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Publication numberUS3370654 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 27, 1968
Filing dateNov 8, 1965
Priority dateNov 8, 1965
Publication numberUS 3370654 A, US 3370654A, US-A-3370654, US3370654 A, US3370654A
InventorsSkendrovic Lawrence
Original AssigneeSkendrovic Lawrence
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Soaking pit clean out machine
US 3370654 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 27, 1968 v L SKENDROWC 3,370,654

SOAKING PIT CLEAN OUT MACHINE Filed Nov. A3, 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet l v v INVENTOR LAWRENCE 6kb-Nago vz-c.

A TTORNE Y Feb. 27, 1968 1 SKENDROVIC 3,370,654

SOAKING PIT CLEAN OUT MACHINE Filed Nov, 3. 1965 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIQ.

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United States Patent Gee 3,376,654y Patented Feb. 27, 1968 3,370,554 SQAKING PET CLEAN OUT MACHINE Lawrence Skendrovic, 402 Glencoe Drive, West Miin, Pa. 15122 Filed Nov. 8, 1965, Ser. No. 506,771 Claims. (Cl. 173-34) ABSTRACT 0F THE DISCLOSURE A soaking pit clean out machine supported on the upper portion of the soaking pit walls and having a remotely controlled percussive tool depending therefrom into the soaking pit. The soaking pit clean out machine has a pair of spaced parallel rails that extend across the soaking pit and support a movable trolley member. A turntable is connected to the underside of the trolley by a scissor-like rigid extensible member. An extensible boom member is connected to the turntable and has a percussive tool pivotally secured to one end. The percussive tool is positioned and operated from a location outside of the soaking pit and is arranged to remove the slag and refractory material from the bottom of the soaking pit.

This invention relates to a soaking pit clean out machine and more particularly to a soaking pit clean out machine having components for dislodging and removing the slag accumulation and refractory bottom from the bottom of the soaking pit.

Ingots must be heated at a controlled rate to a preselected temperature before they are subjected to a rolling and shaping process. Soaking pit furnaces are provided for heating the ingots and comprise generally a plurality of soaking pits supplied with gases at elevated temperatures from furnace and recuperator units. The soaking pits may be of either a rectangular configuration, or in certain instances of a circular configuration and have a metallic shell with an inner refractory wall. The soaking pit base or bottom has a built-up door of refractory brick, grout and the like that forms a surface on which the ingots are positioned. During the heating process within the soaking pit the exterior surface of the ingots oxidizes and forms scale or slag thereon. Imperfectly bonded portions of the oxidized metal are detached from the ingot and are deposited on the soaking pit bottom refractory surface. The layer of slag within the soaking pit gradually accumulates and it is necessary to periodically clean out the soaking pit by removing the accumulation of the slag and the refractory material from the soaking pit.

It has been the practice in the past to remove a bank of soaking pits from service and to permit the soaking pits to cool to a suicient degree so that men can enter the soaking pit and with percussive tools dislodge the accumulation of slag and the refractory material therebeneath. This procedure is expensive and time consuming. The time required to cool the soaking pit so that men could enter the pit resulted in the soaking pits being ont of operation for a substantial period of time and the manual removal of t-he accumulated slag and refractory material therebeneath also required a substantial number of man hours. The periodic clean out operation of the soaking pits added substantially to the cost of treating the ingots for the subsequent rolling and shaping. With the herein described soaking pit clean out machine the time during which the soaking pits are out 0f operation due to the periodic clean out is substantially reduced and the number of man hours required to clean out each soaking pit is also substantially reduced. With the hereinafter described clean out machine the cost of heat treating the ingots for subsequent rolling and shaping may be substantially reduced.

Briefly, the herein disclosed soaking pit clean out machine includes a support member that is positioned on the upper edge portions of the soaking pit. A trolley member is suitably supported on the supporting member and is arranged to traverse the soaking pit on the support member. A turntable is connected to the trolley by means of an extensible member and depends downwardly into the soaking pit from the support member. A boom support member is connected to the turntable and pivotally supports an extensible boom. A tool holder is pivotally connected to an end portion of the extensible boom and pivots in a vertical plane relative thereto. A percussive tool is mounted in the tool holder and is arranged to penetrate the slag and refractory bottom of the soaking pit. The boom support member through the turntable is rotatable about a vertical axis to position the percussive tool at various locations within the soaking pit. The pivotal action of the boom member and tool holder permits the percussive tool to dislodge pieces of the slag and refractory material. A scraper type tool is pivotally connected to the other end of the boom and is arranged to remove the dislodged slag and refractory through the clean out holes. An operators platform is connected to the support member externally of the soaking pit and suitable control means are provided to position and actuate the various components of the soaking pit clean out machine to effectively dislodge and remove the slag and refractory material located on the bottom of the soaking pit.

Accordingly, the principal object of this invention is to provide a soaking pit clean out machine whereby the dislodging and removal of the slag and refractory material on the bottom of the soaking pit is accomplished by an operator positioned externally of the soaking pit.

Another object of this invention is to provide a soaking pit clean out machine that has a percussive tool positionable at various locations within the soaking pit to effectively dislodge all of the slag accumulation and refractory material on the bottom of the soaking pit.

Another object of this invention is to provide a soaking pit clean out machine that may be quickly and easily positioned on the upper edge portions of the soaking pit walls and quickly and effectively dislodge and remove the slag accumulation and refractory material on the bottom' of the soaking pit.

These and other objects and advantages of this invention will be more completely disclosed and described in the following specifications, the accompanying drawings and the appended claims.

In the drawings:

FIGURE l is a top plan view of my soaking pit clean out machine illustrated in FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 2 is a view in side elevation of my soaking pit clean out machine taken along the line II-II of FIGURE l and positioned within a soaking pit. The boom structure, percussive tool and scraper are also illustrated in phantom in a lower position adjacent the soaking pit bottom Wall and adjacent the side Walls.

- FIGURE 3 is a fragmentary view partially in section structure.

FIGURE 4 is a fragmentary view partially in section illustrating the hydraulic actuator for moving the trolley longitudinally along the support member.

FIGURE 5 is a fragmentary view partially in section illustrating side trolleys which may be utilized to move the soaking pit clean out machine transversely to the axis of the support member.

FIGURE 6 is an end view taken along the line 6 6 Y of FIGURE 5 illustrating the drive means to propel the soaking pit clean out machine along the side trolleys.

eferring to the drawings and particularly to FIG` URES l and 2 there is illustrated a soaking pit generally designated by the numeral 19 that has a pair of side walls 12 and 14 and a bottom Vwall 16. The bottom wall or base 15 is metallic and has secured thereto a vertical metallic she-ll 18 that surrounds the vertical walls 12 and 14 and the other walls not shown in FIGURE 2. The metallic shell 18 has a refractory lining 2t) secured thereto within the soaking pit 10. As illustrated in FIGURE 2, the base or bottom of the soaking pit 10 has an accumulation of slag on the refractory base of the soaking pit. The accumulation of slag and refractory lining along the bottom ofthe pit 10 is generally designated by the numeral 22. This is the material that is removed from the soaking pit by mysoaking pit machine generally designated -by the numeral 24. The side walls of the soaking pit illustrated in FIGURE 2 have upper edge portions 26 and 28. it should be understood that my soaking pit machine 24 may bensed with soaking pit of other configurations. For exemplary purposes, however, my soaking pit machine will be described in conjunction with a conventional rectangular soaking pit having vertical walls with upper edge portions 26 and 28. y n

rIhe s-oahng pit Ymachine 24 has an upper frame like support member generally designated by the numeral 39 that is fabricated from a pair of parallel spaced I beams 32 and 34 that are secured to each other adjacent their end portions by transverse beams 36 and 38. Secured to the beam 38 there is diagrammatically illustrated and indicated by the numeral 4d a power pack. The power pack contains the prime movers that ldrive an air compressor and hydraulic pumps tfor operating the various hydraulic and air actuated components as will be later described. The power pack 49 also includes electrical components to generate or transmit electric current to the electrically actuated components. Adjacent the power pack 40 is an operators compartment 42 with a control console 44. The console 44 contains the actuating levers for the various hydraulic, air and electrically operated components. For clarity and brevity the details of the conduit connections between the power pack and the variously actuated components is not shown. lt should be understood, however,

that conventional conduits, valve mechanism and switches t may be utilized to actuate the various components.

Secured to the longitudinal I beams 32 and 34 are i cylinders 46 that have rods 48 extending therefrom. The

rods 4S are connected to brackets S6 that are secured at their lower edge portion to transverse members 52. The transverse members 52 are arranged to abut the side walls of the soaking pit 1d and are urged into abutting relation therewith by hydraulic pressure lwithin the :cylinder 46. With this arrangement, the support member 3l] is maintained in fixed position on the upper portion of the soaking pit. There are provided on the longitudinal beams 32 and 34 upwardly extending brackets 54 for attachment to a crane or other lifting devices for removing and transporting rmy soaking pit machine 24 to the various soaking pits in a soaking pit furnace line.

A trolley 56 is positioned between the longitudinal beams 32 and 34 and has trolley wheels 58 extending between the ilanges of the beams 32 and 34 so that the beams 32 and 34 serve as longitudinal rails for the trolley 56 so that the trolley may longitudinally traverse the sup` rod 69 has a uid tight packing 64 fixed thereto to form.'

variable volume chambers 66 and 68 within the cylinder 62. There are provided iiuid ports 71B and 72 in the cylinder 62 adjacent the end portions. The ports 70 and 72 are suitably connected to a source of pressurized hydraulic iiuid and as iiuid as supplied -under pressure to either of the variable volume chambers 66 and 58 the cylinder 62 moves longitudinally on the rod 76 and thus moves the trolley 56 longitudinally relative to the frame like support member 30. Y

The trolley 56 has va scissor like extensible member '74VV connected thereto and depending downwardly therefrom. The extensible member 74 has` an upper member 76 and a lower member 78 arranged in parallel spaced relation to each other. The upper member 76 is secured to the trolley 56 and depends downwardly therefrom and has a pair of side walls 39 with longitudinal slots 82 and 84 therein. The lower member 78 has a pair of upwardly extending side ywalls 86 with longitudinal slots 88 and 90. The fupper member 76 and the lower member 78 are c011- nected to each other by pairs of diagonally extending.`

lower the lower member 78 relative to the upper member Y 76. A cylinder 16u is pivotally connected at one end to the lower member '78 and has a piston rod 102 extending outwardly therefrom. The piston rod 102 is pivotally connected to the strap member 94 at 104. With this arrangement, the relative position of lower member 78 to upper member 76 is controlled by the extension and retraction of piston rod 162 within the cylinder 16d. `If desired, a hydraulic reservoir, pump and electric motor can be provided adjacent the cylinder 160 to provide the necessary hydraulic pressure to extend and retract the piston rod 102 and thereby move the lower member 78 relative to the upper member 76 to control the vertical dimension of extensible member 74.

There is a turntable platform 106 connected to the underside of the lower member 78. The turntable platform has a depending housing 168 (FIGURE 3) that encloses the support member for the turntable gearing. The turntable platform has a central aperture 110 therethrough with inturned shoulder portions 112 and Y114. A boom support member generally designated by the numeral 116 has a circular upper end portion 118 positioned in the aperture 110 and suitablyV supported thereon on bearings 120 and 122. The boom support member 116f pinion 126 is nonrotatably connected to the shaft 134.

Thus, by energizing motor 128 rotation of pinion 126 rotates the boom support 116 about a vertical axis so that the boom support member may rotate through an arc of 360. The turntable previously described is similar in many respects to the turntable illustrated and described in my co-pending application entitled Furnace Refractory Delining Apparatus. Y v

rThe boom support member has -a pair of depending ange members 136 that are arranged in spaced parallel relation to each other and have aligned apertures 138 therethrough. A cylindrical boom member generally designated by the numeral 140 has a body portion 142 and an extensible portion 144. The body portion 142 has a trunnion 146 secured thereto intermediate the end portions. The trunnion has laterally extending shafts 148 that are positioned in the apertures 138 Vto permit the boom to pivot about a transverse axis extending through the cylindrical boom body portion 142.

There is pivotally secured to one of the depending flange members 136 an actuating cylinder 150 that has a rod 152 connected to a lever bracket 154 Iby means of a pin 156. The bracket 154 is nonrotatably connected to the s-haft 148 of trunnion 146 so that the extension and retraction of piston rod 152 in cylinder 158 pivots the tubular boom 140 about the trunnion shaft axis.

The cylindrical boom member 140 has a xed body portion 142 and an extensible portion 144 that is telescopically positioned within the body portion 142. Suitable hydraulic means are provided for extending and retracting the extensible portion 144 relative to the body portion 142. A suitable hydraulic arrangement for extending and retracting the extensible portion 144 is described in my co-pending application entitled Mobile Furnace Delining Machine. It should be understood, however, that other means for extending and retracting the extensible portion 144 may be employed.

A tool holder mounting head generally designated by the numeral 158 is secured to an end portion of the boom extensible portion 144 and has a tool holder 169 pivotally connected thereto. The tool holder mounting head 158 has laterally extending shaft end portions 162 which are nonrotatably connected to portions of the tool holder 160. Within the tool holder mounting head 158 there is a hydraulic actuating mechanism to rotate the shaft end portions 162 about their longitudinal axis. A suitable hydraulic actuating mechanism for rotating the shaft 162 is described and illustrated in my co-pending application entitled Mobile Furnace Delining Machine and is incorporated herein by reference. With this arrangement, the tool holder 160 is free to pivot in a vertical plane relative to the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical boom 140 to position the tool holder in varying angular positions relative to the cylindrical boom 149. A percussive tool 164 is suitably mounted in the tool holder 169 and is supplied with compressed air from the power pack 40.

There is connected to the opposite end of the cylindrical boom body portion 142 another tool holder mounting head 166. The tool holder mounting head 166 has laterally extending shaft end portions 168 that are nonrotatably secured to a member 170 so that the member 170 is pivotally connected thereto and is free to pivot in a vertical plane. The tool holder mounting head 166 may be similar in construction to the tool holder mounting head 158 so that the mem-ber 170 pivots in a vertical plane relative to the tubular boom 140. A tool actuator 172 that has a scraper tool 174 connected to the end portion thereof is suitably connected to the end portion of member 170. The tool actuator 172 is rotatable about the longitudinal axis of the member 170 and a suitable hydraulic means is provided to rotate the tool actuator 172 and tool 174 relative to the member 170.

With the above described soaking pit clean out machine 24 the support member 30 is positioned on the soaking pit upper edge portions 26 and 28 by means of an overhead crane or the like. Hydraulic uid under pressure is supplied to cylinders 46 to urge the members 52 into abutting relation with the soaking pit side walls 12 and 14. The percussive tool 164 is positioned above the clean out apertures 176 or 180 in the soaking pit and the percussive tool is actuated. Hydraulic uid under pressure is supplied to cylinder 100 to extend the extensible member 74 and lower the cylindrical boom 140 as the percussive tool 164 penetrates the accumulated slag and refratory material 22 on the bottom of the soaking pit 10. When the percussive tool 164 has penetrated through the slag and refractory material and opened the clean out aperture 176, the boom member and tool holder 166 are so positioned to break away portions of the slag and refractory material and permit it to fall Iby gravity through the clean out holes 176 or 180 in the soaking pit bottom wall 16. As the removal of the accumulated slag and refractory material continues, the various components of the clean out machine are positioned to dislodge pieces of accumulated slag and refractory material and the scraper 174 is -utilized to move the dislodged material to the clean out holes 176. The trolley 56 is moved longitudinally along the rod to position the components secured thereto and depending therefrom in desired positions within the soaking pit 10. The turntable device is utilized to rotate the boom 140 connected thereto to properly position either the percussive tool 164 or the scraper 174 for dislodging or removing the accumulated slag and refractory material. The boom member 149 has an extensible portion 144 which is utilized to both position the tool holder 160 and to exert lateral forces on the percussive tool 164 to assist in dislodging the accumulated slag and refractory material. The pivotal arrangement of the boom 140 is also utilized to position the percussive tool 164Vfor removing the accumulated slag and refractory material. It will be apparent with the above description that the soaking pit clean out machine 24 has a plurality of adjustable components that are utilized to position and move the percussive tool 164 and scraper 174 as required to dislodge and convey the accumulated slag and refractory material to the clean out apertures 176 and 180. With this arrangement, the accumulated slag and refractory material may be rapidly removed from the soaking pit 1t) without men being positioned within the soaking pit.

Where the soaking pits have a dimension that makes it desirable to move the entire soaking pit machine relative to the soaking pit 10 to clean out the entire soaking pit Without having the over head crane reposition the soaking pit clean out machine, a pair of lateral rails (see FIGURES 5 and 6) 182 may be positioned on the upper edges or adjacent support 184. The rails 182 have a central upstanding rail portion 186 and a pair of upwardly extending end anges 188 and 190. Secured to the beams 32 and 34 of the support member 3G are transverse plates 192. Pairs of spaced channels 194 and 196 are secured to the plate 192 and are arranged to rotatably support wheels 198 therebetween. With this arrangement, the entire soaking pit machine 24 is movably mounted on the rails 182 to move relative to the soaking pit 10. A suitable drive means such as gear motor 200 may be connected to the wheels 198 to propel the soaking pit machine 24 along the rails 182. The rails 182 have leveling jacks 202 secured to their end portions which maintain the desired planar relationship of the rails 182 positioned on opposite sides of the soaking pit.

It will be apparent, with the above side rails 182 that my furnace delining machine may also be propelled at right angles to the direction of movement of trolley 56 on the support member 30. The side rails 182 eliminate the necessity of adjusting the relative position of the clean out machine 24 within the soaking pit 10 and further increases the speed at which the accumulated slag and refractory material may be removed from the bottom of the soaking pit 10.

According to the provisions of the patent statutes, 1 have explained the principle, preferred construction, and mode of operation of my invention and have illustrated and described what I now consider to represent its best embodiments. However, I desire to have it understood that, within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically illustrated and described.

What is claimed is:

1. In a soaking pit clean out machine the combination comprising,

a support member positioned on the upper edge portions of opposite vertical walls of a soaking pit,

Y said support member having a pair of spaced parallel means to rotate said boom support member about a vertical axis relative to said turntable platform, a boom member pivotally secured to said boom support member, Y

vmeans to pivot said boom member in a vertical plane,

a tool holder mounting head connected to one end of the boom member,

a tool holder secured to said tool holder mounting head,

means in said tool holder mounting head to pivot said tool holder in a vertical plane relative to said boom, and

a percussive tool mounted in said tool `holder and arranged to dislodge the slag accumulation and refractory material in the bottom of the soaking pit.

2. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 1 which includes,

engaging means connected to said spaced rail members adjacent the vertical walls of the soaking pit, and

means to urge said engaging means into abutting relation with the soaking pit vertical walls to secure the soaking pit -machine at a preselected location within the soaking pit while the percussive tool dislodges the slag accumulation and refractory material in the bottom of the soaking pit.

3. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 1 in which said support member includes,

a pair of parallel spaced longitudinal beams' having longitudinal rail portions thereon,

a pair of transverse beams secured to said longitudinal beams adjacent said longitudinal beam end portions and forming a frame-like sup ort member,

a pair of side wall engaging members positioned below said frame-like support and extending transversely to said longitudinal beams,

said engaging members having upwardly extending brackets,

hydraulic actuators connected to said longitudinal beams and to said brackets, said hydraulic -actuators arranged to move said engaging members into abutting relation with the soaking pit vertical Walls to secure the soaking pit machine at a preselected location Within the soaking pit while the percussive tool dislodges the slag accumulation and refractory material in -the bottom of the soa-king pit.

4. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 1 which includes,

a cylindrical rod secured to said support member and positioned in parallel relation to said pair of spaced rail members,

said trolley having a cylindrical chamber with said rod extending therethrough,

said cylindrical rod having an annular seal secured thereto and extending radially therefrom within said cylindrical chamber,

said annular seal forming a pair of variable volume chambers within said cylindrical chamber on opposite Sides of said seal,

said cylindrical chamber Vhaving iluid ports adjacent the end portions arranged to conduct uid under pressure into said variable volume chambers to move said trolley and said cylindrical chamber longitudi- Vnally on said rod member. 5. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 1 in which said extensible means includes,

an upper member secured to said trolley and havin depending side walls, said side walls having longitudinal slots therein,

a lower member secured to said turntable platform and Y having upwardly extending side Walls with longitudinal slots therein,

a pair of strap members pivotally connected to each other intermediate their end portions, said `strap members arranged in crossed relation and having end portions extend into said longitudinal slots of said upper and lower members to thereby connect said upper member to said lower member and permit the end portions of said strap members to move toward and away from each other in the respective slots, and

control means connected to one of said members and one of said strap members, said control means arranged to maintain a predetermined angular relation between said strap members and thereby maintain said upper member and said lower member in preselected spaced relation to each other. Y

6. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim l in which said boom member includes,

a cylindrical body portion pivotally secured to said boom support,

a cylindrical extensible member telescopically positioned within said cylindrical body portion, and

liuid actuated means within said body portion to extend and retract said extensible member relative to said body portion.

7. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 1 which includes,

a second tool holder mounting head connected to the other end of said boom member,

a second tool holder secured to said second tool holder mounting head,

other means in said second tool holder mounting head to pivot said second tool holder relative to said boom, and

a conveying tool mounted in said second tool holder and arranged to convey dislodged slagand refractory material to a discharged opening in the bottom of the soaking pit. Y

8. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 7 in which said second tool holder includes,

means to rotate said conveying tool about a vertical axis relative to said tool holder. l

9. A soaking pit clean out machine as set forth in claim 1 which includes,

second rail members positioned perpendicularly to the direction of travel of said trolley member and arranged to be positioned adjacent the'upper edge portions of the opposite soaking pit vertical Walls,

bracket members depending downwardly from said support member, and

wheel members rotatably secured to said bracket members, said Wheel members arranged to be positioned on said second rail members so that said soaking pit clean out machine is movable in a direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of said trolley member. Y

10. A soaking pit machine as set forth in claim 9 which includes,

propelling means connected to said wheels and arranged to propel said Vsoaking pit clean out machine on said second rail members, and

leveling means associated with said second rail members that are arranged to maintain said second rail members in a preselected horizontal plane.

(References on following page) 9 10 References Cited 3,302,976 2/ 1967 Grant 299-70 UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,306,374 2/1967 Stromnes 173-43 3/1894 Symonds 173-43 X 8/1946 K. ey et al. 17? 43 X o ERNEST R. PURSER, P1 :mary Exammer. 6/1955 Putnam' FRED C. MATTERN, Examiner.

1/1967 Qvarnstrom et al. 173-43 X L. P. KESSLER, Assistant Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3458396 *Sep 22, 1966Jul 29, 1969Grant Inc Louis ADemolition machine
US3471888 *Jan 3, 1966Oct 14, 1969Grant Inc Louis ASoaking pit chipper
US3771610 *Feb 11, 1972Nov 13, 1973Poclain SaPublic works machines
US3995344 *Nov 14, 1975Dec 7, 1976Louis A. Grant, Inc.Low profile soaking pit machine
US4222687 *Jun 12, 1978Sep 16, 1980Williams Richard LeeApparatus for boring sewer pipe opening in manhole base
US4223875 *Mar 5, 1979Sep 23, 1980Alexander Shand Services LimitedApparatus for deskulling tundishes and similar vessels
US4239291 *Jun 13, 1978Dec 16, 1980William M. Bailey CompanyIndustrial metallurgical delining assembly
US4350324 *Dec 16, 1980Sep 21, 1982Estel Hoogovens B.V.By adding a substance that lowers the melting point of the slag, and a substance which causes an exothermic reaction
US4861112 *Jul 26, 1988Aug 29, 1989Louis A. Grant, Inc.Apparatus for cleaning aluminum cells
US5282681 *Jul 29, 1992Feb 1, 1994Cadence Environmental Energy, Inc.Portable agitator for fluidizing bottom solids in tanks
US5366289 *Dec 6, 1994Nov 22, 1994Cadence Environmental Energy, Inc.Portable agitator for fluidizing bottom solids in tanks
Classifications
U.S. Classification173/34, 299/70, 173/52, 266/135, 173/192
International ClassificationF27D25/00, C21D9/70
Cooperative ClassificationF27D25/001, C21D9/70
European ClassificationC21D9/70, F27D25/00A