel and each panel having ends and side walls, comprising:
an elongated locking band being secured to the nonload bearing second panel,
the locking band having a base abutting the panel end and a pair of parallel flanges extending at right angles from the locking band base and coplanar with the panel walls, the locking band flanges each having an elongated depression therein, means for aligning the second panel relative to the first panel with the aligning means of the second panel having a first end extending within the aligning means; and
means for preventing lateral movement of the second panel and abutting a second end of the second panel.
2. An architectural joint as defined in claim 1 in which the aligning means is a retainer strip having a base abutting the locking band and a pair of flanges extending on opposite sides of the locking band.
3. An architectural joint as defined in claim 1 and in addition a means for securing the locking band to the panel including an inverted T section extending from the locking band base and extending within the panel, the panel being formed from a solidified slurry which extends around and interlocks with the T section.
4. An architectural joint as defined in claim 1 in which the aligning means is secured to the panel by a drive pin penetrating through the aligning means and entering into the panel.
5. An architectural joint as defined in claim 1 in which the first panel includes a pair of panels each having a locking band secured thereto with the locking band bases abutting each other,
the aligning means being secured to the first panel by a drive pin penetrating through the aligning means and extending between the abutting bases of the locking strips on the pair of panels.
6. An architectural joint as defined in claim 1 and in addition a flexible gasket being mounted at the junction of the first panel and the second panel with the gasket extending within the locking band depression of the second panel and rictionally engaging the first panel.
7. An architectural joint being formed between first and second panels, each having sidewalls and ends, a pair of locking bands being mounted one each on the panels and the locking bands abutting each other, comprising:
the locking bands being formed with constant crosssections,
the locking band cross-section including a base and a pair of spaced-apart flanges extending in the same direction, the locking bands facing each other with the bases abutting each other,
each of the locking bands includes an outwardly extending ledge protruding at an angle from each flange,
the locking band flange including perforations therethrough and disposed adjacent to the ledge and the perforations being disposed between the ledge and the locking band base,
the perforation in each locking band being adjacent to each other,
a U-shaped clip having a foundation and a pair of legs,
the clip having a leg extending through the perforation in adjacent locking bands.
8. An architectural joint as defined in claim 7 and in addition:
the locking band having a series of serrations thereon,
the clip legs having a series of serrations thereon which coact and interlock with the locking band serrations whereby the interlocked serrations inhibit removal of the clips from the locking bands.
9. An architectural joint as defined in claim 7 and in addition:
the locking band flanges being coplanar with the panel sidewalls and locking band depressions being disposed below the surface of the panel sidewalls.
10. An architectural joint as defined in claim 7 and in addition:
the panels being formed from a cementitious material,
the locking vband base including an inverted T section extending Within and being gripped by the cementitious material forming the panel.
11. An architectural joint as defined in claim 7 and in addition:
the clip foundation contacting the ledges on abutting locking bands and thereby tending to prevent removal of the clips from the locking bands.
12. A locking band being formed With a constant cross section strip, the cross section comprising:
a fiat base,
a first and second parallel flange extending in the same direction from the base and at right angles thereto,
the flanges each having a depression formed therein with the depressions in the first flange extending toward the second flange and the depression in the second flange extending toward the first flange, and
a ledge extending outwardly from each flange.
13. A locking band as defined in claim 12 in which the ledges extend from each flange depression and the ledge having a surface which is parallel to the base.
14. A locking band as defined in claim 11 in which the base has a centrally located semi-circular depression eX- tending along the length of the locking band and parallel to the flanges.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,688,134 10/1928 Braunstein 52-285 X 2,612,243 9/1952 Campbell 52-288 X 3,013,642 12/1961 Hammitt et al. 52-238 3,049,195 8/1962 Leat et al. 52-238 X 3,228,158 1/1966 Russell 52-580 3,239,986 3/1966 Russell 52-584 3,282,006 11/1966 Halsey et al. 52-582 X 3,309,826 3/1967 Zinn 52-241 FOREIGN PATENTS 994,036 6/ 1965 Great Britain.
CARL W. TOMLIN, Primary Examiner. W. L. SHEDD, Assistant Examiner.