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Publication numberUS336773 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 23, 1886
Filing dateAug 5, 1885
Publication numberUS 336773 A, US 336773A, US-A-336773, US336773 A, US336773A
InventorsLeopold Weil
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Leopold weil
US 336773 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Model.)



Patented Feb. 23, 1886.




SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 336,713. dated February 23,1886,

.To aZZ whom it mag concern Be it known that I, 'LEoPoLD WEIL, a cit-izen of the United States, residing in New York city, in the county of New "York and State of ally resulting from the bursting of pipes, stoppage of the drain, negligence, and sometimes from other causes. The damage caused by these overflows of water is a very serious matter, particularly in large cities, frequently,

causing a loss of many thousand dollars and involving business concerns in expensive litigation. I therefore seek by this invention'to prevent heavy loss from water-flows by the use of an electric alarm system so arranged that any leakage of water over a given surfacewill automatically sound an alarm and thus give warning of the undesirable presence of water before any material damage can be done.

To this end my invention consists in means for detecting the undesirable presence of water in a structure, comprising electric con-. ductors arranged in open circuit, and including a suitable alarm, which conductors are separated from one another by a material which will absorb water, and, when so moistened, will serve as a conductor between-:the aforementioned conductors toclose the circuitsand render it operative to sound the alarm, as hereinafter particularly set forth and claimed.

My invention also includes the details of construction, all as hereinafter particularly set forth and claimed.

In the accompanying drawings, in the several figures of which like parts are designated As shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the surface to' be guarded against overflows of water is cov-.

cred with a protecting material, A, which 7 Application filed August 5,1285. Sam... 173,614. (No me.)

' consists of two continuous lines of conductors,

ad, which may be strips of tin-foil carried back-and forth over the area to be guarded and separated from each other by an insulator, b, composed of some porous or bibnlous material.

k k designate wires connected tothe insulated conductors aa,and extending thence to a battery, 0, and relay d, which is in connection with a battery, 0, and'alarm-bell f." Now it will-be noticed that the insulating material between the conductors a a breaks the circuit, and that to complete the circuit contact must be made between the conductors a a or the insulating material converted into a con-' ductor.

As before stated, the insulatorjs composed of porous or bibulous material, and hence it follows that if the insulator is made wet by the dripping of water it willbe instantly converted into a conductor, thus completing the relaytcircuit'and depressing the armature of the relay-magnet, so'as tothrow the alarmbell into circuit and cause it to ring and give notice of the undesirable presence of water.

The protecting material can be applied to the ceilings or other portions of buildings, covering any desired area of surface, and in this way and at small expense damage from overflows of water can be limited to aninconsiderable amount, and in many cases absolutely prevented. f v

In order to provide a convenient way of testing the protecting material, I have shown wires 1 I, connected to the opposite extremities of the conductors a a, and extending to the key g. By depressing this key the relaycircuit will be closed and the alarm-bell caused to ring, if all is in adjustment and good condition.

In the modification of my invention shown in Figs. 3 and 4 the conductor a is carried back and forth, interlacingwith the conductor a, whi h latter is surrounded by a porous iu-j sulating material, b.

The terminals k k are connected, as hereinabove described, with an electricalarm'system, and the operation-is the same -that is to say, if by the escape of water the insulator becomes moistened, the circuit will be closed between the two conductors a a, and the alarm will be sounded.

11 when desired,-the two conductors may be made. of difl'erent metals-for instance, coppe'r'fand 'zinc'audthe insulating material may beimp ated with ;somesalt,*wh'ich, when dissolv in water, will act is an elec- 'tri .excitaut, Thus, if the insulator becomes moistened,the salt will dissolve and the combination constitute a battery,;acting upon I e the relay-magnet without the intervention of an external battery;- or,.if desired,v when both so conductors. are of the same metal, I-. --may impregnate the insulating material with-a salt,

" which, dissolving, in the water, will-increase the conductivity "of the insulating material,

and establish a circuit of less resistance, so as l 7 :5 te'act'more strongly upon the'rela'y-magnet.

--; For greater safety, all'the bnildingqw'ithln certain llmits',which are protected b eiuy'sys-- -tem may/be connected with a centra station,

so that if a water-overflow occurs at night- 3 in an unoccupied building, for instance-the.

- alarm will be'sounded at the station-andbe- I promptly responded-to.

1 It is also obvious that thebelloi: other M tric iilarlu may be placediu any part of a I 35, building-doiinstance, in the janitors room-,-

- or, in cases where a janitor is not employed the alarm may be placed outside of the-building, where it can lie-heard by a watchman. i

" What I claim as my invention, and desire A 0 to'secure by Letters Patent. is-,-'

1. Means for detecting the undesirablepresence of water in a structure, 'consisting' of electric conductors arranged in open circuit,

7 including an alarm, and separatedifroni'one .electriceonductms conn t 4; The combination, with the another by a water which, when 5 wet,serves tcestabllsh an electric. current in said conductors, and th'erebfsound the alarm, 4 sul stantiall-yas described I 2. In means for presence of water in astructure, a series of 50 tooppositepoles ot-a euerator and ,inopencircuit, and including aualari'n, combined with an normallydnsulating msterisl-renwater to bring the conductors into electric contact. and thereby make a circuit and sound the alarm, substantiallyasdescribed; H

I material for detecting aqueous leaks in consisting of the 6c 3; The "iprotecting electric conductors ac, connected to theop- ,posite poles of a generator and arranged in open circuit, and includingan alarm, and per one or bibulou's insulating man/t,

rating the said conductors, the said insulat-r'c ing material imp. nated with some salt or other "substance, w ich, when di880lYd,1ill'- terial; substantially'as described.

d nctcrs c n and porous or bibulous insulator b, separating the same,'a battery, 0:, relay d, I

alari'n'f, batterv e, and w'ires'k k', for connecting the whole In circuit, substantially de scribed.

' 5. The electric] conductor a, interwoven with the insulated conductor a, connected in circuit with an alarm, which circuit is render'edoperativeby' the insulation of conductor a abscrbiug water, and thereby mafii n con 80 tact between the conductors a and a ,-substantially asdescribed. a I y In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 24th day of July, 'A. D. 18851 LEOPOLD-WEIL. Witnesses: f

r *IsA-Ae WEI-L,

detecting an undesirable electrically conductive by absorption of 5';

creases-the conductivity of theinsulating ma lectric con- I

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2617972 *Sep 28, 1949Nov 11, 1952Hugh G NutterAutomatic rain-responsive top and window lifting system
US2681571 *Mar 15, 1949Jun 22, 1954Gen ElectricElectrical moisture indicator
US2726294 *Jan 30, 1951Dec 6, 1955Health Guardian CorpDevices for giving an alarm upon bed wetting
US2759175 *Mar 12, 1954Aug 14, 1956Spalding Thomas RLeak detector for pipe joint
US3249913 *May 8, 1963May 3, 1966Canada Nat Res CouncilUltrasonic underwater sound generator
US3424977 *May 4, 1966Jan 28, 1969Human Resources FoundationCapacitive device responsive to water vapor content of a gas including insulated conductive wire electrodes forming a grid
US3447152 *Aug 30, 1965May 27, 1969Jensen John LFire and smoke alarm device
US4858063 *Dec 31, 1987Aug 15, 1989California Institute Of TechnologySpiral configuration of electrodes and dielectric material for sensing an environmental property
US5091715 *Feb 1, 1991Feb 25, 1992Murphy Anthony JLeak detection and alarm system
Cooperative ClassificationY10S200/30, A61F13/42