US 336173 A
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(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1. S). TAINTER.
No. 336,17 Patented Feb. 16, 1886.
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(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
N0. 336,23. Patented Feb. 16, 1886.
N4 PETERS. Fholwhlhogmphen Washinglnn. D. C.
UNITE STATES Fries.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 336,173, dated February 16, 1886.
Application filed April 30, 1885.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that 1, SUMNER TAIN'IER, of \Vashington, in the District of Columbia, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Telephone-Transmitters and Station Apparatus, which improvement is fully set forth in the following specification.
This invention relates more particularly to a transmitting or station apparatus for telephone-lines, in which the variable resistance or current-regulator is a sensitive jet of conducting-liquid, a part of which jet is included in the circuit of the galvanic battery or other source of electrical energy; butit may also be applied, at least in part, to jet-translating apparatus generally, and possibly to other purposes.
The term jet-translating apparatus is applied to apparatus for translating or transferring sonorous vibrations from one medium to another through a sensitive jet, such as described in the applications of (J. A. Bell, filed May 1, 1884, and officially numbered 129,946, 129,947, and 129,948, upon which the present invention may be regarded as an improve ment.
The main object of this invention is to produce a suitable jet by a compact arrangement of devices adapted to practical use in a telephone-station. To this end, instead of employing a hydrostatic column to supply the jet-liquid under a head due to its height, the proper pressure is applied through a body of confined air, which is suitably compressed by one or more springs or weights. Sometimes an automatic governor is employed to control the pressure which the air exerts upon the jet liquid. In order to stop the jet when the use of the apparatus is concluded, the air is allowed to escape by opening a valve. Preferably this is effected automatically by combining the valve wit-h a movable telephone-support, so that the weight of the hand-telephone opens it, the closing ofthe valve being effected when the hand-telephone is removed by a retractile spring. The electrical contacts for connecting in and cutting out the telephonic instruments may of course be combined with the telephone-support, so that the latter acts asa switch, as usual; but it is preferred to combine a switch with the air-compressor or device for operating the same. The contacts Serial No. 162,777. (No nmdel.)
made in compressing theair will be broken and new contacts automatically established on replacing the hahdtelephone; but they will also be changed when the supply of compressed air is exhausted by the use of the apparatus, and of this fact the cessation of sounds in the telephone will give notice.
In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is face view in sectional elevation of a telephonestat-ion apparatus embodying the invention; Fig. 2, a sectional elevation on line as m, Fig. 1, looking to the right; Fig.3, asectional view on line y y, Fig. 2, looking upward, and Figs. Land 5 detail views inhorizontal and vertical section, respectively. Fig. 6 is a central vertical section of another form ofcompressor, which may be used in place of that shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. Fig. 7 is a back view (with the back of the telephone-case removed) of another form of station apparatus also embodying the invention or a part thereof. Fig. Sis a sectional elevation on the vertical center line of Fig. 1, looking to the right; Fig. 9 apartial view in sectional elevation in aplane parallel to that of Fig. 1, but looking in the opposite direction, and Fig. 10 a detail view in horizontal section.
Like letters indicate like parts of the different apparatus, which are all of my own invention.
A is the box or case in or on which all the parts are placed. Referring to Figs. 2 and 3, there is a collapsible air-tight bag, B, of soft rubber, whose bottom is fastened by cement or otherwise to the back of case A, and whose top is similarly fastened to the spring-actuated follower (J. The follower is guided in its movements by the standards 8, which pass through holes in the corner of the follower. Pins 1, fixed in the partition 2, project into holes in the posts 3 on the follower. These posts are preferably allowed a certain freedom of movement to prevent binding, the screws, which pass through the follower and into the lower part of the posts not being driven in,so asto keep the posts rigid. A spiral compression-spring,D, surrounds each post, and tends to force the follower G to the back of case A, and thus compress the bag B. To withdraw the follower against the pressure of the springs,it is connected by the lever4and chain 5 with the flanged wheel 6 on shaft 7. The
partition 2 is fastened to the back of case A. by the standards 8, which have retainingnuts at the ends. The lever 4 is fulcrumed in the lower end of link 9, whose upper end is pivoted to the stationary piece on the partition 2. The connection between the follower O and lever 4 is made through the bridge-piece 11, which is fastened to the follower, and to which the lever is pivoted. The chain 5 is wound upon the wheel 6 by turning the shaft 7 through the crank 25. Stops 12 are provided to limit the motion. \Vhen the follower C is moved to expand the bag B, air enters the latter by way of the valve 13, coupling 14,pipe 15, and. tubular coupling 16. This tubular coupling has a flange on the inner (left-hand, Fig. 2) end, which is inserted in a hole in the top of the bag. A cap, 18, screwed on the outer end of the coupling and bearing upon the outer end ofthe sleeve 17, clamps the rubber of the bag between the flange and theinuer end of said sleeve. An exterior flange on the sleeve rests upon the follower. The valve 13 (see Fig. 4) has a light disk, 24, for closing the inlet when the bag B is compressed, but opening freely when it is expanded. The valve is preferably inclined, so that the disk is slightly out of the vertical. Gravity thus acts to close the valve, while at the same time the disk does not have to be lifted bodily but only tilted in order to open it. When thebag B is compressed by the springs D, the air is forced under pressure through the coupling 16, pipe 15, coupling 14, chamber of valve 13, pipe 19, pressure-governor E, and pipe 20,iuto the upper part of the reservoir or chamber F. This chamber contains the jet-liquid, which, as soon as pressure is applied to the surface thereof, mounts through the filterG and pipe H to thejet-tube I. The pressure-governor E has a diaphragm, 26, of thin sheet-rubber, which is clamped at the edges and has attached to it a flat metal disk, 27, and also a pin, 28, against whose enlarged end (right hand, Fig. 5) the pressure-regulating valve is held by the spiral compression-spring 34. The pin 28 passes through the center of the diaphragm 26 and disk 27, which are clamped together by the nut 29. The pin projects through the case of the governor, and is acted upon by the short arm of the weighted lever 31 in the direction tending to open the valve. The lever 31 is fulcrumed in the back of the governor-case, and the weight 32 is adjustable on the long arm thereof. -The outer end of this arm plays in the slot 33 in the angle piece or bracket on partition 2. The pressure of theair on the jet side of the pressure-regulatingva-lve against the governor or diaphragm establishes an equilibrium between the antagonistic forces of the weight 32 and spring 34. The reservoir or chamber F is formed, as shown, in the lower half of a box, (say, of hard rubber',) and is cut off from the chamber K by thehorizontal partition 35. This arrangement is preferred to that of a separate box for each chamber, because more compact; but it is not jet-tube is adjusted by'the four set-screws 40,
so that the jet plays properly on the electrodes set in the base 39, and the said jet-tube is then retained in that position by filling the cup 37 with liquefied cement, which hardens on cooling. The electrodes consist of a metal wire, 41,. preferably of platinum, which passes axially through a teat in the center of the base 39, and a metal ring, 42, which surrounds the upper end of said teat, and is insulated by the same from the inclosed electrode 41. The jet plays upon the central electrode and spreads out in a thin film, which makes contact with the annular electrode and completes the circuit between them. The waste-pipe 43 carries the liquid which runs ofi the electrodes into the upper chamber, K, from which it passes through the pipe 44 into the lower chamber, F, when the air-pressure in the latter is rellieved. When pressure is applied, the botltom of the pipe 44 is closed by the valve'disk 145, which at other times is supported on pins,
projecting inward from the ring 46, secured on the lower end of said pipe. The electrode 41 is connected by the wire 47 with the springcontact 48. The electrode 42 is connected by the wire 49 with one terminal of the handtelephone L, the other terminal being connected by wire 50 with thebinding-post5l,with which one end of the line-wire is connected. The other end of the line-wire is connected with bindingpost 52, and by this through thewire 53 with the sliding switch 54, which is attached to the partition 2 by screws passingthrough slotsin the switch,and is shifted by the ,cam 55 on the shaft 7, acting against one of the edges 56. The spring-contact 57 is connected by wire 58 with the binding-post 59, to which the branch wire containing the signaling appartus T is led. From the pipe 20 a branch pipe, 60, extends to the bottom of the case, and is there closed by the valve 61, which is formed by a disk attached to a projection on the telephone-support M. A spring, 62, keeps the valve closed, except when the telephonesupport is drawn down, as it would be by the weight of the hand-telephone'when suspended therefrom. The liquid used is preferably distilled water, acidulated with about one part in three hundred, by volume, ofpure sulphuric acid. To prevent the liquid fronr'escaping when the apparatus is carried, a tap, 63, is provided for closing the pipe 20, and also a screw-plug, 64, for closing the openings 23, through which the upper chamber communicates with the outside air. The face of the telephone-case is provided with a mouth-piece, 65, behind which is fastened a vibratoryplate or diaphragm, N, of wood. It is fastened at the four corners (see Figs. 2 and 7) to the face of the case, a washer being interposed. At the back of the plate or diaphragm is a bridge, 66, which bears against the tube 38, and assists in communicating the vibrations to the jet.
The operation is as follows: After the central office or another station has been called in any ordinary or suitable way the operator turns the crank 25, and before releasing it takes off the hand-telephone from its support, so that the branch pipe 60 is closed by a valve, 61. The line, which previously included the signaling branch, is now completed (provided the crank has been released) through the switch 54, contact 48, the electrode 41, the included part ofthe jet, the electrode 42, and the hand-telephone L. The galvanic battery is included in the line at any point, preferably in an exchange at the central office. On releasing the crank 25 the springs D compress the bag B, and (the valve 13 closing automatically) force the air through the pressuregovernor E and the connected .pipes and couplings into the chamber F. The compressed air forces the liquid through the jet-tube l, and causes the jet to play upon the inner elec t-rode, and spread in a film over the outer one. Speech uttered or other sounds made in the vicinity of the mouthpiece will be repro duced in the hand telephone L, in consequence of the variations in current due to the vibrations imparted to the jet and the c011- sequent variations in the resistance of that part of the jet included between the elec' trodes. \Vhen the operator has finished talking, the hand-telephone L is replaced on its support M, its weight then opening the valve 61, and allowing the air to escape rapidly from the bag B. The jet soon stops, and the liquid all runs back into the lower chamber, F.
'\Vhen the air has about all escaped, the switch 54 is shifted by the rotation of the cam 55 into the position shown in Fig. l, whereupon the telephonic instruments are cut out of circuit.
The compressor shown in Fig. 6 resemblesa gasometer, the edges of the bell I? being sealed with mercury instead of water. The bell slides in the inclosing-cylinder 70, which fits tightly at the bottom in an aunulargroove in the base7l. The shell 72, in an annular form, also makes a tight joint with the base at its lower edges. The mercury is inclosed between the outer wall of the shell 72 and the inclosingcylinder 70. In the middle of the bell is a tubular chamber, 73, which fits within the shell 72, and in which is placed the spiral compression-spring D,and also,atthe lower end thereof, the valve-disk 74 and its seat 75. The compression-springis confined between the valvedisk 74 and the top 76 ot' a box, in which the compressor is placed, and of which the base 71 forms the bot-tom. The chain 5 is fastened at its lower end to the said disk. When the chain is wound upon the wheel 6, it first lifts the valve-disk off its seat, and thus establishes free communication through the valve between the external air and the interior of the bell P. XVh'en the valve has been lifted from its seat, the flange 77 on the valve-disk engages the flange 78 on the seat, and lifts said seat, and consequently lifts also the bell P, to which the valve seat is fastened. \Vhen the crank on shaft7 is released, the first effect of the spring D is to close the val ve, and then to force down the bell P, so as to expel the air under suitable pressure through the pipe 79, which may convey it to the reservoir F with or without passing through the pressure-governor.
The compressor shown in Figs. 7, 8, and 9 is formed by a drum, Q, mounted loosely on the shaft 80, and provided with an annular space at the periphery, in which is a body, 81, of mercury, which acts as a fluid-piston. The shaft 80, is journaled in stationary bearings, and is provided at the front end with a crankarm, 25, for turning it by hand. At the back end a disk, 82, is fixed on the shaft, and also a barrel or holder, 83, for the spring D, which, as shown in these figures, is a volute spring, like that of a clock or watch. Of course a weight arranged like a common clockweight could be used instead of the spring. The inner end of this spring is fastened to the sleeve of the barrel, and the outer end to a pin fixed on the pendent bracket 84, in which the rear end of the shaft is journaled. The drum Q has a pin, 85. which plays in aslot in the disk 82. The shaft is capable of a movement independentofthe compressor-drum. Advantage is taken of this free movement to operate the valve 86, so as to open or close the outer end of the pipe 87. The valve is attached to the outer end of an arm, 88, fixed on the shaft 80. When the shaft is turned in the direction to wind the spring D, the valve is lifted away from the end of pipe 8; before the drum Q is turned by the upper end of the slot striking the pin 85. When crank 25 is released, the spring turns the shaft independently until the valve 86 is pressed against the end of the pipe 87, whereupon the press- 'ure against said pipe turns the drum also.
The annular space of drum Q is not continuous, but is divided at one point by the partition 89. The pipe 87 opens into the annular space (see Fig. 7) on what may be called the compression side of the mercury, as it is on this side that the air is coi'npressed. The annular space on the other side of the mercury is always in free communication with the external air through the pipe 90. (See Fig. 9.) The object ofcurving the pipes 87 and 90 is to prevent the escape of the mercury. The pipe 20, leading to the chamber or reservoirF, passes through an opening in the shaft 80, and communicates with the pipe 87 near its outer end. At 95 is a counterbalance-weight. .VVhen the shaft SO is turned, (to the right, as shown in Fig. 9,) the movement first lifts the valve 86, and then rotates the drum Q. As the drum rotates, the air is expelled through the pipe 90 from the space in front of the mercury, and is ICO drawn through the pipe 87 into the space behind it. When about two-thirds of a revolution has been made, the crank is released, and the spring D, which is now wound, turns back the shaft 80 until the pipe 87- is closed by the valve 86, and then it turns the drum Q, (to the left, as shown in Fig. 9.) The air which has been drawn in through the pipe 87, having no escape. exceptthr'ough the pipe 20 into the chamber F, is compressed until its pressure against the partition 89 balances the tension of the spring D. This pressure is then maiu tained constant, the air escaping and the drum turning just as fast as the liquid is forced from the reservoir F through the jet-tube I. The rest of the apparatus is the same as or so nearly like that shown in Figs. 1 and 2 that no further description is necessary, except to state that the switch 54. is shifted in the direction to cut out the telephonic instruments by the pin 92, and in the direction to connect them in circuit by the pin 93, both on the drum Q, and that the spring 94 on the switch, which the end of the pin 9% rubs against, acts as a brake when the spring D commences to unwind, to prevent the drum Q being carried with the shaft 80 until the valve 86 has been pressed firmly against the end of pipe 87.
It is evident that various other modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention; also, that parts of the invention may be used separately. It is also to be observed that the invention is not limited to the forms, proportions, or materials described.
Having now fully described my said invention, what I claim is 1. The combination of the jet-tube, reservoir, and supply-pipe of the spring-actuated air-compressor, and the pipeconnecting the same with the said reservoir, substantially as described.
2. The combination of the spring actuated air compressor, the pressure governor, and
the connected pipes with the liquid-reservoir,
the jet-tube, and the jet-supply pipe, substantially as described.
3. The combination, with the reservoir, the jet-tube, the jet-supply pipe, and the means for impressing vibrations on the jet, of asource of compressed air communicating with the said reservoir to force the liquid through the jettube, substantially as described.
4. The combination of asource of compressed air and the liquid reservoir with the filter, thejet-supply pipe, and thejettube, through which the liquid in said reservoir is forced, and the means forimpressing vibrations upon the jet, substantially as described.
5. The combination of the reservoir, the jetsupply pipe, and the jet-tube, and the source of compressed air with a receiver for the liquid after it has formed the jet communicating with the aforesaid reservoirthrough a check-valve, substantially as described.
6. The combination,with the electrodes, the jet-tube, and the jet-supply pipe, of a reservoir for containing the jet-liquid, and a source of compressed air for forcing it through the jettube, substantially as described.
7. The combination, with the jet-tube for producing a sensitive vibratory jet, and the reservoir and pipe for supplying liquid to said or and the electrical switch connected therewith, of the movable telephone support and the valve controlled thereby, for releasing the compressed air and causing the switch to be shifted on replacing the hand-telephone, substantially as described. 11. The combination, with the jet-tube and its holder or cup, of the set screw bearing against the sides of said tube for adjusting the position of the same, substantially as described.
12. A telephone-station apparatus comprising, in combination with the hand-telephone, the automatic electrical switch, and the tele-' phone support, a transmittinginstrument composed of a diaphragm or vibrating plate, a jet-tubeto which the vibrations of said plate are communicated, electrodes arranged in the jet, a spring-actuated air-compressor, a reservoir for thejet-liquid, a receiver for the liquid after it has passed through the jet, and the connecting pipes and valves, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have signed this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
SUMNER TAINTER. Witnesses:
PHILIP MAURO, O. J. HEDRIOK.