|Publication number||US3370520 A|
|Publication date||Feb 27, 1968|
|Filing date||Apr 27, 1966|
|Priority date||Apr 27, 1966|
|Also published as||DE1654311A1|
|Publication number||US 3370520 A, US 3370520A, US-A-3370520, US3370520 A, US3370520A|
|Inventors||Mauch Hans A|
|Original Assignee||Hans A. Mauch|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (11), Classifications (25)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 27, 1968 H. A. MAUCH 3,370,520
- VENTILATING DEVICE Filed April 27, 1966 FIG-2 INVENTOR. HANS A. MAUCH ATTORNEY United States Patent 3,370,520 VENTILATING DEVICE Hans A. Mauch, 421 Judith Drive, Dayton, Ohio 45429 Filed Apr. 27, 1966, Ser. No. 545,645 7 Claims. (Cl. 981) This invention relates to a device for ventilating animate or inanimate objects having, in its preferred form, a sandwich-like configuration. It is applicable to cushions or pads as well as a great variety of cover structures including articles of clothing. The applications are thus similar to those contemplated in my ventilator cover invention which is the subject of US. Patent No. 2,897,741, the present invention being an improvement thereon.
The present invention provides embodiments which, among other features, include distinguishing physical characteristics, combining maximum ventilating effect with minimum power requirements and combining a generally high resistance to compression under load with a versatile flexibility. As will become obvious from the following, this is highly advantageous for personal ventilating devices.
The need for efliciency and low power consumption is most evident, for example, where the invention is embodied in an article of clothing to be worn ambulantly or where the ventilating device is embodied in a cushion or seat of a vehicle such as an automobile as will be here described. In any such case, the load on the battery or generator or other ambulant source of power for delivering a ventilating fluid must be kept as low as possible.
To keep the power consumption low and still effectively ventilate an object, whether animate or inanimate, with a warm or cool fluid such as a gas or air, it must be done in such a way that maximum heating or cooling effect is achieved with a minimum of fluid flow and fluid back pressure.
For an understanding of the present invention it must be recognized that, for a given ventilating effect, minimum fluid flow is possible only if one can achieve a high heat transfer between the stream of fluid and the target object. Such high heat transfer is provided if the stream is given a relatively high velocity and is so directed as to produce turbulence at the target surface. The high velocity is particularly important where the invention embodiment is intended to be used for producing a cooling or heating effect on the skin surface of a person wearing clothing. For this reason, the present invention provides that the gas or air is delivered in free jets directed at the surface of the person and at a velocity rendering them capable of penetrating the clothing.
To produce such jets a certain fluid pressure must be present at the location of each jet. In order to have this fluid pressure available at the location of the jets and still keep the power consumption low, the present invention provides means for minimizing the pressure losses within the fluid distribution system connecting the fluid source, such as a blower, with the inlets of the jet holes. In addition, it provides means for minimizing the pressure losses within the fluid escape system connecting the exits of the jet holes with the outside atmosphere.
To keep these pressure losses low in cases Where the invention embodiment is subject to compression loads such as the weight of a person sitting on it, it is essential that the resistance to fluid flow within the fluid distribution and escape system does not increase significantly under such load. The present invention provides structural means stiff enough to maintain wide fluid passages and consequently low fluid resistances in such a case.
Ordinarily, a structure stiff enough to retain its low fluid flow resistances under compression loads would also 3,379,526 Patented Feb. 27, 1968 be quite inflexible. Since such inflexibility would produce discomfort in many applications of such a device, the present invention provides a structural configuration which will retain a high degree of flexibility in several bending directions and still be stiff enough to facilitate fluid flow with the fluid distribution and escape system under compression loads.
It is therefore a primary object of the present invention to produce a novelty improved ventilating device enabling the achievement of an effective ventilation of an animate or inanimate object, which device is low in cost, most eflicient and satisfactory in use, adaptable to a wide variety of applications and unlikely to malfunction.
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved device for heating or cooling the surface of an animate or inanimate object which device functions at a high level of effectiveness and requires a minimal expenditure of power.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved sandwich-like ventilating cover structure for distributing a ventilating fluid such as air in such a way that the air issues therefrom in high speed free jets to impinge on an adjacent body in a manner to produce a high heat transfer between the air and the body.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novelly improved device for heating or cooling the surface of an animate or inanimate object which device includes an efficient distribution system having minimal resistance to the flow therethrough of a ventilating fluid to be discharged in free jets and an eflicient fluid escape system having mini mal resistance to the fluid flow from the jets to the environmental atmosphere.
A further important object of the invention is to provide a sandwich-like ventilating cover structure stiff enough to retain low resistance to fluid flow under compression loads,
but still offering a high degree of flexibility in several bending directions.
Another object of the invention is to provide a device for ventilating the body of an animate or inanimate object possessing the advantageous structural features, the inherent meritorious characteristics and the means and mode of use herein described.
With the above and other incidental objects in view as will more fully appear in the specification, the invention intended to be protected by Letters Patent consists of the features of construction, the parts and combinations thereof, and the mode of operation as hereinafter described or illustrated in the accompanying drawings, or their equivalents.
Referring to the accompanying drawing wherein are shown some but obviously not necessarily the only forms of embodiment of the invention,
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary showing of a sandwich-like cover structure as contemplated in a preferred embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view schematically illustrating the internal flow path as provided by the structure of FIG. 1 in one sense;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view schematically illustrating the internal flow path as provided by the structure of FIG. 1 in another sense;
FIGS. 4 and 5 show modifications of the structure illustrated in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 6 is a perspective generally diagrammatic view illustrating an application of the invention to a car seat.
Like parts are indicated by similar characters of reference throughout the several views.
The invention embodiment here illustrated has a sandwich-like configuration. It is formed of two layers 10 and 11, each layer being made of a relatively elastic material, preferably plastic. For convenience of description, the layer 10 will be designated the upper layer, which is to be placed adjacent the body of the person or object to be heated or cooled by a ventilating medium. Correspondingly, the layer 11 will be referred to as the lower layer, being positioned outermost from the body or object. 'In FIGS. 1, 4, and 5, the upper layer is shown in solid lines and the lower layer indotted lines. As seen in the drawings, the layers 10, and 11 are peripherally joined to form a sandwich-like enclosure 12. The enclosure 12 is diagrammatically shown in the application of FIG. 6 to have a peripheral-opening defined, in this case, by an adapter 13. The adapter 13 may have a variety of forms or locations the details of which represent no significant part of this invention and are therefore not here described. By means of such an adapter the enclosure 12 may be coupled to a conduit leading from a conventional unit delivering a flow of ventilating fluid, such as air, under pressure. The temperature of the air will depend on the application. The nature of the delivery unit will be such to suit the ventilating medium and may be readily determined by one versed in the art. In the case illustrated in FIG. 6 this unit may be a conventional blower 15.
Looking specifically to FIGS. 1-3, in the embodiment shown, each of the layers 10 and 11 is so formed as to produce therein, at spaced intervals, hollow elevations 16 which project in a sense outwardly of the enclosure 12 from a base plane defined by the base portion 17 of each layer. In rising from the respective base portions 17 of the layers 10 and 11, the hollow elevations 16 form cavities 13 which open inwardly of the enclosure 12. The elevations 16 are preferably dome-shaped to have the physical characteristic of being slightly resilient but still highly resistant to compression and to serve a utilitarian purpose to be further described.
As seen in FIG. 1 of the drawings, in plan view the elevations 16 reveal a substantially hexagonal contour and an arrangement to form therebetween a honeycomb type network of intercommunicating unobstructed valleys 19. The hexagonal network of valleys formed between the elevations 16 in each layer has a root portion 20 which lies entirely within said base plane definedby the base portion 17 of each layer. Thus, it is immediately apparent that each of the layers 10 and 11 will have a high flexing capability in several directions. In forming the enclosure 12 this inherent flexing capability is retained by having the base portions 17, defining the 'base planes of each layer 10 and 11, placed close together in an immediate facing relationship. 7 i
It is a requirement of the invention embodiment that while the layers are formed similarly in a basic sense, they are so superposed, as revealed in the drawings, to provide that their hollow elevations 16 are relatively offset in a lateral sense. The openings from the cavities 18 at the inner surface of the upper layer 10 are respectively placed sufficiently out of registry with the cavities 18 formed in the lower layer 11 that each cavity 18 in one layer will generally communicate with a plurality of the cavities formed in the other layer as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. Thus, the intercommunicating cavities 18 provide a distribution system for the ventilating fluid which otters minimal resistance to flow throughout the enclosure 12. 1
The resulting structure provides also excellent compression resistance under load, throughout the entire enclosure 12. On the one hand, the hollow elevations 16 have a high but elastic form stability typical for shelllike structures. On the other hand, the base portions 17 of the layers 10 and 11 facing each other produce a high number of mutual contact areas 21 through which compression forces can be transmitted through both layers 10 and 11 of the sandwich-like structure without exceeding local compression strength.
In the embodiments of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 6 the layers It) and 11 are joined together at the aforementioned mutual contact areas 21. While not essential in all cases the joining may be effected at some or all contact areas 21 to keep the layers 10 and 11 from being blown apart by an inside fluid pressure such as may be required in certain applications. In the preferred example illustrated, there are also provided at the locations of the joined contact areas 21 small aligned holes 22 forming openings which extend through both layers. In this manner. one achieves that the upper and lower network of valleys 19 to either side of the enclosure structure are interconnected. This provides an escape route for spent ventilating fluid to be further described.
The upper layer 10 is distinguished by having jet openings 23 in the root portion 20 of its network of valleys at those locations where the lower layer 11 has a facing cavity 18. This placement of the jet openings 23 contributes toward achieving a low resistance air distribution system between the air source provided in FIG. 6 by the conventional means 15 and the jet holes 23. On adding to this the high compression resistance of the enclosure 12 under load one must recognize that in use of the embodiments air will exit from the enclosure to the valleys 19 of the upper layer in jets which can develop freely'in presence of an abutted object.
Let us consider the use, for example, in FIG. 6, of the above described embodiment of the invention ina ventilating seat element on which the driver of a vehicle will sit. The high compression resistance under load of the sandwich-like enclosure 12 enables/that the ventilating device resists any significant reduction ofits height. This insures a continuing intercommunication of cavities 18 and the maintenance of an optimal low resistance to fluid distribution within the enclosure. At the same time, due to the elastic character of the layer material and the disposition of their base portions 17 in facing relation, as described, the valley network of the layers enable a flexing of the enclosure structure in various senses believed obvious, lending comfort in its use. In any event, noting the application in FIG. 6 of the drawings, the resistance to compression under load establishes that upon air or other ventilating medium being transmitted from the device 15 through adapter 13, the .air will move into and through the enclosure and through intercommunicating cavities 18 relatively freely. There is accordingly a minimal resistance to flow and thereby a minimal pressure requirement in delivery of the ventilating medium. As a result, the pressure is concentrated at the jet openings 23 providing that air will issue in high velocity jets into the network of valleys 19 being defined between the hexagonally formed elevations 16 of the upper layer 10 e which is placed immediately adjacent the body being ventilated. The resistance to compression keeps the valleys open and enables the jets to develop freely within the valleys and to impact on the body of the person seated I on the enclosure at a sustained high velocity. This inipact produces an optimal turbulence in the vicinity of the skin as the jets penetrate the clothing of the seated person.
That there is a low resistance air distribution system is further insured by the fact that air which'exits through the jet holes 23 in the upper layer 10 and does its work in effecting a heat transfer to or from the contacted body can then pass through the relatively unobstructed network of valleys 19 to move over the upper layer in relatively free flow. This is facilitated by the high compression resistance of the hexagonal elevations 16. By provision of the holes 22 one enables the used air to escape, 'in part,
through the valleys 19 in the lower layer 11 and overits surface in a relatively unrestricted flow due to the com:
pression resistance of the elevations 16 thereon. The'holes 22 are particularly essential in cases where the ventilating cover structure is made into a garment or envelope enclosing a body or object completely'with the layer 10 containing the jet holes 23 facing the body or object. In such a case the holes 22 constitute the only escape route for the spent ventilating medium. Of course there may be some applications where holes 22 are not required. Nevertheless they do enable an optimal result of the nature described. 7
Referring in more detail to the application of the structure of FIGS. 1-3 in the device of FIG. 6, it provides an enclosure 12 accommodating, in abutment with its layer 10, both the seat and back of an individual. In this particular case both the layers 10 and 11 have a central transverse portion 24 devoid of formed projections 16.
As seen, the adapter 13 is inserted in acentral opening in one'side of the enclosure and at one end of the transverse portions 24. From this one end to the other the portions 24 are formed to produce a tapered manifold 25 to either side of which open the cavities 18 of both layers 10 and 11. Thus when air, for example, is delivered in a pressured flow through adapter 13 to the manifold 25 it rapidly disseminates through the enclosure by way of the cavities 18 with negligible resistance to flow and it thereafter exits rapidly and freely by way of the jet openings 23 to function as previously described.
The transverse portions 24 of the layers 10 and 11 also facilitate a bend between the back and seat portions of the enclosure with negligible interference with the free flow of air to and from the manifold 25.
FIG. 6 of the drawings also shows a highly advantageous arrangement of the blower to have its delivery chute immediately connected to the transverse portion 24 at the center of the enclosure 12 Where the back and seat portions of the enclosure hinge and where a wider transverse portion is needed anyway to facilitate bending without flow restriction.
It may be thus readily seen the invention provides a uniquely improved ventilating structure which is especially suited for purposes Where effective ventilation is required at a substantial saving of energy in transmitting ventilating fluid from the source such as a blower to the jet holes which direct the fluid at a body and from the jet holes to the environmental atmosphere which surrounds the body, and where high compression resistance under load is to be provided without sacrificing flexibility.
The following accomplishments are thereby achieved by the present invention:
(1) A structure for applying a ventilating medium to a body or object including a distribution system for the ventilating medium wherein there is minimum resistance to flow to the object to be ventilated and from the object to its environmental atmosphere.
(2) A sandwich-like enclosure formed to transmit ventilating fluid in a manner that the fluid can discharge freely in high velocity jets prior to coming in contact with a person or object to be ventilated.
(3) A ventilating cover structure of a sandwich type form endowed with high compression resistance to an applied load yet retaining an inherent flexibility.
(4) A device to be embodied in seats, clothing and the like which achieves comfort for the user in contact pressure areas while enabling a reliable heating or cooling effect being produced on the users skin surface in these areas.
FIGS. 4 and 5 of the drawings reveal further embodiments of the invention, like parts being identified by like numerals. In the instance of FIG. 4, the structure of the enclosure is the same as that of FIG. 1, however, the hollow elevations 16' have a generally rectangular configuration. As in the first described embodiment jet openings 23 are provided in the upper layer 10 and referenced to underlying cavities formed in the lower layer 11'. In this invention embodiment it is illustrated that the layers need not be joined except in a peripheral sense and there are no holes 22. It is contemplated that embodiments such as this may be desirable for some applications where the fluid pressure inside the enclosure is low and where the use of the additional escape route for the spent ventilating fluid is not required. The structure 6 of FIG. 5 is similar to that of FIG. 4, but FIG. 5 shows that the hollow elevations 16" may have a triangular form.
In each of the illustrated embodiments the hollow elevations 16 of the layers have the contour of regular polygons. It should be recognized that the forms of the elevations as indicated are not to be construed as limiting. However they do facilitate an optimal versatility of flexing of the various contemplated embodiments of the invention. In applications where flexibility is less essential, the hollow elevations may be given irregular contours if this is desirable for any reason.
It is noted that it is not a requirement of the invention that the hollow elevations 16 be arranged in an absolutely uniform pattern on the layers of the enclosure 12 in all cases; It is a requirement that the arrangement of the elevations be sufliciently systematic as to permit, when superposing the two layers with their base portions 17 facing each other, that the cavities defined by the hollow elevations be sufficiently out of registry with each other to enable the continuous flow of the ventilating medium through the space between the two layers with a minimal flow resistance as described.
While the invention embodiment has been described in reference to use as a sitting pad as shown in FIG. 6, it obviously could be readily integrated in a seat Structure, used as an insert in a bed or incorporated in clothing in which cases a layer of fabric or other material may be interposed between the body and the adjacent layer 10. Such a material would have to be sufliciently porous to permit the ready flow therethrough of the ventilating medium in the manner as described. A layer of pourous material may also be attached to the embodiment shown in FIG. 6 extending over the top of the elevations 16 of layer 10 in order to enhance the appearance or increase sitting comfort.
The means for introducing the ventilating medium is here shown in a limited diagrammatic form. It is of course contemplated that there could be a plurality of such means. Moreover the delivery adapter connection or connections can assume a great variety of forms and extend along any portion or all of the periphery of the enclosure 12, depending upon the application.
With respect to the phyiscal embodiments of the invention, the size of the elevations from the layers as described and the related thickness of the basic sheet material of which the layers are fabricated may cover a wide range. In a typical sitting pad application for example, the material thickness of the plastic layers might approximate of an inch while the hollow elevations would be from /2 to 1 inch in diameter. In the case of a bed insert or ventilating suit, the diameter of the projected portions may go down to inch or even less, there being a corresponding reduction in material thickness.
The ventilating device described can be readily manufactured, for example, of plastics. In such case each layer can be manufactured separately by vacuum forming or calendering whereupon the layers may be joined around the edges by any one of a variety of means to form an enclosure. It is further contemplated that the sandwichlike structure can also be manufactured to form the layers 10 and 11 as an integral unit by empolying blow molding.
It is inherent in the invention embodiment that the devices thereof may be manufactured at low cost and have the characteristics of sturdiness, ease of maintenance and long and useful life.
From the above description it will be apprent that there i thus provided a device of the character described possessing the particular features of advantage before enumerated as desirable, but which obviously is susceptible of modification in its form, proportions, detail construction and arrangement of parts without departing from the principle involved or sacrificing any of its advantages.
7 1 While .in order to comply with thetstatute the-inventionhas been described in language more or less specific as-to structural features, it is to be understood thatthe '-invention is not limited to thespecific features shown, but-that; the means and construction herein disclosed comprise but one of several modes of putting theinvention into; efiect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the legitimate and valid scopeof the appended claims.
' Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A device for use in ventilating an animate or inanimate object comprising an enclosure of sandwich-like configuration, said enclosure being fabricated of an elastic ,material providing opposite sides and having both said opposite sides formed to produce therein spaced hollow elevations projected outwardly of said enclosure to define compression resistant means, said spaced hollow elevations providing cavities opening inwardly of said enclosure, the cavities in one side being in laterally displaced relation to the cavities in the other side of said enclosure to produce thereby an intercommunication of said cavities, jet openings in one side of said enclosure being placed to commuicate with said cavities formed in the other side of said enclosure to produce thereby a minimal resistance to flow within said enclosure, said enclosure having an inlet in communication with a portion of said cavities for introducing thereto a pressured flow of air or other ventilating fluid to flow to and through said enclosure by way of said cavities for discharge through said jet openings.
2. A device for use in ventilating an animate or inanimate object as in claim 1 wherein said spaced, formed compression resistant hollow elevations define continuous interconnected valleys on said opposite sides of said enclosure, said valleys in one side including, at spaced locations therein, said jet openings, said compression resistant elevations, in use of said enclosure, maintaining the freedom of flow from said jet openings to provide a high velocity flow impact on an adjacent object and an unobstructed exit flow from said object through said valleys.
., 3. A: device as set forth in claim 2 characterized in that ,said opposite sides. of said enclosure are formed to produce areas for mutual contact within said enclosure between said compression resistant, means of said Opposite sides to provide thereby inherent resistance, of the entire enclosure structure to compression.'
lhollow elevations have' the shape of 'uniform polygons which define therebetween linfesof fleirure irrespective of the basic compression resistant nature of said'enclosure, said linesof flexure generally coinciding vwith said continuous interconnected valleys. i V
5,. A device as set forth in claim 3 wherein said opposite sides of said enclosure are joined together in said mutual contact areas.
6. A, device as in claim 5 characterized by said joined mutual contact areas having formed therein openings which go through both said opposite sides of said enclosure and interconnect the valleys in the outer surfaces of said opposite sides. 7
7. A device as set forth in claim 1 characterized by being formed to provide a seat pad, a back pad, hinge means connecting said seat pad and back pad, and an intermediately positioned manifold means opening to said cavities within said'enclosure for delivery therethrough of said pressured flow ofair, said manifold means being included in said hinge means accommodating a bend between said seat and back pads.
References Cited Fonash 62-259 X LLOYD L. KING, Primary Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2657396 *||Mar 9, 1951||Nov 3, 1953||Arnold M Klein||Air ventilated suit|
|US2791168 *||Jul 1, 1954||May 7, 1957||Mauch Hans A||Ventilating cover|
|US2791956 *||Dec 24, 1953||May 14, 1957||Maurice C Guest||Ventilated automobile seat pad|
|US2897741 *||Mar 19, 1957||Aug 4, 1959||Mauch Hans A||Ventilator cover|
|US2942858 *||Apr 21, 1958||Jun 28, 1960||American Air Filter Co||Heat exchange apparatus|
|US3032772 *||Aug 2, 1960||May 8, 1962||Raymond L Fonash||Protective garment for astronauts employing sublimating salts|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4002108 *||Aug 27, 1975||Jan 11, 1977||Mordeki Drori||Ventilated back-seat rest particularly for automotive vehicles|
|US4087302 *||May 18, 1977||May 2, 1978||Wootten William A||Method for forming a structural panel|
|US4488929 *||Jul 20, 1983||Dec 18, 1984||Akzona Incorporated||Apparatus for the production of a continuous composite material|
|US4712832 *||Jun 24, 1986||Dec 15, 1987||Adriano Antolini||Cover, particularly for vehicle seats|
|US5921858 *||Oct 6, 1997||Jul 13, 1999||Jc Associates Co., Ltd.||Ventilator for use with vehicle seat|
|US8557395 *||Jul 17, 2008||Oct 15, 2013||Fukai Seisakusho Co., Ltd.||Heat insulator|
|US20060113360 *||Dec 1, 2004||Jun 1, 2006||Cantar/Polyair Inc.||Protective envelope with triangular bubble cushioning material|
|US20110111249 *||Jul 17, 2008||May 12, 2011||Fukai Seisakusho Co., Ltd.||Plate-like body|
|EP0280213A1 *||Feb 19, 1988||Aug 31, 1988||METZELER Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung||Cushions, particularly for motor vehicle seats|
|EP1931233A2 *||Sep 5, 2006||Jun 18, 2008||Steve Feher||Convective cushion with positive coefficient of resistance heating mode|
|EP1931233A4 *||Sep 5, 2006||Aug 10, 2011||Steve Feher||Convective cushion with positive coefficient of resistance heating mode|
|U.S. Classification||454/370, 428/178, 454/120, D23/370|
|International Classification||A47C7/42, B60N2/56, A47C31/00, A47C4/00, A47C7/40, A47C4/54, A47C31/11, A47C7/72, A47C7/74|
|Cooperative Classification||A47C31/116, B60N2/56, A47C7/021, B60N2/5635, A47C7/74, A47C7/425|
|European Classification||A47C7/42B, B60N2/56C4F, B60N2/56, A47C7/74, A47C31/11H, A47C7/02A|