US 3365008 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 23, 1968 5. D. ZIMMERMAN ET 3,
ULTRA-LARGE DIAMETER DRILLING STRUCTURE AND METHOD Filed June 23, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 86 i 78 h FIG. I Q 8B 4 76 92' F 1 m IO8- 82' E H2 H0 L 101 I2 IO! 98 I4 9s r B 1 \IS Y 36 2s 22 24 3O 32 I/ L) 53 g INVENTORS. GRIER D. ZIMMERMAN JOHN w. cox
Jan. 23, 1968 e. D. ZIMMERMAN ET AL 3,365,008
ULTRA-LARGE DIAMETER DRILLING STRUCTURE AND METHOD Filed June 25, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3
Fl G. 2
1 I, W gJ I 8 L Y -l INVENTORS. GRIER D. ZIMMERMAN- JOHN w. cox
BY, M M
I ATTORNEY 3.
Jan. 23, 1968 Z|MMERMAN ET AL 3,365,008
ULTRA-LARGE DIAMETER DRILLING STRUCTURE AND METHOD- Filed June 23, 1965 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 a0 75 230 gas as g2 84 INVENTORSI GRIER D. ZIMMERMAN JOHN W COX I ATTORNEYS.
United States Patent 3,365,008 ULTRA-LARGE DIAMETER DRILLING STRUCTURE AND METHOD Grier D. Zimmerman and John W. Cox, Oklahoma City,
Okla, assignors to Kerr-McGee Oil Industries, Inc., a
corporation of Delaware Filed June 23, 1965, Ser. No. 466,166 8 Claims. (Cl. 175-85) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Portable and self-erecting ultra-large diameter (4 to 10 ft. shaft) rotary drilling structure and rigging method. The drilling structure utilizes two self-erecting portable drilling masts arranged with their V-windows in faceto-face relationship which leaves area beneath and between the masts for drilling platform and permits entry of tools and equipment to rig floor from two sides. A topmounted cross beam interconnect the two masts and supports the crown blocks and travelling blocks of each mast which can be operated on a single, continuous line operation utilizing the individual drawworks of each mast with a yoke means extending horizontally between and interconnecting the travelling block from each mast. In rigging the structure the longitudinal axes of each drilling mast are aligned in parallel vertical relationship; the substructure is adjustable in height so as to dispose the drilling masts at the same level of elevation.
This invention is concerned with subterranean drilling of ultra-large diameter bore holes.
In conventional oil well drilling, bore hole diameters measure six to eight inches and seldom need exceed twelve and one-half inches in diameter at ground level (Petroleum Production Engineering Development by L. C. Uren, fourth addition, 1956, pp. 305, 306, McGraw- Hill Book Company, Inc.). The present invention is concerned with drilling four to ten foot, and larger, diam eter bore holes. Such ultra-large diameter hole when ice In describing the invention, reference will be made to the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a perspective view of a drilling rig embodying the invention;
FIGURE 2 is a plan view of drilling platform means included in the invention;
FIGURE 3 is a side view of substructure and drilling platform means included in the invention;
FIGURE 4 is a side view of gin pole adjustment means included in the invention;
FIGURE 5 is a partial top plan view of drilling rig structure embodying the invention; and
FIGURE 6 is a schematic side view of drilling rig structure embodying the invention.
FIGURE 1 shows an ultra-large bore hole drilling rig g on location during a drilling operation. A first self-erecting, portable drilling mast 10 and a second self-erecting, portable drilling mast 12 are arranged in face-to-face relationship, that is, with their V-windows facing each other on diametrically opposite sides of drilling table. It will be noted that this arrangement leaves the area beneath and between the masts open since lateral structural members such as those designated 13, 14, and 15 on drilling mast 10 and 18, 19 and 20 on drilling mast 12 are located at the rear of each mast, removed from the working area between the masts. In addition, the structure permits entry of tools and equipment to the rig floor from two sides wherein conventional equipment only allows entry from one side. This provides greater flexibility of yard storage of materials.
In accordance with the invention, each individual drilling mast is a self-erecting, portable type such as those used for underground explosion experimentation or for underground mine personnel, material, and ventilation shafts require depths ranging up to 4500 feet. There has been no satisfactory way to handle the equipment required for such deep drilling of ultra-large diameter bore holes.
It is desirable to use rotary drilling techniques, however, boring four to ten foot shafts by rotary drilling techniques requires unusually heavy and unusually large equipment. Most of the prior art derrick structures capable of handling the loads involved do not have the drilling platform space for efiicient operation and. in addition have to be erected in sections and dismantled for each new drilling location. Dismantling, transporting individual sections, and erecting such large structures adds considerable time, sometimes as much as several days, to a normal drilling operation.
With the structure and handling methods of the present invention, rotary drilling techniques are applicable efiiciently to ultra-large diameter deep hole drilling and ultralarge diameter rotary drilling structures are made portable and self-erecting to the same degree as small diameter oil well rotary drilling equipment.
Part of the invention is a unique combination of a plurality of self-erecting, portable mast structure to function as a single drilling unit. Unobvious advantages stemming from this combination include multiplication of capacity and drilling platform space for handling large drilling equipment without loss of portability or selferecting features available with small diameter oil well drilling equipment.
described in US. Patent No. 3,141,653 or on pages 118 121 of the Petroleum Production Engineering book referenced earlier. Drilling mast 10 stands on legs 22 and 24 and gin poles 26 and 28. Drilling mast 12 stands on legs 30 and 32 and gin poles 34 and 36.
By use of one front raising mast and one reverse raising mast, or by use of two reverse raising masts, the derrick of the present invention is constructed by erecting each mast in final drilling position directly from transporting equipment. With two front raising masts, one mast is raised directly in final drilling position and the remaining mast is skidded into drilling position after raising.
Referring to FIGURES 1 and 2, rotary table 38 is centrally disposed, i.e. at or near a centrally located portion of a drilling platform, with drilling masts 10 and 12 on diametrically opposed sides of the table. Power drawworks 40 and 42 are located on the drilling platform beneath masts 10 and 12, respectively. In FIGURES 2 and 3 it will be noted that the drilling platform means 52 comprises a combination of sections 53 and 54 which ordinarily form the rig floor of individual masts 10 and 12, respectively.
As best seen in FIGURES 1 and 3, drilling platform means 52 is elevated with respect to foundation pad 55. The foundation pad 55 and substructure are set up to support the individual drilling masts 10 and 12 in the same horizontal plane. It is possible to use two masts of unequal height, and in such case the height of the substructure would be adjusted so that later described crossbeam means are level. Heightwise adjustment for the substructure can be provided by jacking means. For example, in FIGURE 3 sections 53 and 54 have adjustable jacking legs 59, 6t], 61 and 62. It is not necessary that the jacking means be integral with the substructure, as portable, heavy-duty jacks could also be used. In the event that two masts of unequal hei ht are used, the crossbeam means could be made level by proper modification of the crossbeam support means rather than by heightwise adjustment of the substructure. Proper positioning of individual masts 10 and 12 is important to proper functioning of the unitary derrick structure and will be considered more later.
The gin poles for drilling masts 10 and 12 are mounted in shoes 63, 64, 65 and 66 on drilling platform 52. Each gin pole is equipped with adjusting means. The gin pole adjusting means could be such as that shown in FIGURE 4, in which cylinder 70 is pivotally connected at pin 72 to gin pole shoe 63. Cylinder 74 is hydraulically operated and moves into and out of cylinder 70 to shorten or extend the length of the gin pole 28. Alternatively, the gin pole length might be adjusted by suitable threaded connections, or by other adjustment means.
In erecting a derrick, sections 53 and 54 are disposed to ensure that the vertical height of each drilling mast above the horizontal is the same. After masts 10 and 12 are substantially upright, the length of the gin poles is adjusted to ensure that the longitudinal axes of drilling masts 10 and 12 are vertical and parallel. Heightwise adjustment of the masts and gin pole length adjustment position the masts at the same elevation and in plumb. With proper positioning and interconnection methods and means described below, the separate masts interact and provide for uniform load distribution throughout the unitary derrick structure. Equal load distribution adds to the stability of the derrick and enables operation at full capacity without detrimental structural effects.
In accordance with the teachings of the invention, after drilling masts 10 and 12 are upright and positioned, they are cooperatively interconnected so as to bring about an additive relationship of their individual capacities. This is accomplished through crossbeam girders 75 and 76 which interconnect masts 10 and 12 near their upper vertical ends. Girders 75 and 76 are hoisted to the top of the masts by line 78 operating over off-center sheave 80 on mast 10 (see FIGURE and a similar lifting line 82 operating over the off-center sheave 84 on mast 12. The drawworks of each mast can be used to raise the girders. The girders are held in a substantially horizontal position and pinned to support means at the top of the masts. Such support means can include means for accurate final adjustment of the horizontal disposition of the crossbeams 75 and 76. Girders 75 and 76, as best seen in FIGURES 5 and 6, carry crown blocks 86 and 88 and guide sheaves 90 and 92. Traveling blocks 94 and 96 are suspended from the crown blocks 86, 88 and joined to function as a single traveling block by yoke 100. A single line 98 is operatively connected between drawworks 40, 42, crown blocks 86, 88 and traveling blocks 94, 96. In this way the capacities of drilling equipment of two separate rigs are combined to work as a single unit on heavy duty hook 101.
Large drill pipe, usually thirteen to fifteen inches in diameter, is required for ultra-large diameter bore hole drilling. A unitary pipe rack layout, capable of handling the large diameter drill pipe required, is provided by connecting rack beams 102 between masts and 12 and bracing cantilever beams 104 and 106 as shown in FIG- URE 6. In this way four pipe racks 108, 110, 112 and 114, as well as cross walks, are provided. The unitary pipe rack structure taught by the invention evenly distributes the large drill pipe load over the entire derrick structure.
In rigging the ultra-large diameter drilling structure of the present invention, a foundation is laid at the drilling site. Substructure for the individual drilling platforms is set up on the foundation so that the drilling platform sections for individual masts are disposed to ensure that the individual masts are at the same level of elevation. The derrick foundation or pad and the substructure provide the necessary horizontal disposition for the masts. Substructure jacking means are provided to supplement provisions made in rigging the foundation or to adjust for settling so that the drilling platform sections maintain the masts at the same elevation.
After the substructure is set up, the drilling masts are erected with their V-windows facing each other. The term V-windows refers, as is customary in the art, to the opening in the side of the mast through which drill pipe is pulled for racking, such opening is not limited to a V-shape in practice nor in the present invention. With the individual masts upright, the gin poles on one, or both of the masts as necessary, are adjusted in length to ensure that longitudinal axes of individual masts are plumb.
With the drilling masts in position, crossbeam means 75 and 76 are elevated to the tops of the masts and pinned to each mast to form a unitary derrick structure. The crown blocks, t'ravel blocks, and drawworks for each mast are interconnected as described earlier and the drilling masts are interconnected intermediate their lengths by pipe rack structure.
After a drilling operation is completed, the structure is dismantled in reverse order to that set forth above. Since each individual mast is self-erecting and portable the only additional rigging or dismantling time required is for interconnecting the masts to enable both drilling rigs to operate as a single unit. These provisions do not add materially to the time required for rigging the masts so that the efficiency of small diameter oil well drilling equipment is maintained while multiplying capacity and drilling platform space to enable drilling of six to ten foot and larger holes.
Under certain conditions, such as when drilling a shallow hole, or at the beginning of a deep hole operation, it may be desirable to operate the drilling rig of this invention in such a manner that only one of the pair of drawworks 40, 42 is utilized. To accomplish this, the yoke is removed, and hook 101 is connected directly to one of the blocks, for example traveling block 96. Traveling block 94 is then pulled up flush against girders 76 and 75, and secured thereto. In this manner, crown block 86 and traveling block 94 are effectively removed from the operation, and drawworks 42 alone can be operated to raise and lower traveling block 96. The same result can be accomplished by stringing the drilling line in a conventional manner from a single drawworks to a single crown block and traveling block.
Modifications can be made in the specific embodiment described and methods set forth without departing from the basic teachings of the invention; therefore, it is understood that the scope of the invention is to be determined from the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. Structure for subterranean rotary drilling of ultralarge diameter bore holes comprising 'drilling substructure means including drilling platform means disposed above ground level,
drilling table means centrally located on the drilling platform means,
two portable, self-erecting drilling masts positioned on the drilling platform means with their V-window openings facing each other on diametrically opposite sides of the drilling table,
drawworks positioned on the drilling platform means beneath each drilling mast, gin pole means for each drilling mast including means for adjusting the upright position of at least one of the drilling masts to dispose longitudinal axes of the drilling masts in vertical, parallel relationship,
crossbeam means interconnecting the drilling masts and supported by the drilling mast near the upper vertical ends of the drilling masts,
means for positioning the crossbeam means horizontally,
a crown block for each drilling mast,
a traveling block for each drilling mast,
a single continuous line operative between the draw- 'works, crown block and traveling block of each drilling mast, "and yoke means extending substantially horizontally between and interconnecting the traveling block from each mast presenting eyelet means for reception of hook means to be raised and lowered by operation of the single continuous line extending over the 'drawworks, crown block and traveling block of each drilling mast.
2. The structure of claim 1 further including pipe rack means positioned above the drilling platform means and below the crossbeam means, the pipe rack means including support structure extending between and interconnecting the two upright drilling masts.
-3. Structure for subterranean rotary drilling of ultralarge diameter bore holes comprising drilling platform means,
two portable, self-erecting drilling masts positioned on the drilling platform means,
drawworks associated with each drilling mast,
crossbeam means interconnecting the drilling masts near the upper ends of the drilling masts,
a crown block means for each drilling mast mounted on the crossbeam means,
a traveling block means for each drilling mast, and
a single continuous line operative between the draw- Works, crown block and traveling block of each drilling mast.
4. The structure of claim 3 further including pipe rack means positioned above the drilling platform means and below the crossbeam means, the pipe rack means including support structure extending between and interconnecting the two upright drilling masts.
5. The structure of claim 3 further including yoke means extending substantially horizontally between and interconnecting the traveling block from each mast, said yoke including means for attaching to a hook means to be raised and lowered by operation of the single continuous line.
6. The structure of claim 3 further including means for adjusting the upright position of at least one of the drilling masts to dispose longitudinal axes of the drilling masts in vertical, parallel relationship.
7. Rigging method for ultra-large hole drilling comprising the steps of positioning drilling substructure including a pair of drilling platform sections, each capable of supporting a drilling mast and associated drawworks, the drilling platform sections being positioned in side-byside relationship to support each mast at substantially the same elevation,
erecting a self-erecting drilling mast on each drilling platform section with the V-window of each drilling mast facing the other on diametrically opposite sides of a drilling table which is centrally located between the masts,
adjusting the position of the longitudinal axis of at least one of the drilling masts to align longitudinal axes of the drilling masts in parallel vertical relationship,
lifting crossbeam means to a level near the upper vertical ends of the masts,
positioning the crossbeam means to extend horizontally between the masts,
connecting the crossbeam means to the masts so as to be supported substantially equally by both masts near their upper vertical ends,
supporting a pair of crown blocks on the crossbeam means extending between the masts,
joining a pair of traveling blocks so as to function as a single lift means, and
stringing a single continuous line to operate between the pair of drawworks, the pair of crown blocks, and the pair of traveling blocks.
'8. Structure for subterranean rotary drilling of large diameter bore holes comprising derrick substructure including horizontally disposed drilling platform means,
two portable drilling masts positioned on the drilling platform means with their respective V-window openings facing each other,
a drilling table disposed on the' drilling platform and between the two portable masts,
crossbeam means interconnecing the drilling masts and supported by the drilling masts near the upper vertical ends of the drilling masts,
drawworks positioned on the drilling platform,
crown block means supported by the crossbeam means,
traveling block means,
and a drill line interconnecting the drawworks, crown block means and traveling block means.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,494,324 5/1924 Owen 17585 2,322,150 6/1943 Lewis 52 1l7 2,421,913 6fil947 Stoddard 52l17 2,963,123 12/1960 Woolslayer et al. 52 2,991,852 7/1961 'Lee 52-120 X 3,141,653 7/1964 Jenkins e 254- 139 CHARLES OCONNELL, Primary Examiner. RICHARD E. FAVREAU, Assistant Examiner.