US 3359802 A
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DeC- 26, 1967 c. E. SOLLENBERGER 3,359,802
APPARATUS FOR BAR-BELL TYPE EXERCISES DeC- 26, 1967 c. E. SOLLENBERGER 3,359,802
APPARATUS FOR BAR-BELL TYPE EXERCISES Filed May 8, 1964 3 Sheets-Sheet 2- 32 Bijl@ M F155 Bsv. -lo
Carl E. 501 lenbergev www Dec. 26, 1967 C, E SOLLNBERGER y 3,359,802
APPARATUS FOR BAH-BELL TYPE EXERCISES Filed May 8, 1964 5 SheetS-Sheet 5 54 N/o J 6l 66 Cavi E. Sollenberqer tornag United States Patent O 3,359,802 APPARATUS FOR BAR-BELL TYPE EXERCISES Carl E. Sollenberger, 94 W. Salome St., Akron, Ollio 44310 Fixed May s, 1964, ser. No. 365,894 11 Claims. (Cl. 73-379) This invention relates to exercising apparatus, and in particular relates to hydraulically controlled apparatus for bar-bell type exercises.
One object of the present invention is to provide apparatus of the character described including a hydraulically operable means for simulating various bar-bell lifting exercises, and provided with control means -by which the user can automatically vary the amount of lifting effort required by similarly varying the lifting speed applied to the bar-bell device.
Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus of the character described by which the effort required to lower the bar-bell device is automatically minimized, so that the exerciser will not be subjected to possi-ble injurious muscular strains due to sudden transfer of supporting energy from one set of muscles to another.
Another object of the invention is to provide a bar-bell device of the character described which is easily adjustable for use for isometric exercises. Still another object of the invention is to provide a hydraulically operable bar-bell type of exercising device which is readily adaptable for use in various standing, squatting, sitting and lying-down types of exercises.
Another object of the invention is to provide an exercising device of lthe character described wherein is provided indexing means for quickly adjusting the effective lifting resistance of the device, within a wide range of pressures from zero, for isometric exercising through a substantial range of effective lifting weights.
Another object of the invention is -to provide a weightlifting type of exercising device of the character described, having improved means for vertically adjusting the effective height of the bar-bell means.
Other objects of the invention will be manifest from the following brief description and the accompanying drawings.
Of the accompanying drawings:
FIGURE l is a front elevation of a bar-bell exercising device embodying the features of the invention.
FIGURE 2 is an end elevation of the same, as viewed from the left of FIGURE l.
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged vertical cross-section, partly broken away, through the left-hand hydraulic cylinder in FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 4 is a top plan view of the structure shown in FIGURE 3, and on the same scale.
FIGURE 5 is a cross-section corresponding to FIG- URE 3, illustrating a modified type of hydraulic cylinder.
FIGURE 6 is a perspective view, on a reduced scale, of a modified form of bar-bell exercising device, adapted for use in a single-cylinder hydraulic unit.
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged cross-section taken substantially on the line 7-7 of FIGURE 6.
Referring to FIGURES l to 4 of the drawings, there is illustrated one embodiment of the invention, wherein a horizontal bar 10` is aixed to the upper ends of piston rods 11, 11 extending from a pair of laterally spaced hydraulic cylinders 12, 12. These cylinders may be pivoted 3,359,82 Patented Dec. 26, 1967 ICC at the lower ends thereof to pins 13 on U-shaped brackets 14, to be selectively swingable in vertical planes, between forwardly inclined, substantially upright, offcenter positions of rest, shown in chain-dotted lines at the left of FIGURE 2 and angular positions, shown in chaindotted lines on the right of FIGURE 2, more nearly approaching the horizontal, as for sitting or lying-down types of exercises. The cylinders are retained in the olfcenter, at rest positions by stop engagement of lower edges 15 of the cylinders with edge portions 16 of the -brackets 13. Brackets 13 may be Ibolted or screwed to a suitable board or base 17 to be portable therewith, or they may be secured directly onto a Hoor.
As best shown in FIGURE 3, each piston rod 11 may have suitably axed to the lower end thereof, a hollow piston head 18 to which is removably affixed a cup-type washer 19 of leather, rubber, or like flexible material for sliding, fluid-sealing engagement with the cylinder wall 20, in known manner. By-pass means is provided for bypassing the hydraulic iiuid between the upper and lower sides of the washer, which means may include passages 22, 22 in the head 18 above the washer communicating with a chamber 23 within the head, which in turn cornmunicates with the lower side of the washer through an axial passage 24 in a downward extension of the head. For varying the amount of fluid to 4be bypassed, a valve pin 25 is axially slidable in a passage 26 through piston rod 11, toward and from closed, complemental sealing engagement of a conical lower end 27 with a conical seat 28 in the head at the upper end of passage 24. Thus, varying the effective size of the valve opening to passage 24 will correspondingly vary the power required to raise the piston rods 11. The size of the said valve opening, however, does not affect the downward stroke of the piston, because the hydraulic fluid is then free to ilow past the edges of the upturned peripheral edge of the washer in known manner. In other Words, the downward stroke of the piston is accomplished without substantial resistance whether the by-pass valve pin is closed or not.
For axiallyadjusting the valve pin 25 in piston rod 11, the upper end of pin 25 may be threadedly extended at 31 through a nut 32, removably threaded in the upper side of the horizontal bar 10. Pin 25 may be rotated through a series of axially adjusted positions, by means of a knob 33, axed on the outer end of pin extension 31, and the knob may have thereon a dial 34 provided with a scale of lifting pressures in terms of pounds, whereby the effective lifting pressures may be indicated by a pointer 35 aixed on` the bar 10. The effective upward pressures `applied to each piston 12, by manual upward lifting action applied to the bar 19, otherwise may be manifested on a pressure gauge 36 axed to the respective cylinders 12 (see FIGURES 3 and 4).
O-rings are provided in each cylinder unit, as indicated at 37 and 38, to seal against leakage of hydraulic fluid between valve pin 25 and piston rod 11, and between the latter and the top of cylinder 12, respectively.
In use of the device of FIGURES 1 to 4 for a lbar-bell type of exercise, such as an arm curl, the assembly will be in the condition shown in full lines in FIGURES l and 2. Grasping the bar 10 with -both hands the user slowly elevates the bar to a full curl position, as indicated in chain-dotted lines in FIGURE 1, against requisite heavy pressure of the two pistons required to force hydraulic fluid from the upper portion of the cylinders through the by-pass passages 22 and 24. If the effective lifting pressures are too high or too low, the exerciser opens or closes the passages 24 correspondingly by turning knobs 33. The gauges 36 will indicate at least approximations of such changes in pressures. In any event, should the exerciser feel that he is exceeding his lWeight lifting capacity at any point, he need yonly ease the lifting rate to reduce the effective lifting weight This instant control over the lifting pressures is particularly important because muscle tension is automatically released at normal completion of a given exercise or by discontinuing the exercise at any point of the movements thereof. This feature has a distinct advantage over use of standard bar-bell units, in that the danger of injury, due to suddent transfer of lifting strains from one set of muscles to another, is eliminated.
Various other types of bar-bell exercises may be practiced by changing the angle of the unit and/ or standing on a stool or platform (not shown) placed beneath the bar 10. Rowing exercises may be practiced from a sitting position on base 17, while the assembly is angularly adjusted somewhat as shown in chain-dotted lines in FIG- URE 2. Examples of other exercises possible with the device include the sitting press, knee bends, leg presses, shoulder shrugs, bench presses, and many others.
When isometric exercising is desired, the bar 1f) is extended as required and the valve pins are adjusted to close the passages 24 of cylinders 12. This in effect locks the piston heads 18 and bar 10 in given positions. This type of exercising may be practiced with the pivotable assembly positioned at any desired angle about pivot pins 13, 13, as before. Even when the pistons are locked, as described, the gauges 36 will indicate applied lifting effort against the fixed bar 1f), because there lwill be corresponding pressure varyingly applied to the hydraulic fluid in the cylinders, which pressure will be indicated on the gauges 36. This principle serves as a means to determine the equivalent of pounds of weight resisted, as well as to show improvement made in lifting capacity.
FIGURE 5 illustrates a modified form of hydraulic cylinder unit, wherein the piston rod 11a does not include a bypass valve in the piston or piston head. A solid piston 18a on the lower end of a piston rod 11a has an O-ring 38 between the piston and the wall 20a of the cylinder, thereby to prevent passage of hydraulic fiuid in either direction. Fittings 39 and 40 connected to the upper and lower ends, respectively, of the cylinder 12a have passages 41 and 42 adapted to communicate with each other through a connecting pipe or fitting 43. With upward urging of the piston 18a in cylinder 12a, uid is forced from the upper portion of cylinder 12a through passage 41 and a by-pass passage `44 in fitting 39, pipe 43, and passage 42 of tting 40, to the lower end of the cylinder. The passage 41 in fitting 39 is otherwise normally held closed intermediate inlet and outlet ends of the by-pass passage 44, as by a valve 45 including a spring-pressed ball 46 engaging an annular seat 47. Upward movement of the piston is thereby restricted by liow of fluid around the valve 45. The pressure required to move the piston 18a may be varied by operation of a valve pin 48 threaded in fitting 39 for adjustment toward and from seating a tapered inner end 49 with a valve seat 50. With the valve pin 4S in either open or closed positions, reverse movement of the piston toward the lower end of the cylinder 12a reverses the iiow of fiuid through spring-pressed valve 4S, so that such movement of the piston is not substantially resisted. The piston 18a may be locked in any selected position against upward movement by closing the by-pass passage 44 completely, as for use of the device for isometric exercises. Use of the hydraulic device of FIGURE 5 in the system of FIGURES l and 2 is lotherwise substantially the same as described above in connection `with FIGURES 3 and 4.
Referring to FIGURES 6 and 7 there is illustrated a modified form of the invention utilizing a single cylinder unit. The numeral 51 designates a rigid immovable cantilevered T-bar having oppositely disposed hand-grip extensions 52, 52 from a cantilevered central leg 53 which is vertically adjustably aixed to a vertical channel 54. A guide rod 55 is mounted parallel to the channel by being affixed between spaced plates 56 and 57, in turn affixed to the back of the channel, and a slide block 58 is mounted intermediate said plates to have said guide rod 55 vertically slidable through a slide bearing 59 in the block. Block 58 is affixed on the upper end of a hydraulic cylinder 60 corresponding to the cylinder 12 of FIGURE 3, the lower end -of cylinder `60 being affixed on the free end of an arm 62 pivoted on a pin 61 on a U-shaped bracket 63, -which is secured to a floor, or to a base like the base 16 of FIGURES 1 and 2. A piston rod 64 extends from the cylinder and upwardly of the block 5S, and is affixed at its upper end to the top plate 56 to move with the guide rod 55, in parallelism therewith. Adjustment means 66 is provided, corresponding to that shown at the upper portion of FIGURE 3, for adjusting the effective -uid pressure resisting upward movement of the channel and associated parts with respect to cylinder 60 and head 58, upon application of manual upward pressure to the T-bar 51. A channel-shaped portion on the block 58 slidably embraces the back of the channel 54 for greater stability of relative movements of the parts.
The T-'bar may be vertically adjustably afxed on channel 54, by engagement of a -pin 66 through one pair `of holes 67 of a vertically spaced series thereof in the channel flanges 68, 68, and through the inner end of leg 53 (see FIGURE 7). Rotational movement of T-bar 53 on pin 66 is prevented by reception of a reduced end 69 of leg 53 in one of a corresponding series of vertically spaced holes 70 in the back of the channel 54.
Vertical adjustment of the T-bar 51 may be made as necessary for different kinds of exercises and to suit persons of different sizes or arm reaches. The point of juncture of the leg 53 and the aligned hand grip extensions 52 is adapted, in the relationship shown in FIGURE 6, to be vertically aligned above the axis of pivot pin 61 and the center of bracket 63. This arrangement is such that the various types of exercises previously referred to may be practiced, lby gripping the hand-grip extensions 52, substantially in the manner and for the exercises previously described in connection with FIGURES l to 4, including those accomplished While the body is erect, or in sitting or lying-down positions. Vertical adjustment of the T-bar 51 on the channel 54 makes it possible to perform pull-up types of exercises from the floor or supporting base, that is, Without standing on a stool or other elevating means. Sitting-up and lying-down exercises are accomplished by swinging the exercising device on pivot pin 61, to the left as viewed in FIGURE 6.
In the broadest aspects of the FIGURE 6 form of the invention the T-bar 51 is important because it .provides a simple exercising device by which certain isometric exercises described above can easily be accomplished from standing, sitting, or lying down postures without interference with the relatively fixed upright unit.
Thus has been provided several forms of exercising devices which are compact and efficient in operation, and which are easily mounted and disassembled for exercising and storage purposes, respectively. For the said storage purposes, itis only necessary to remove respective pivot pins to permit removal of the exercising units from the U-shaped mounting brackets.
In the two modied forms of the invention exemplified in FIGURES 5 and 6, pressure gauges 36 may be provided at the tops of cylinders 12a and 60, respectively, substantially as shown in FIGURES l to 3. In all forms of the exercising units, when used as previously described for isometric exercises, the gauge 36 on each cylinder may be designed to indicate, on a dial thereof, the equivalent of a total weight, in pounds, lifted regardless of the number of cylinders used in the exercising units. In the unit of FIGURES 1 to 4, and in the locked positions of the two pistons for isometric exercising, if the pressure at the top of each cylinder 12 is 50 p.s.i., the total weight lifted, las read on each gauge would be 100 pounds. Accordingly, the dial of each gauge may have a scale on which the total elfective weights lifted would appear. The actual p.si. for each cylinder may also be indicated on a separate scale on its respective gauge. Accordingly, a person may determine exactly what progress he is making by means of isometric exercises, by reading the total weight lifted, as registered on one of the gauges 36 at the exact points at which the respective pistons are locked against upward movement in the cylinders.
By means of the above described equipment, it is possible to duplicate upwards of twenty standard exercises for strengthening and building different muscles of the body, and in a relatively small fraction of the time required by isotonic exercising methods.
Other modifications of the invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit thereof or the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. An exercising device, comprising a hydraulic unit including a pair of laterally spaced hydraulic cylinders !containing hydraulic fluid; attaching means pivotally anchoring said cylinders to a working surfaceto swing about an axis parallel thereto; a piston slidable in each said cylinder and each having a piston rod thereon slidably extended outwardly of the other end of the respective cylinder; rigid hand grip means aixed between the outward extensions of said piston rods for manually reciprocating said pistons in various selected positions of swinging movement of said unit about said axis; and selectively adjustable by-pass means in said cylinders for controlling the effective pressure required to be applied to said hand grip means to move pistons in said cylinders in unison in at least one direction of the strokes thereof against the pressure of the fluid in the cylinders.
2. A device as in claim 1, said selectively adjustable means in each said cylinder including a rst by-pass means for by-passing said iluid around said piston only, in one direction of the stroke of the same, a second bypass means for by-passing said fluid around said piston in the opposite direction of the stroke of the same, independently of said rst by-pass means; and valve means selectively operable to vary the flow of fluid through said second by-pass means, and thereby correspondingly to vary the manual power required to move the piston in said opposite direction.
3. An exercising device, comprising a hydraulic unit inclu-ding a hydraulic cylinder containing hydraulic uid; a bracket having means for attaching the same to a working surface; an arm pivotally attached at one end to said bracket and said cylinder being affixed at its lower end to the free end of said arm to be swingably supported thereby; a piston slidable in said cylinder and having a piston rod thereon slidably extended outwardly of the other end of the cylinder; a rigid frame mounted on said cylinder and in-cluding a portion athxed to the outward extension of said piston rod, whereby the frame is axially movable on said cylinder to reciprocate said piston; rigid hand grip means on said frame for manually moving the same `axially with respect to said cylinder in various selected positions of said swinging movement of said arm; and selectively adjustable by-pass means in said cylinder for controlling the effective pressure required to be applied to said hand-grip means to move said piston in the cylinder in at least one direction of the stroke thereof against the pressure of the fluid in the cylinder.
4. A device as in claim 3, including means for releasably affixing said hand-grip means to said frame at variable distances from said arm.
5. A device as in claim 4, said selectively adjustable means in each said cylinder including a iirst by-pass means for by-passing said iluid around said piston only, in one direction of the stroke of the same; a second bypass means for by-passing said lluid around said piston in the opposite direction of the stroke of the same, independently of said rst by-pass means; and valve means selectively operable to vary the flow of fluid through said second by-pass means, and thereby correspondingly to vary the manual power required to move the piston in said opposite direction.
6. A device asin claim 3, said selectively adjustable means in each said cylinder including a first by-pass means for luy-passing said uid around said piston only, in one direction of the stroke of the same; a second by-pass means for by-passing said fluid around said piston in the opposite directions of the stroke of the same, independently of said first by-pass means; and valve means selectively operable to vary the ilow of iluid through said second by-pass means, and thereby correspondingly to vary the manual power required to move the piston in said opposite direction.
7. An isometric exercising device, comprising: a bracket having means for attaching the same to a working surface; an arm pivotally attached at one end to said bracket to swing about a pivotal axis; a rigid upright affixed on said arm to be swingable therewith on said bracket; a member vertically adjustable to gripped positions on said upright to extend freely forwardly thereof and having hand-grip means on the free end of the same for applying isometric pressure at said pivotal axis, indirectly through said gripped member, said upright and said arm; a hy- -draulic cylinder containing hydraulic Huid; a piston operable within said cylinder upon pivotal movement of said arm and adapted to pressurize said hydraulic fluid; and means connected to said cylinder for indicating variations in pressure of said fluid within said cylinder.
8. An isometric exerciser as in claim 7, said upright being rearwardly olset from said axis, and said hand-grip means being positioned forwardly of said upright to be in a dire-ct line of pull through said axis in all positions of pivotal movement of said arm.
9. An isometric exercising device for use in a room or other situs having a horizontal working surface, comprising: a rigid upright; means for mounting said upright at the situs to anchor the same generally in upstanding relation to the Working surface of the situs to resist longitudinal compression and tension stresses applied to the upright while in said upstanding relation; a rigid stress applying member adjustably rigidly connected to said upright; and cooperating adjustment means on said member and said upright for adjustment of the location of the rigid connection of the member on the upright to the variably spaced positions thereon above the working surface of the situs; said member including at each position rigid irnmovable arm means xedly mounted on said upright and cantilevered of the situs forwardly of the upright and terminating in a laterally extending crossbar having gripping portions on each side of said rigid arm means; the space between said bross-bar and the working surface of the situs being substantially free and unobstructed whereby in the variously spaced positions of the member above the working surface a person assuming various exercising postures on the said surface can engage parts of the body with the underside of said crossbar to apply upward exercising pressure thereto.
10. An exercising device as in claim 9, wherein said means for mounting includes a bracket for anchoring connection to said working surface and a forward extension on the lower end of said upright pivotally connected to said bracket whereby the upright is swingable in a vertical plane through said rigid arm means.
11. An exercising device as in claim 10 and wherein a line extending from the intersection of the rigid arm means and the cross-bar to the pivotal axis of the pivotal connection of said bracket remains parallel to the longivertical plane.
7 8 tudinal axi's of the upright as the upright swings in the 3,142,363 7/ 1964 Tamini 188-97 3,248,107 4/ 1966 Wolski et al. 272-83 References Cited FOREIGN PATENTS UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 565,630 11/1964 Great Britain.
6/ 1901 Spalding 88--166 ANTON O. OECHSLE, Primary Examiner. 4/1929 Rodale 73--379 1/1937 Stronach 272 79 RICHARD PINKHAM, F. BARRY SHAY, Examzners. 1/ 1960 Berne 272-80 X W. R. BROWNE, Assistant Examiner.