US 3368632 A
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Feb. 13, 1968 J, L; 3,368,632
FILE DRIVER AND EXTRACTOR Filed March 18, 1966 2 Sheets-Shet 1 44 70 74 Hf/Emma.
JEAN L. LEBELLE ATTORNEYS J. L. LEBELLE FILE DRIVER AND EXTRACTOR Feb. 13, 1968 Filed March 18, 1966 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 "fly/VA rail/144A um vi FIG. 4
I INVENTOR. JEAN L- LEBELLE ATTORNEYS United States Patent 3,368,632 PILE DRIVER AND EXTRACTQR Jean L. Lehelle, 35 Rue Gounod, Saint-Cloud, Seine-et-Gise, France Filed Mar. 18, 1966, Ser. No. 535,479 Claims priority, application France, June 4, 1965,
19,671, Patent 1,445,736 14 Claims. ((31. 173-49) The present invention relates to an apparatus which utilizes a uniaxial vibratory force to materially reduce the effort required to drive piling into soil and to extract piling from soil. The apparatus is elfective in various soils such as in non-cohesive soils like sand, silt and gravel, in water-saturated adhesive soils, in mixed soils and in other soils. The term piling as used herein means all types of elongated structural elements which are commonly driven into soil, both on dry land and on land which is submerged below water. Included in this term are stakes, posts, steel sheet piling, H-bearing piling, pipe bearing piling, timber and concrete piling and pipes. It further includes both hollow structural elements which are driven into the ground and into which are later poured concrete or sand, as well as solid structural elements. The term uniaxial force as used herein means a cyclically reversing force exerted along one axis.
Apparatus of this type includes at least one pair of like eccentric weights mounted to revolve in opposite rotational directions at the same angular velocity and further arranged so that the vertical components of their centrifugal forces are added, while the horizontal components of such forces cancel themselves. By the term vertical is meant a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the structural element being driven, since the piling acted upon by the present apparatus may be driven both vertically with respect to the earth into the soil as well as at an angle into the soil.
The eccentric weights are conventionally housed in a casing and are located directly on the respective shafts of two driving motors, or are drivingly connected with the motors by transmissions, or are mounted on two shafts both of which are driven by a single motor. The motors may be located inside or outside of the casing.
In the known apparatuses of this type, the piling intended to be driven into the soil is temporarily rigidly secured to the lower part of the casing by fastening means such as bolts or wedges, or by hydraulically operated jaws, the jaws being attached to a cap fixed, for example, to the lower part of the casing. The first mentioned type of arrangement for fastening the piling to the vibratory apparatus requires a great expenditure of time and effort for connection to the piling, while the second type requires parts of large size and is cumbersome. These shortcomings are extremely disadvantageous and in the past have prevented unrestrained utilization of vibratory action pile drivers.
The present invention discloses a novel apparatus free of these mentioned shortcomings.
It is the primary object of this invention to provide a uniaxial vibratory apparatus for reducing the effort re quired to drive or extract piling, which apparatus includes a pair of pivotally interconnected supports, eccentric weights mounted on the supports, motor means for rotating the eccentrics, a pair of jaws, each jaw being fixed to a different support, and power means for forcefully moving the supports toward and away from one another so that the jaws can, acting as a pair of pincers, close on and rigidly grip therebetween the piling which is to be driven or extracted.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus of the character described wherein the jaws are so configured and located that the apparatus can drive or extract piling close to other piling or structure in the immediate area.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an apparatus of the character described having but few parts, which is rugged and suitable for field use and which is designed for expeditious use on all types of piling in all types of field situations.
Other objects of the invention in part will be obvious and in part will become apparent to the reader in the following description.
The present invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements and arrangements of parts which will be exemplified in the pile driver apparatus hereinafter described and of which the scope of application will be indicated in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings in which is shown one embodiment of the invention,
FIG. 1 is a rear three-quartered perspective view of an apparatus, according to this invention, that utilizes a uniaxial vibratory force to reduce the effort required for driving and extracting piling, the apparatus being suspended from a sling and gripping a pile between its jaws;
FIG. 2 is a top plan, partially broken-away, view of the apparatus;
FIG. 3 is a front, partially broken-away, view taken substantially along the line 33 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary enlarged cross-sectional View taken substantially along the line 44 of FIG. 3; and
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary still further enlarged crosssectional view taken substantially along the line 55 of FIG. 4.
In accordance with the present invention there is provided an apparatus of the character described which includes a pair of supports that are pivotally interconnected. The upper end of the apparatus has provision for connection to a sling which hangs from a crane or the like.
Each support is in the form of a shell and each support houses a portion of the other components of the apparatus. The apparatus includes a pair of shafts and each shaft is rotatably mounted in a different one of the shells. The axes of the shafts are parallel and lie in a common plane generally perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the piling which is to be driven or extracted. Said axes are parallel to the pivotal axis of the supports and the latter preferably is in or adjacent the aforesaid plane. A set of eccentric weights are carried within the apparatus and are fixed to the shafts for common rotation therewith. The shafts are rotated in opposite directions at the same angular velocity and the angular positions of the rotating eccentric weights are phased in a well-known fashion to exert a uniaxial force in a direction along the longitudinal axis of the piling.
Motor means is provided to drive the shafts and the weights in the directions and at the velocities mentioned. A gear train interconnects the shafts for synchronous opposed rotation in the aforesaid phase relationship.
The apparatus further includes a pair of jaws for gripping the upper end of the piling which is to be acted upon. Each jaw is attached to a lower portion of a different suptheir pivotal axis the jaws move toward or away from one port and is so located that when the supports rock about.
another. Means is provided to selectively rock the supports in opposite directions under pressure so that said jaws are powered in their movement toward one another. Said means comprises a fluid-operable piston and cylinder assembly, the piston being attached to one of the supports and the cylinder being attached to the other of the supports. Preferably the jaws are located on the apparatus at one side of the pivotal axis while the powered moving means is located on the other side of said axis so that each of the supports acts as a first class lever and the supports jointly with one another and with the jaws function as pincer-s. Accordingly, when fluid under pressure is inserted into the chamber of said assembly, the jaws are moved under pressure toward one another and will consequently grip an end of a pile therebetween.
Means is further provided to urge the jaws away from one another, said means comprising, for example, a helical spring having each of its ends attached to a different support. When the fluid-operable assembly moves the gripping portions of the supports toward one another, said spring is stressed and, accordingly, when the fluid pressure is relieved, the spring moves the jaws apart thereby to release the piling.
Refcrring now in detail to the drawings, the reference numeral denotes an apparatus embodying my invention. The apparatus includes a pair of supports 12, 14, each of the support members being similar in construction and each housing a portion of the remaining components of the present apparatus. Eoch support member constitutes a hollow three-sided shell and each has, respectively, a front wall 16, 18, an outward side wall 20, 22 and a rear wall 24, 26. The shells are preferably made from steel.
Each of the supports is vertically elongated and each includes a pair of aligned apertures 28 in upper portions of its front and rear walls through which the bight of a cable sling 38, or a hook, may pass so as to support the apparatus. Desirably, the sling 3% is suspended from a crane or the like which can swing its boom to locate the apparatus where desired. The shells 12, 14 are, in the main, symmetrical with respect to one another along the X-X plane shown in FIG. 3. The XX plane is parallel to and usually coincident with the central longitudinal axis of piling upon which the apparatus acts.
Since the construction of each of the shells including the components therein is essentially similar, only the shell 12 will be fully described. A pair of shafts 32 are located within the apparatus 19. Each shaft is mounted for rotation transversely within a different shell, the shaft 32 being located within the shell 12. The shaft 32 is journalled in bearings 34 adjacent each end of the shaft. The axes of rotation of the shafts are parallel and said axes lie in a plane perpendicular to the XX plane.
A different motor means drives each of the shafts. Said means desirably comprises an electric motor 36 each mounted within a different shell. The motor is located centrally in the shell 12 and has its rotor 33 fast on a central portion of said shaft and its stator ll? fixed to the interior of the shell. The motors can be conventional E-phase electrical motors. A terminal box 42 is secured to each of the shells to facilitate electrical connection to the motors. A cap 44 closes each end of each motor. Optionally, the motors may be of the hydraulic, steam or compressed air type.
A set of four eccentric weights is provided within the apparatus and each shaft 32 carries two of these weights. The shaft 32 in the shell 12 has fixed thereon at one end an eccentric weight 46 and at its other end another eccentric weight 43. The axes of symmetry of the eccentric weights on each shaft are in identical angular position with respect to that shaft, and the eccentric weights are mounted on one shaft in an angular position that is a mirror image of the angular position of the weights mounted on the other shaft, this being as shown in U.S. Letters Patent No. 2,743,585 granted May 1, 1956. The weights are identical.
Means pivotally interconnects the supports for limited relative rocking movement about a compound axis parallel to the axes of the shafts 32. Said interconnecting means includes a pair of yoke arm sets. The yoke arm set 50 is secured to the shell 12 and the yoke arm set 52 is secured to the shell 14. Each of the yoke arms has a transverse through bore in which is located a pivot pin, a pivot pin 54 being located in the arms 59 and a pivot pin 56 being located in the arms 52. Short tie links 58, 6t snugly fitted between adjacent pairs of yoke arms and bridging the sets of yoke arms interconnect the pivot pins 54, 5t: and are rotatably mounted on each of the pins. Said rotat-able mounting of the links permits the shells to pivot with respect to one another about axes longitudinal of each of the pins and about a compound axis parallel to the axes of said pins and parallel to and between the axes of rotation of the shafts 32. Said pivotal interconnecting means permits the upper and lower ends of each shell to move closer or further away from the other affiliated ends on the other shell and, since said means is located between the ends of the shells, the shells are mounted with respect to one another to individually act as first class levers and jointly as a pair of pincers. A set of knuckles at, at least one on each shell, assures alignment of the shells as they rock.
A gear train generally designated by the reference numeral 62 interconnects the shafts for rotation in opposite directions at the same angular velocity. To this end, the eccentric weights 4% are formed as integral parts of spur gears at, both of said spur gears (one on each shaft 32) being of the same diameter and having the same number of teeth. Each of the pivot pins 54, 56 has a pinion gear 66, 68 mounted for free rotation on hearings on its end adjacent the eccentric weights 48. The pinion gears are of the same diameter as one another and have the same number of teeth. Each spur gear 64 mates with the adjacent pinion gears 66, 63 and the pinion gears mate with one another. Accordingly, rotation of the shafts 32 at the same angular velocity but in opposite direction is assured. It will be seen that the pinion gears are idler synchronizing gears and that an even number thereof is needed to have the spur gears and, therefore, the shafts 32, counterrotate. Hence, as a matter of good design, the shells are interconnected by a compound rocking axis rather than a single rocking axis so that each synchronizing gear may turn about a different individual axis of the compound axis.
The gear train 62 is disposed in a lubricating bath, the cavity for which is defined in part by adjacent hollow portions 7%), '72 formed by internal and external walls of the shells 12, 14. Each hollow portion is closed except for one open side, said sides of the portions facing one another and being slightly spaced apart (see FIG. 4). An annular strip '74 formed from an imperforate flexible material, e.g. synthetic rubber, bridges the gap between the portions 70, 72 so as to seal the lubricating medium, e.g. oil or grease, therein. The material of the strip can be compressed or elongated in a direction perpendicular to the vertical so as to yield or flex when the support members 12, 14 rock on their pivotal axes. Optionally, the strip may be pleated to enable it to expand more readily. The strip 74 is retained in place by being seated in annular grooves on the facing edges of each of the portions 7% "72.
A pair of gripping jaws 76, 78 is located on the lower end of the apparatus, each jaw being mounted on the lower end of a different support 12, 14 and said jaws are at the same radius from the pivotal axes of the supports. The jaws are centered about the X X plane so as to be able to rigidly grip piling which is located therebetween. When the supports rock about their pivotal axes, the jaws 76, '78 will move either toward or away from one another.
Each of the jaws desirably is independently swiveledly mounted on its support so that it can adjust itself to the configuration of the face of the piling which is rigidly engaged. To this end, each of the jaws has a gripping face 80 shaped to match a face of an end of a length of piling; each jaw also has a spherical back face 82. Said spherical back face rests against a spherical seat at the inner end of a horizontal bore 84. A spring assembly 86 fixed on one end to the shell and on the other end to the rear of the jaw biases the jaw against said spherical seat. When the gripping face 80 of a jaw contacts the surface of the piling, the spherical back face will swivel on the seat until the gripping face of the jaw is mated with a surface of the piling. The swiveling action of the jaws eflects a matching orientation on the piling acted upon by the apparatus.
Means is provided to move the jaws toward one another under power and to rigidly grip a length of piling therebetween. Said means comprises a piston and cylinder assembly 88 which is fluid operable and is located on the side of the compound axis opposite to the jaws. Said assembly includes a piston 90 having a piston rod 92 with an end rotatably mounted on a transverse shaft 94 fixed to the support 14. The piston 90 is slidable within a cylinder 96 and the face of the piston and the end wall of the cylinder form a chamber. Said cylinder has its end distant from the piston rod 92 rotatably mounted on a transverse shaft 98 fixed to the support 12. A conduit 100 leads to the chamber within the cylinder and is selectively connected through a conventional valve 102 to either a high pressure source or to a sump (or atmosphere). When high pressure fluid such, for example, as air, water or oil is introduced through the conduit 100 into the chamber, the assembly will expand, moving the upper ends of the supports apart, swinging the supports about their compound pivotal axis and thereby moving the jaws 76, 78 toward one another so as to rigidly grip any piling therebetween.
Other mechanical means may be utilized to rock the supports as well as the assembly described; for example, a jackscrew is acceptable, although not desirable, substitute.
To return the supports to a non-gripping position, a large diameter tension multi-convolution coil spring 104 is located adjacent the assembly 88 and on the same side of the compound pivotal axis as said assembly. Each of the ends of the coil spring is hooked about a different transversepin 106 in each of the shells. When the piston and cylinder assembly 88 expands, the coil spring is stretched. When it is desired to move the gripping jaws 76, 78 apart, the valve 102 is operated so that the fluid therein leads to the sump (or atmosphere if the fluid is air) permitting the coil spring to draw the upper ends of the supports together, thereby moving the jaws apart so as to release any piling therebetween.
In the operation of the apparatus, the same is located so that the jaws 76, 78 face opposed surfaces of the end of a length of piling. Manipulation of the valve 102 for introduction of fluid at high pressure into the chamber of the piston and cylinder assembly causes the jaws to forcefully clamp onto the piling and make a rigid connection between the apparatus and said piling. The articulation of the jaws insures a good fit on the piling P.
A wide range of pressures can be used for the fluid in the cylinder, 1,000 to 4,500 p.s.i. being exemplificative. The cylinder diameter is selected to obtain a heavy clamping force, 40 to 150 tons being mentioned as examples.
The jaws and the adjacent area of the apparatus are of relatively small sizes so that the apparatus can be used in conjunction with driving and extracting narrow lengths of piling even in an area where there are many piles and other structural elements. The motors are energized and by virtue of rotation of the eccentric weights, a uniaxial vibratory force is applied to the piling so as to facilitate driving the same into soil. It will be appreciated that the vibration acts to reduce the friction between the piling and the ground. With such friction being reduced, the piling sinks into the ground under its own weight and the weight of the vibratory apparatus. When the piling is driven to the proper depth, the motors are stopped, the high pressure fluid is released to the sump (or atmosphere if the fluid is air) and the coil spring draws the jaws apart so as to release the piling. The method of extracting the piling from the soil is similar, in this case the vibration 6 lessening the friction between the piling and the ground while an upward pull is exerted by the crane, lifting the sling and thus the vibratory apparatus upwardly.
It will be noted that the radial distances between the piston and cylinder assembly and the compound pivotal axis of the apparatus, and the radial distance between the jaws and the compound pivotal axis of the apparatus may be designed in the construction of the apparatus so as to build into the apparatus an amplifying factor for the gripping force exerted by the piston and cylinder assembly, while yet permitting the use of an assembly of relatively short length.
It thus will be seen that there has been provided a pile driver apparatus which achieves the several objects of the invention and which is well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.
As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention, and as various changes might be made in the embodiment set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein described or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. An apparatus for materially reducing the effort required to drive and extract elongated piling into and from soil, said apparatus comprising a pair of supports, a pairof shafts each mounted on a different support for rotation about spaced parallel axes, a pair of eccentric Weights each fixed to a different shaft for rotation therewith, said weights being synchronized and phased to exert uniaxial vibratory force on the piling in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piling, the axes of rotation of the shafts lying in a plane perpendicular to said longitudinal axis, motor means driving the shafts in opposed directions at the same angular velocity, means pivotally interconnecting the supports for limited relative rocking movement about an axis parallel to the axes of the shafts, a pair of jaws located on the apparatus distantly from the pivotal axis of the supports and for rigidly gripping therebetween an upper portion of the piling, each jaw being attached to a different support, and means for selectively rocking the supports about their pivotal axis under power to move the jaws toward one another.
2. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the motor means includes a pair of motors, each of said motors driving a different shaft, and a gear train interconnects the shafts for opposed synchronous rotation.
3. An apparatus as set forth in claim 2 wherein each of the supports constitutes a shell, and the shaft, eccentric weight and the motor associated therewith are located within the shell.
4. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the pivotal axis of the supports is intersected by the longitudinal axis of the piling, and the jaws are centered about said axis and are located closer to the piling than is the pivotal axis.
5. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the support rocking means includes a fluid-operable assembly including piston and cylinder members, each member being attached to a different support, and valve controlled means leading fluid under pressure into the assembly chamber.
6. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the support rocking means includes a fluid-operable assembly including piston and cylinder members, each member being attached to a different support, valve controlled means leading fluid under pressure into the assembly chamber, and a spring having each of its ends attached to a different support, the jaws being moved under power toward one another by the fluid operable assembly and being moved away from one another by the spring when said assembly is idle.
7. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein each of the jaws is independently articulatedly mounted on a lower portion of its support and has a gripping face so that when the jaws are moved toward one another each can independently shift to adjust itself against the surface of the piling which it grips.
3. An apparatus as set forth in claim wherein each of the supports is elongated in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the piling, the pivota ly interconnecting means is located intermediate the ends of the supports, the support rocking means is located intermediate the pivotally interconnecting means and one set of afl'iliated ends of the supports and the jaws are located intermediate the pivotally interconnecting means and the other alfiliated ends of the supports.
9. An apparatus as set forth in claim wherein the means pivotally interconnecting the supports comprises a pair of yokcs and a pair of pins, each pin being mounted in one of the yokes in a different support, and a link rotatable on and interconnecting the pins, said pins being parallel to the parallel axes of the shafts, the gear train comprising a pair of spur gears each fixed on a different shaft, and a pair of pinion gears each rotatably mounted on a different pin, each pinion gear being meshed with a spur gear and the other pinion gear.
10. An apparatus as set forth in claim 9 wherein a portion of each of the supports and an annular flexible imperforate member therebetween define a closed cavity, a quantity of lubricating medium is located in the cavity and constitutes a lubricating bath, and the gear train is situated in said bath.
11. An apparatus as set forth in claim 9 wherein each spur gear is formed integrally with an eccentric Weight on a different shaft.
12. An apparatus as set forth in claim 2 wherein the rotor of each motor is secured about the shaft affiliated with said motor.
13. An apparatus as set forth in claim 1 wherein the jaws are located more distantly from the pivotally interconnecting means than is the support rocking means whereby the force applied by the sup-port rocking means is amplified to a greater force applied by the jaws to grip the piling.
1.4. An apparatus for materially reducing the effort required to drive and extract elongated piling into and from soil, said apparalus comprising a pair of supports, a pair of shafts each mounted on a different support for rotation about spaced axes, a pair of eccentric weights each fixed to a different shaft for rotation therewith, said weights being synchonized and phased to exert vibratory force on the piling, motor means driving the shafts, means pivotally interconnecting the supports for limited relative rocking movement, a pair of jaws located on the apparatus distantly from the pivotal axis of the supports and for rigidly gripping therebetween an upper portion of the piling, each jaw being attached to a different support, and means for selectively rocking the supports about their pivotal axis under power to move the jaws toward one another.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,743,585 5/1956 Berthet 173-49 X 2,942,849 6/1960 Bodine 17349 X 3,100,382 8/1963 Muller l75-55 X 3,199,614 8/1965 Bodine 17555 X 3,286,924 10/1966 Pavlovich 17349 X CHARLES E. OCONNELL, Primary Examiner.
NILE C. BYERS, 111., Examiner.