US 3369534 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1968 n. L. CROSMAN 3,369,534
BULLET-SHELL ASEEMBLY HAVING A SPRING FOR PROPELLING THE BULLET Filed May 26, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l FIG].
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Joel/M10 Z ceosmnu' BY 8 2 I 7 ATTO R N EYS Feb. 20, 1968 D. L. CROSMAN BULLET-SHELL ASSEMBLY HAVING A SPRING FOR PROPELLING THE BULLET 2 Sheets-Shet 2 Filed May 26, 1965 wv wvwi x ow $oe4auo 1. abs/M441 BY v g I a I I ZATTORNEYS 3,369,534 BULLET-SHELL ASSEMBLY HAVING A SPRING FOR PROPELLING THE BULLET Dorland L. Crosman, Glen Ridge, N.J., assignor to De Luxe Reading Corporation, Elizabeth, N.J., a corporation of New Jersey Filed May 26, 1965, Ser. No. 459,051 17 Claims. (Cl. 12426) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Bullet and shell joined by releasable latching means. Coiled spring within shell is stressed when bullet and shell are joined. Shell open at both ends. Latch is released and spring propels bullet when a blow strikes (1) a separate member within shell behind bullet (FIGS. 16), or (2) a post projecting from bullet itself (FIGS. 7-12).
This invention relates generally to toy firearms, and has particular reference to an improved assembly of parts defining a toy cartridge.
It is a general object of the invention to provide a relatively harmless light-weight spring-actuated device which realistically simulates an explosive cartridge. The simulation relates not only to external appearance but also to the mode of introducing the cartridge into a toy gun and subsequently bringing about a forceful separation of a bullet-simulating element from a shell element.
A more particular objective of the invention is to pronited States Patent Office vide an assembly of the general character referred to, in
which the bullet and the shell are composed of relatively inexpensive material, preferably acetal resin or the like, adapted to be injection molded. The parts are'thus of light weight, adapted to be manufactured in commercial quantities at low cost, and of durable and wear-resistant character. A more particular objective is to provide an assembly that can be readily put together after each firing and thus reused many times.
One of the features of the invention resides in the employment of a small spring of coiled type so associated with the shell and bullet elements that itbecomes stressed whenever the parts are assembled and expends its stored energy to propel the bullet from the shell whenever the cartridge is fired by sudden pressure upon a part resembling a genuine firing pin. The 'bullet and the shell are provided with cooperating releasable latching means, and the firing of the cartridge is brought about by releasing the latch and allowing the tensioned spring to become effective. In one embodiment of the invention, the
release of the latch is brought about by a blow directed against a post forming part of the bullet element itself; in another embodiment the firing force is directed against a separate element which acts upon the latch to release it.
These two embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which are illustrative of the manner in which the objectives and advantages of the invention may be achieved. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is an exploded view of a toy cartridge assembly adapted for use with a toy pistol;
FIG. 2 is an elevational view of the assembled cartridge;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged cross-section along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a similar view at the instant of firing, showing how the bullet is released;
FIG. 5 is a transverse cross-section along the line 55 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 6 is a longitudinal cross-section along the line 66 of FIG. 3;
3,369,534? Patented Feb. 20, 1968 FIG. 7 is an exploded view similar to FIG. 1, of a modified toy cartridge assembly adapted for use with a toy rifle;
FIG. 8 is an elevational view of the assembled cartridge whose parts are shown in FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is an enlarged longitudinal cross-section;
FIG. 10 is a similar view at the instant of firing; and
FIGS. 11 and 12 are transverse cross-sectional views along the lines 1111 and 12-12 of FIG. 9, respectively.
The cartridge assembly illustrated in FIGS. 1-6 is adapted for use with toy pistols. The parts entering into the device are shown in FIG. 1 and comprise a cylindrical shell 20, a coiled compression spring 21, a special element 22 defining a blow-receiving anvil 23 at its rear end, and a bullet element 24.
The bullet 24 is of light-weight inexpensive plastic, preferably of the type that can be injection molded. It embodies a hollow rounded front head 25, posts 26 extending rearwardly, and one or more latching fingers 27 also extending rearwardly. The parts 25, 26 and 27 are formed of a single element. In the device illustrated there are two diametrically opposed fingers 27, arranged in alternate relation to the two posts 26 which are also set in diametric opposition. The fingers 27 are of such size and cross-sectional configuration that they are resiliently deflectable. At their rear ends they are provided with outwardly directed parts 28 (see FIGS. 3 and 4) defining forwardly-directed latching shoulders.
The shell element 20 is of simple cylindrical nature. Near its forward end it is provided with a pair of diametrically opposed openings 29, the forward ends of which define rearwardly-directed latching shoulders 30 adapted to cooperate with the shoulders 28. If desired, the inner surface of the forward end of the shell may be chamfered at points in longitudinal alignment with the openings 29in order to facilitate insertion of the bullet into the shell.
Near the rear end of the shell 20 it is provided on the interior with a pair of opposed projections 31 defining shoulders 32 (FIG. 3) against which the rear end of the compression spring 21 can rest.
When the parts are pressed together, the posts 26 on the bullet press rearwardly against the front end of the spring 21, and as the rearward movement of the bullet continues, the spring 21 becomes compressed. It is held in this compressed condition when the shoulders 28 on the fingers 27 latch themselves behind the shoulders 30 on the shell element 20.
During the assembly of the parts the element 22 is also inserted rearwardly into the shell 20. Directly in advance of he anvil-like rear end 23 there is a reduced portion 33 that positions itself slidably within the confines of the shell part 31. To bring the element 22 into this position it must be pressed rearwardly into the shell with sufiicient force to deflect the parts 31 so that the slightly enlarged rear end can assume the disposition shown in FIGS. 3
The body of the element 22 has an external diameter less than the internal diameter of the shell 20, so that the spring 21 may be accommodated between these parts. At its forward end the firing pin 22 has a radially enlarged part 34 whose forwardly-directed surface 35 is outwardly inclined (see FIGS. 3 and 4) so that it can engage the rearwardly inclined end surfaces 36 of the latch fingers 27. When the firing pin 22 is moved forwardly, i.e., from the position of FIG. 3 to that of FIG. 4, the surfaces 35 and 36 cooperate to cam the spring fingers 27 radially inward, thus releasing the shoulder 28 from the shoulders 30 and freeing the bullet 24 so that the compressed spring 21 can exert a forwardly propelling force upon the posts 26.
When the cartridge is fired (by a blow upon the rear face of the firing pin 22) the bullet is thus propelled forwardly and separated from the shell 20. However, the element 2 2, the spring 21, and the shell 20 remain assembled. When the bullet is retrieved, it can be reinserted into. the shell by simply pressing it rearwardly, with the fingers 27 in alignment with the openings 29 in the shell. As a result, the shoulders 28 can be readily latched behind the shoulders 30, to re-stress the spring 21 and place the assembly into condition for the subsequent firing. To permit this reassembly of the parts to take place, the enlarged front end 34 of the, firing pin is provided with openings 37 adapted to permit passage through them of the posts 26. The element 22 is also provided with longitudinal channels 38 aligned with the openings 37 and guiding the posts 26 as they move rearwardly.
If desired, the rear anvil face 23 of the firing pin can be covered with a conventional toy percussion cap (not shown) so that when the hammer or equivalent element of the toy pistol strikes the anvil of the firing pin, the action will be accompanied by a noise and by the release of some smoke. Caps of the character referred to are readily available on the market, and are adapted to be adhesively applied. In this connection, it should be mentioned that the pin 22 is preferably formed of metal so that the anvil 23 is provided with suificient mass to detonate a cap when the latter receives a blow from the hammer of the pistol.
The cartridge assembly can be made to resemble a real cartridge quite closely, and its use in the toy pistol can also be quite realistic. Thus, a forward motion of a slide or bolt on the pistol can chamber it, while a backward motion can withdraw the shell from the chamber and eject it after the bullet has been fired. The cartridge assembly lends itself also to association with others in the form of a clip to be fed into automatic-type pistols.
In FIGS. 7-12 a cartridge assembly is shown in Which the spring employed is a tension spring rather than a compression spring, and in which the firing force of a hammer or the like can be directed against an element forming part of the bullet itself. Thus, the cartridge assembly consists of only three component parts, as shown in FIG. 7.
The cartridge assembly shown in FIGS. 712 is relatively elongated, compared to the device of FIGS. 1-6, and is intended primarily for toy rifles. The cylinder 40 is in this case provided with a rearwardly directed shoulder 41 near its front end. This shoulder can be provided in the form of an annulus by enlarging the front end of the cylinder radially inward. The surface defined by the shoulder 41 is preferably inclined at about 45 to the cylinder axis. A short distance toward the rear, the cylinder 40 is provided with lateral openings 42, preferably arranged diametrically opposite to each other. The cylinder wall is slightly thickened at the rear edge of each opening, as indicated at 43, to provide a ledge against which the foremost turn or turns of the tension spring 44 may be anchored.
This spring 44 has its coils of gradually reduced diameter at its rear end, as shown at 45. During the assembly of the parts by the manufacturer the spring 44 is introduced forwardly into the shell element 40 and its front turn or turns are snagged over the ledge or ledges 43. The spring and shell remain thus associated during subsequent usage of the device.
The bullet is in this case provided with an enlarged rounded front end 46 and an elongated rearwardly extending post or tem 47 of reduced external diameter. Near the forward end of the post 47 it is provided with a pair of diametrically opposed wedge-shaped enlargements 48. The forwardly-facing end of each enlargement is inclined to the longitudinal axis of the post 47 and constitutes a forwardly-directed latching shoulder 49 (see FIG. adapted to cooperate with the rearwardly-directed shoulder 41 formed on the shell element 40.
When the bullet element is introduced rearwardly into the shell 40, the rear end of the post 47 come into contact with and frictionally engages the reduced-diameter coils at the rear end 45 of the spring 44. As a result, continued rearward pressure upon the bullet stretches the spring into the tensioned condition shown in FIG. 9. It is retained in this stressed condition when the wedgeshaped enlargements 48 force their way through the front end of the cylinder 40 to allow the shoulders 49 and 41 to come into latched relationship. Thereafter, the firing force of a hammer or the like, exerted in the direction of the arrows 50 of FIGS. 8 and 10 against the rear end of the post 47 presses the bullet forwardly so as to free the shoulders 49 from the restraining shoulders 41 (FIG. 10). This release allows the tensioned spring 44 to exert its forward pressure upon the bullet which is thereupon suddenly and forcefully propelled from the shell assembly as indicated by dot-dash lines in FIG. 8.
The material of which the shell element 40 is made (e.g., a molded plastic such as acetal resin or any of its equivalents) is sufficiently flexible to allow the front end to be momentarily distorted into elliptical configuration whenever the enlargements 48 on the post 47 are forced either rearwardly or forwardly. The yieldability of the plastic is of an elastic nature, so that the distortion is always immediately followed by a return of the front end of the shell to the truly circular shape. It is this elasticity that allows the shoulders 41 and 48 to be repeatedly brought into latching engagement and forcefully released from such engagement as indicated in FIG. 10. It should be noted that this desirable result is attainable primarily because the enlargements 48 are in diametric opposition to each other, thus allowing a momentary distortion of the front end of the shell from circular to elliptical shape, and back again. Obviously, a single enlargement might be sufficient for this purpose, although more reliable and symmetrical action is achieved by having two enlargements 48, as shown.
It will thus be seen that the invention provides a toy cartridge of simple structural character, inexpensive from a manufacturing standpoint, light in weight and relatively harmless, and usable over long periods of time with toy pistols and similar fireams that can be loaded and fired realistically and repeatedly.
It will be understood that many of the details herein described and illustrated may be modified by those skilled in the art without necessarily departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A toy cartridge assembly, comprising:
a shell open at both ends and having at least one rearwardly directed latching shoulder integral with the remainder of the shell,
a coiled spring within the shell supported at one end and free at the other,
a bullet provided with at least one forwardly directed latching shoulder,
said shoulders being cooperatively adapted to interengage in releasable latched relationship;
and a post on the bullet adapted to press upon the free spring end to deform the spring into stressed condition when the shoulders are latched together,
and surface means operatively associated with said bullet and disposed within the shell to receive the blow of a hammer passing'forwardly through the rear opening of the shell for releasing said latched engagement, whereby disengagement of said shoulders allows the stressed spring to propel the bullet from the shell.
2. A toy cartridge assembly comprising:
a shell open at both ends and having at least one rearwardly directed latching shoulder integral with the remainder of the shell,
a coiled compression spring within the shell supported at its rear end,
a firing pin coaxial with the shell and extending through said spring to such an extent that the rearwardmost portion thereof may be struck by a hammer passing through the open rear end of the shell,
a bullet provided with at least one latching finger,
said finger and shoulder being cooperatively adapted to interengage in releasable latched relationship,
post means on the bullet adapted to press rearwardly against and compress said spring when the finger and shoulder are latched together, and
means for releasing said latched engagement when the rear end of the pin is struck by a hammer, whereby the compressed spring thereupon propels the bullet from the shell.
3. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 2, there being at least two diametrically positioned latching fingers and at least two correspondingly located latching shoulders.
4. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 2, in
which said release means comprises cooperating cam surfaces on said firing pin and finger.
5. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 3, in which the shoulders in the shell are defined by openings in the shell wall, and in which the fingers on the bullet have outwardly directed complementary shoulders for engagement with said shell shoulders.
6. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 5, in which said fingers are composed of resiliently defiectable material and are configured to snap into resiliently releasable engagement with the shell when the bullet and shell are pressed together.
7. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 3, in which the fingers on the bullet have latching shoulders at their ends whose outer surfaces converge rearwardly, and in which said release means comprises cooperating cam surfaces on the firing pin adapted to engage said convergent surfaces and wedge the fingers radially inward.
8. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 3 in which said bullet is a single element of molded plastic having a hollow rounded front head, said fingers and posts extending rearwardly from said head in alternate circumferential array.
9. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 2, in which said firing pin has a radially enlarged front end lying in advance of said spring, said enlarged end having an opening through which said post extends.
10. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 9, said firing pin being also provided with a longitudinal channel adapted to accommodate and guide said post.
11. A toy cartridge assembly comprising:
an open-ended shell having a rearwardly directed latching shoulder,
a coiled tension spring within the shell supported at its forward end,
a bullet provided with a forwardly directed latching shoulder,
said shoulders being cooperatively adapted to interengage in releasable latched relationship,
and a post on the bullet extending rearward through said spring and adapted to press upon the rear spring end to deform the spring into stressed condition when the shoulders are latched together,
whereby disengagement of said shoulders allows the stressed spring to propel the bullet from the shell.
12. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 11, in which one of said shoulders is composed of resiliently yieldable material so that forward pressure upon the rear end of said post can initiate relative movement of said shoulders to disengage them.
13. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 12, in which said shoulders are inclined at about 45 to the shell axis.
14. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 11, in which the shoulder on the shell is an annulus defined by the rear surface of a lip at the front end of the shell, and in which the shoulder on the bullet is defined by a lateral projection on said post, said lip being composed of resiliently deformable material to allow said projection to pass rearwardly through the lip when the shoulders are to be latched and forwardly when the bullet is to be propelled.
15. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 14, there being two of said projections on the post, at diametrically opposite locations.
16. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 11, in which the forward end of the spring is supported on an internal projection on the shell wall and the rear end of the spring is attenuated to provide a footing for said post.
17. A toy cartridge assembly as defined in claim 2 wherein said bullet and shell are formed of molded plastic, and said firing pin is formed of metal.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,284,497 11/ 19 18 Vidaver 12426 3,154,062 10/1964 Ryan 124-16 ANTON O. OECHSLE, Primary Examiner.
DELBERT B. LOWE, Examiner.
W. R. BROWNE, Assistant Examiner.