US 3368567 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 3,368,567 METHOD OF PRODUCING A TABLET CON- TAINING A TOBACCO CONCENTRATE Ralph W. Speer, Memphis, Tenn., assignor to Morton Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Memphis, Tenn., a corporation of Tennessee No Drawing. Filed Mar. 23, 1965, Ser. No. 442,200
2 Claims. (Cl. 131-143) This invention relates in general to a method for producing a tablet incorporating a tobacco concentrate and which is intended to be located in the mouth of the user.
In View of recent medical findings, the use of tobacco, primarily in the form of cigarettes, has been considered of grave potential harm to smokers. Since smoking is habit forming, it is most dilficult for individuals who have enjoyed this habit over an extensive period of time to etfectively and permanently discontinue such habit, with the result that many individuals, after a temporary period of abstention, resume smoking. Various expedients have been suggested to assist smokers in Withdrawing from the smoking habit, which expedients would at least provide some oral satisfaction, such as, particularly, chewing gum. However, such expedients have not proved satisfying and many smokers will merely place an unlighted cigarette in their mouth to obtain a tobacco taste which might also be obtained through chewing tobacco. However, the former, obviously, does not provide the desired taste sensation, much less physiological reaction associated with smoking and the latter is not consonant with most business and social situations.
Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide, preferably in tablet form, a tobacco concentrate preparation which is for buccal and sublingual usage; which preparation contains nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids in soluble form so that the user may obtain therefrom a physiological response associated with smok- 1ng.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a tobacco concentrate preparation which is devoid of some of the various resins and tars formed during the combustion of the leaf tobacco and which are deemed to contain the agents harmful to smokers so that the use of the said preparation does not involve some of the risks encountered in smoking.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a tobacco concentrate preparation for oral usage and which contains a true tobacco flavor but without the pungency and acridity encountered in tobacco smoke.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide a method for producing a tobacco concentrate which is amenable to economic, high volume production with quality maintenance.
With the above noted objects, my invention resides in the novel method presently described in the following specification and pointed out in the claims.
In essence, the present invention contemplates the production of a tabletized tobacco concentrate preparation containing the active ingredients of tobacco, primarily the alkaloidal material which contains nicotine, and an edible carrier, such a dextrose, sucrose, lactose, or the like with the carrier constituting the major portion by weight of the tablet. The method for producing such preparation fundamentally comprises the subjection of ground leaf tobacco to a solubilizing agent for forming water-soluble salts of the alkaloids, separating the same from the residue containing tar producing materials, resins, and the like material, then impregnating the carrier material in granulated form with the alkaloid salts for tabletizing subsequent to driving action.
3,368,567 Patented Feb. 13, 1968 The physiological active ingredients of tobacco are thought to consist of alkaloids which may range from 2 percent to 8 percent of the whole tobacco. However, generally in the tobacco normally used for cigarette production, the content is about 4 percent. Nicotine constitutes one of the primary components of the alkaloidal group. The remainder of the tobacco consists of a multiplicity of organic components which do not materially conduce to the above mentioned physiological response obtained by the smoker. Such other materials do comprehend ingredients which have been considered as potentially extremely harmful agents to humans, such as particularly the tar producing materials and resins. In the present invention the alkaloids are extracted from the Whole tobacco, that is, separated from the other agents and are then applied to a suitable vehicle for human usage to provide the user with both the physiological reaction as well as the taste of tobacco. As will be developed more fully hereinbelow, the preparation of this invention embodies varying concentrations of the extract, alkaloidal, material so that a desired strength of tobacco may be presented. It has been found that some individuals are quite sensitive to tobacco alkaloids and a relatively small amount is sufficient to promote a particular re sponse; whereas, others can tolerate greater concentrations. The present invention is adapted for production to accommodate the multiplicity of choice of tobacco strength.
It has been established that tablets, lozenges, and the like formed in accordance with this invention do not cause staining of the teeth or gums, nor cause the imparting of breath odors, while the taste is of a substantially pure tobacco character, being devoid of the pungency and acridity encountered in tobacco smoking. The tobacco cencentrate tablets are preferably used sublingually being allowed to dissolve slowly in the mouth for absorption by the mucous membranes for entry into the blood stream to bring about the customary response. It is, of course, apparent that such tablets may be chewed, but by doing so the particular response may be lost.
Tablets produced in accordance with this invention may be of any suitable size and weight, but it has been found that a weight of about 650 milligrams is preferable, corresponding to a generally accepted tablet size and contain between to 99 /2 percent by weight of an inert, edible filler, or excipient base which may be of any well-known material such as the sugars, i.e., dextrose, sucrose, and lactose; salts, i.e., sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium sulphate; and starches, and cellulose bases such as methyl cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose, etc.; the other ingredient, being the active principles in tobacco, namely, the alkaloids in water soluble form, constituting between one half and 10 percent by weight, of the tablet. It will be observed hereinbelow that the relationship of filler to active tobacco principles will be determined by choice, as the relative concentration of the alkaloids will be dictated by the desired strength.
It has been determined that a content of less than one half percent by weight of the alkaloids provides a substantially undetectable physiological response, while a content greater than 10 percent by weight has proved to be of such strength as to be unacceptable. In order to prepare tablets of the type hereinabove described, a quan- 'ty of leaf tobacco, which, for purposes of illustration only, may be in the amount of 55 pounds, is subjected to the customary tobacco drying procedure, and is then ground or comminuted into fine particles approximating a dust to present maximum surface for the ensuing extraction procedure. The ground tobacco is then steeped in water sufficient for extraction of the alkaloids. With 55 pounds of tobacco, it has been discovered that 10 gallons of water is adequate for this. The water conduces to the solubilizing of the alkaloids and to promote the extraction. Concentrated mineral acid is added such as sulphuric acid which, with 55 pounds of tobacco, may be approximately one pound. The acid reacts with the alkaloids which are basic in character to form complex watersoluble sulphates for separation from the whole tobacco. To promote the extraction process, the water is subjected to high speed agitation, while the finely ground tobacco is blended thereinto, with the agitation being continued as the mineral acid is added. Subsequent to the addition of the acid, the mixture is heated to a temperature of between 190 degrees to 200 degrees F. for a period of about eight hours. The heat and the agitation considerably accelerate the process for forming the desired water soluble alkaloidal salts. Upon termination of the heating operation, the mixture resembles a slurry which is allowed to cool and settle for a limited period of time, such as overnight. Then the cooled, slurry is pressure filtered for withdrawal of the mother liquor which contains the alkaloidal salts; the residue being comprised of the tars, resins, other aniline materials, as well as cellulosic compounds, fibrous matter, and the like. To the filtrate is added suflicient alkali to neutralize any excess mineral acid. Ammonia, caustic soda, potassium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and similar inorganic bases may be utilized for forming salts with the excess sulphuric acid, as in this case. The addition of the alkali will tend to adjust the pH of the mixture to substantial neutrality as between 6 and 8. The mixture will contain the alkaloids either in the form of soluble salts or in natural form, depending upon the degree of neutralization of the extract.
The filtrate, which contains the now water soluble alkaloids is applied upon granulated, edible excipient bases presented, as on trays, for absorption thereby. The excipient bases are of any suitable, inert material such as sugars, i.e., dextrose, sucrose, and lactose; salts, i.e., sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium sulphate; and starches, and cellulose bases such as methyl cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose, etc., cellulose base materials, gums such as gum arabic, and other well-known vehicles of this type. The granulated vehicular materials with the applied filtrate is then allowed to dry at a relatively low heat not to exceed 110 degrees P. so that the drying process is gradually but thoroughly accomplished without any undesired charring or heat degradation of the materials. The amount of excipient base provided for receiving the filtrate will be determined by the intended proportion of such base in the ultimate tablet. Generally speaking, the quantity of base will be in the nature of 300 to 400 pounds for the initial 55 pounds of tobacco; but with the reservation that such amount will be related to the concen tration of the alkaloid salts.
Subsequent to drying, a conventional lubricant is applied to the mixture of the excipient bases and the alkaloid salts, and then the mass is compressed into tablet form in accordance with recognized tableting techniques.
It is understood that, if desired, additional flavoring may be supplied, such as menthol, mint, licorice, etc.
The tablets or lozenges as thus formed are ready for human usage and, as indicated above, are free of some of the disadvantages encountered when smoking yet capable of supplying the tobacco craving of individuals who prefer to discontinue smoking.
It should be evident from the foregoing that mineral acids, other than sulphuric, are adapted for the alkaloid extraction process, such as hydrochloric, as well as various organic acids, among which may be acetic, lactic and the like. In practice, sulphuric acid has proved to be highly efficient. Additionally, the extraction process may be effected in a water-alcohol phase rather than merely a water phase, with the proportion ranging up to equal amounts of water and alcohol. The lower molecular alcohols have proved quite effective in this connection.
in order to hasten the extraction process, the same may be brought about in a closed system under pressure, or
additional heat may be used with an open vessel. It is even possible to effect extraction by subjecting the mixture to agitation alone under atmospheric conditions, but it will be appreciated that such a process is indeed lengthy and not conducive to high volume, high speed production. The desired conditions for extraction are those which will promote same most rapidly and most thoroughly, and the conditions hereinabove set forth in the example have been of demonstrated efficacy.
As mentioned hereinabove, the alkaloid content of leaf tobacco is normally in the range of about 2 percent to 8 percent, with 4 percent being the most widely encountered. Generally speaking, the nicotinic content is considered coextensive with the alkaloid content. After the mother liquor has been separated from the slurry mixture, it is preferable to assay same to determine the nicotine or alkaloid content in order to evaluate the extent of the extract. The nicotine alkaloid content of the extract is chemically evaluated and compared, with that of the starting tobacco. Sufiicient quantity of the extract is used to make a finished tablet having a nicotine alkaloid content to be equivalent to not less than 10 percent and not more than 70 percent of whole tobacco equivalent. For example, if the analysis of the extract of a tobacco having nicotine content of 4 percent demonstrates a concentration of nicotine of 2 percent, that is 2 pounds of nicotine per 100 pounds of extract, and it was desired to have the resulting tablets incorporate a whole tobacco equivalent of 20 percent, 40 pounds of the extract would be applied to the vehicle so that for each 99.2 pounds of vehicle, .8 pound of nicotine would be mixed therewith to make 100 pounds. Accordingly, if a single tablet has a weight of 650 milligrams, and the whole tobacco equivalent was 20 percent, then the nicotine content of the tablet would approximate S milligrams per tablet. This amount would compare favorably with the customary 3 /2 milligrams of nicotine in the average cigarette. In accordance with the foregoing, it is apparent that the nicotine content of the finished tablet may be easily adjusted in accordance with laboratory practice to provide the desired strength.
In view of the foregoing, a range of between 1 milligram and approximately 15 milligrams of nicotine can be easily incorporated in a tablet and set the preferred limits for normal usage.
Additionally, another factor to be considered is the amount of edible filler to be used within a given concentration of the active principles of tobacco or alkaloids. It has been found that in the tablet of the present invention there should be no less than percent by weight of filler and with the upper limit being 99.50 percent by weight thereof. Correspondingly, the tobacco concentrate or alkaloid content would range from a low of .50 percent to 10 percent.
In view of the foregoing, it will be seen that the present invention provides a tabletized tobacco concentrate which may be produced in an economic manner designed for high volume production, involving an extraction and a concentration with an acid medium and which allows for producing tablets of desired whole tobacco equivalent so that individual tastes may be accommodated.
The disclosed preparation, it is believed, avoids the dangers believed to be encountered during the inhalation of smoke resulting from the chemical degradation of whole natural tobacco. The incorporated concentrated alkaloids provide the desired physiological response without the necessity of the said smoke inhalation.
It should be understood that changes in the methods, compositions, percentages, and combinations set forth may be made without departing from the nature and principle of my invention.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A. method of producing a tobacco concentrate comprising providing finely comminuted dried leaf tobacco, subjecting the dried tobacco to an aqueous phase and to an absorbent, inert, edible base, to the extent that it constitutes less than 10% of the said base, permitting the liquid to dry, and then compressing the resultant material into tablet form.
2. A method of producing a tobacco concentrate which comprises providing a finely ground, dry leaf tobacco, subjecting the dried tobacco to alcohol-aqueous phase and concentrated mineral acid, subjecting the mixture to agitation and heat within the range of 190 degrees F. to 200 degrees F. for a period of approximately 8 hours, neutralizing the excess acid in the mixture, subjecting the mixture to pressure filtering, applying the filtrate to an absorbent, inert, edible base, to the extent that it constitutes less than 10% of the said base, permitting the mixture of the filtrate and base to dry, adding lubricant to such mixture and then compressing the said filtrate, base and lubricant into tablet form.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 639,365 12/1899 Dudley 1311 790,138 5/1905 Koelliker 131-143 X 802,487 10/1905 Wimmer 131-143 2,576,021 11/1951 Koree 131-2 2,033,495 3/1936 Taylor et al. 167-53 3,067,068 12/1962 Finberg 131-2 3,120,233 2/1964 Battista et al. 131-143 X 3,145,717 8/1964 Osborne et al. 131-143 X 3,166,078 1/1965 Parmele et al. 131-5 3,255,760 6/1966 Selke 1318 SAMUEL KOREN, Primary Examiner.
MELVIN D. REIN, Examiner.