US 3371508 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. J. NELSON 3,371,508
MOCK CANDLE Filed Feb. 7, 1966 2 sheets shee'il INVENTOR. fler lum/n asa/v,
March 5, 1968 NELSON v 3,371,508
' ocx CANDLE Filed Feb. 7, 1966 I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 3,371,508 MQCK CANDLE Arthur J. Nelson, Santa Barbara, Calif. (1998 Broadway St., San Francisco, Calif. 94109) Filed Feb. 7, 1966, Ser. No. 525,764 9 Claims. (CI. 67-27) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A candle concealed in arecepta'cle has either selective or automatic regulation of flame size to prolong its burning life, meanwhile an external indicator foretells the residual time of burning. The candle is spring-loaded to provide a required pressure at its upper taper-end to seal off gravitational waste of molten wax and has a candle lower-end vessel to eventually retain the candle mass when it changes from solid to a liquid pool for final consumption. I
The present invention relates to a device which may be classified as mock candles in which an effect of perpetual candle is obtained. The actual candle is spring loaded within a tube to be automatically fed toward the burning end as the wax is consumed by the flame.
In the prior art, various arrangements to employ an additional tube with the candle and spring necessitating an outer tube sized larger to deflect any wish to produce slender effect of candle. Furthermore, they require partial disassembly to determine the amount of candle remaining to be burned. Also as devised, some of the liquid wax formed by the heat of the flame usually drips down in the tube to solidify and often prevented complete burning of the candle without first being cleaned out. I
Many times these devices did not fit into existing receptacles and required special contrivances to suit each particular condition. Also the difliculty to reload the device with a new candle often was a physical challenge because of the force required to compress the spring as designed.
It is, accordingly, a principal object to this invention to provide a device to assure protection against obstructive elements that interfere with complete consumption of a candle.
A more specific object of this invention is to minimize waste of wax that remains as a residue requiring removal before a new candle is installed.
Yet another specific object of this invention is to extend the burning life of a candle by controlling the size of the flame.
Still another object of this invention is to provide a telltale to indicate the amount of candle remaining or the burning hours remaining without any dismantling of the device.
Another object of the invention is to simplify replacement of candles and do so with more ease.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide the device with an adaptor for securely mounting to existing receptacles.
An esthetic object of the invention is to produce the appearance of slender candles by minimizing the diameter of the enclosing tubing; was to be only /s larger than the diameter of the inserted candle.
The basic invention may be broadly defined as the inclusion of a candle within an assembly to produce a controlled size of flame and completely consume the candle meanwhile indicating the remaining burning hours by simple exterior telltale. Replacement of candles to be simply removal of a top cap and, depression of the candle with case against a compression spring that is restrained within and confined to the tube at all times. Design of the top cap and bottom vessel fitted to the ends of the candle United States Patent 3,371,508 Patented Mar. 5,, 1968 are provisions to effectively consume the candle economically and avoid interferences for an uninterrupted consumption of the candle.
The foregoing and other objects and the basic assembly and the details of the structure cooperating therewith will become more apparent when viewed in light of the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a view of the assembly mounted in a receptacle and about to have a candle depressed within the tubing.
FIGURE 2 is a fragment view of tubing showing fastening detail.
FIGURE 3 differs from FIGURE 1 in that it is an integral unit. Its base replaces the adaptor and receptacle of FIGURE 1. The candle is secured in place.
FIGURE 4 is another view of the assembly differing essentially by the inclusion of automatic flame control.
FIGURE 5 is a plan of the members comprising the automatic deviceand view AA of FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 6 shows a fragment of spring material preparatory to being formed into an adaptor which mounts the tubing assembly to a receptacle.
FIGURE 7 shows the form in which the development of FIGURE 6 is shaped.
FIGURE 8 shows the effect of deforming the shape of FIGURE 7 so as to be dimensionally suitable to enter a pocket of receptacles supporting the assembly in an upright position.
Referring now to the drawings in detail; FIGURE 1 shows tube 1 fitted to lower end collar 2 which is fastened to adaptor 3 seated in receptacle pocket 4 all as a stably supported column. Shoulder 5 formed in said collar 2 seats a compression spring 6 shown to its maximum length as restrained in tube 1, to be described later more fully.
Seated to top of spring 6 is vessel 7 which bears against the base of candle 8 to provide void space 7'. Upon candle 8 is placed the top cap 9 which is pressed upon to encase the candle within said tube 1 until nub 10 a protuberance within said top cap 9 engages to slot 11 in tube 1 but shown in FIGURE 2. Thereupon top cap 9 is twisted slightly to lock top cap 9 to tube 1 against pressure of candle 8 being forced upward by spring 6. Nub 10 engaging slot 11 may be in diagonally opposite pairs and may be employed to similarly secure end collar 2 to tube 1.
To the underside of vesesl 7 is secured a coupling 12 used to engage tension member 13 in this case shown to be a cord. To the lower end of member 13 is fitted obstruction 14 bearing against the side of adaptor 3 at a hole sized only suflicient to clear said member 13. As shown in FIGURE 1 the length of member 13 is just sufiicient to permit vessel 7 to be positioned by spring pressure slightly above tube 1 when obstruction 14 bears against adaptor 3.
Thus member 13 is a tension member that is taut when top cap 9 is removed and is the restrain against spring 6 from seeking its free length. Centering pilot 15 aligns tensioned member 13 central in tube 1.
Modification of FIGURE 1 is shown in FIGURE 3. Support members 2, 3 and 4 are replaced by 16 and 17. FIGURE 3 shows the candle 8 retained within tubing 1 by modified top cap 9 engaged to tubing 1 and locked by nub 10 in slot 11. The assembly is an integral unit depending upon its own base 17 for support in which tubing 1 is fastened between dish 6 and shoulder 5 of base 17 as preferred arrangement. Again shoulder 5 is the support for spring 6. FIGURE 3 also shows an optional arrangement to employ guide pilot 18 for centering member 13 as at end 18 and to provide the stop 18" to which obstruction 14 will bear when nozzle cap 9' is removed from tubing 1.
The exposed length of member 13 which in FIGURE 3 is represented as 13, indicates the length of candle contained in the assembly, for again as described for FIGURE 1 when vessel 7 is slightly above the end of tube 1 then member 13 is taut.
It is intended that the exposed length of 13' is to he graduated by markings to indicate uniform intervals of burning time of the candle.
Top cap 9 in FIGURE 1 comprises a lower portion of outer cylindrical shell 31 for locking engagement with tube 1 and a short hollow conical section 20 within the upper portion of shell 31 tapering toward and spaced below an end plate 32 topping said upper portion. An aperture 24 provided in the end plate 32 serves as the opening through which the candle wick 23 projects and for passage of air to the base of the flame of wick 23.
Top cap 9 in FIGURE 3 is modified as an optional arrangement with the upper portion of shell 31 reformed to a long hollow conical section 20' terminating with the aperture 24. With this arrangement the candle 8 is sirnilarly trimmed to bear with the lower portion of section 20' thus again providing the spaced relation below aperture 24; This leaves a void 21 that will eventually partially fill with liquid wax 22 generated by the flame of the candle. The force of the compression spring 6 causes a corresponding bearing pressure of candle at the conical sectional area 20, so that as the candle is consumed by converting solid wax into liquid wax, the pliable wax occurring in changing state is gradually forced towards the wick 23 by the force component at the taper seat. This definite directional movement upward and towards the central Wick 23 assures maintenance of the seat as a seal to prevent gravitational flow of liquid wax 22 down through clearance space 26 provided between candle 8 and tubing wall 1, typically illustrated in FIGURE 3.
The pool of liquid wax softens the upper perimeter of the wax seal 20 and changes the pyhsical state of wax from solid through pliable to liquid wax as a continuing process relying on spring 6 to maintain the feed of solid wax in accommodation with its depletion to the lower perimeter of said bearing seal 20.
Aperture 24 through which wick 23 projects above is sized for the maximum required feed of air to the base, of the flame. Orifice 25 is mounted above aperture 24 has a lesser opening to decrease feed of air to the flaming wick to diminish the size of the flame. An assortment of orifices permits the selection of flame size desired with opening areas limited between to of the sectional area of the candle used. The smallest useable orifice provides longest burning time in that amount of air admitted is just suflicient to support combustion with the liquid wax being drawn up the wick as replacement fuel. As intimated the smallest orifice depends upon the presence of and is just capable to sustain a liquid wax pool 22.
It has been found by the inventor that a wick extending above the cold solid wax can be ignited with the smallest orifice in place, but insuflicient air is admitted to produce a flame hot enough to generate the liquid wax pool; so that flame-out occurs upon consumption of the residual wax on the wick. Therefore the smallest orifice is introduced or mounted on cap 9 after the liquid wax pool exists.
FIGURE 4 reveals a device to automatically provide an enlarged orifice when the candle is cold; so that sulficient air is admitted for a newly lighted candle to continue to burn with intensity enough to generate a liquid Wax pool, whereupon the orifice is automatically contracted to restrict flow of air to the flame for least consumption of wax during the burning time. When the flame is intentionally extinguished the liquid wax pool will gradually disappear or solidify with attending enlargement of the orifice for that need when relighting the cold candle.
Specifically this automatic device is embodied in a revised top cap 9 which has also included a short hollow conical section 20 serving the same purpose as that revealed previously pertaining to the liquid wax seal. Likewise the outer cylindrical shell portion 31 serves to form the same fastening to tube 1 as revealed. Their inclusion by simple reference as to their function is made so as not to obscure the detailed description of the automatic adjusting orifice.
The uppermost end of shell 31 of top cap 9" is formed with an end plate 32 having an opening 33 provided therethrough for the passage of necessary air when the wick 23 is newly lighted. Said opening 33 is best seen in FIGURE 8 as the inner configuration 33 formed by solid lines. Pivotally connected below end plate 32 at retaining pivot mount 34 is throttle 35 shown in dotted lines in FIGURE 8. Throttle 35 is made to oscillate in sliding contact with the lower face of plate 32 so as to diminish the opening 33 by an amount indicated by hatching line 36 for a minimum orifice opening and then return the throttle 35 for restored full orifice opening in accommodation with air requirements of a burning wick.
An annular helical coil 37 in sliding contact with inner surface of shell 31 is fastened at its lower end 38 to said shell 31 and its upper end 39 is fastened to the throttle 35, so that pivot 34 is between fastening 39 and the central axis of the candle. Furthermore, this fastening 38 is made while throttle 35 is positioned for maximum port opening and without any tensional stress applied to coil 37 for an inert assembly.
With the maximum opening thus provided a candle Wick 23 can be lighted to continue to burn to generate a pool of liquid wax 22 to partially fill the void 21 and immerse said coil 37 in the new hot wax. The temperature of said pool 22 will cause a temperature rise in the coil 37 affecting thermal linear expansion of the contained length of material forming the coil.
With one end of the coil rigidly secured at 38, the change in length will cause movement of end connection 39 about pivot 34 which in turn pivots the throttle 35. As optionally directioned by arrows in FIGURE 8 (for throttle 35 to pivot) to reduce orifice opening, the fastening to 31 requires that length of coil material progresses clockwise from 38. Thus coil 37 becomes the means to actuate a throttle controlling the size of orifice opening when acted upon by the liquid Wax. In turn the liquid wax is consumed by the flame at a rate controlled by said throttle.
A restriction to the orifice opening 33 decreases the flow of air to the flame for prolonged burning and is of a size to support combustion of suflicient heat intensity to sustain the liquid pool of Wax. When the flame is deliberately extinguished, the liquid wax will gradually solidify with decreasing temperature to diminish the thermal expansion of the coil length, thus restoring the full opening 33 when the temperatures are again ambient. The coil will then be all or partially embedded in solid wax; however, since the orifice is at maximum opening, the candle can be relighted to generate the liquid pool for reactivating the automatic mechanism.
Vessel 7 is introduced as the means to retain liquid Wax when all solid wax has been liquefied during final consumption of the candle 8 in which case sealing area formed by bearing surface 20 no longer exists. Thus vessel 7 becomes a reservoir to contain liquid Wax 22 for consumption by the flaming wick. Without vessel 7, the liquid wax would have then dripped down space 26 to solidify and make the spring 6 ineffective and require cleaning out to make the assembly useable.
The varying pressure of spring 6 resulting by change in compression height as the candle is consumed is minimized by providing springs of high index ratio, i.e., C=D/d;18 and providing a working range for spring compression relation of a/ bgS/ 7 where: C=index ratio; D=mean coil diameter; d=wire diameter; b=initial spring compression (full candle inserted); a=final spring compression (candle consumed); symbol 5 reads equal to or greater than.
With such values the pressure at the conical seat 20 remains nearly a constant value or the change in pressure is minimized during the time the candle is being consumed. These design values also decrease the maximum pressure exerted by a spring and still provides adequate pressure when at the final extended height. The outside diameter of spring 6 is also a maximum, since it slidably works within a single concealing tube; so that the spring wire diameter d is of substantial section for the c value above.
The taper section 3 made adaptable to conform with various pockets 4 of a receptacle, comprises an annular collar section 27 as a continuous link for a series of combination springs 28 which deform to bear against side 4' of pockets 4 as shown in FIGURE 1.
The construction of adaptor 3 commences with a piece of spring material shaped by cut to the appearance of a comb, see FIGURE 6. The material is rolled to a cylinder and combination springs 28 formed as indicated in FIG- URE 7.
A wire ring spring 29 is mounted to retract the group of combination springs 28 to form a diminished diameter as shown in FIGURE 6, which diameter will permit passage of adaptor 3 into pocket 4. The adaptor 3 is fastened to collar 2 as by soldering.
The short leg 28' of combination spring 28 bears against pocket side 4'. A granular deposit is applied to bearing surface of leg 28' to increase frictional resistance. With smaller size pockets 4, the adaptor taper configuration diminishes so that wire ring spring 29 no longer bears on its inner diameter to adaptor 3 but instead its outside diameter bears to assist adaptor 3 to secure additional spring grip.
To conclude, from the foregoing description it is believed apparent that the present invention enables the accomplishment of the objects initially set forth herewith. In particular, this device produces a means to determine how much burning time remains for the mock candle without having to disassemble any part, it provides assurance that the candle can be completely consumed without interruption due to malfunction. The invention provides for simplicity of use and economical or controlled consumption of the candle. It is therefore to be understood that the invention is not intended to be limited to the details of the specific embodiments illustrated and described but rather as defined by the following claims.
What is claimed is: i
1. A mock candle comprising an erect outer tube and a remountable upper end member to conceal a candle and spring mechanism whereby said candle is force fed upwards to its consuming flame, the improvement comprising:
(1) upper said end member having a cylindrical lower portion to be attachable to said tube and an upper portion containing within a hollow conical section tapering towards and space-d below an aperture provided in an end plate topping said upper portion;
(2) said candle adapted to have bearing with said conical section and retain said space below said aperture;
(3) said bearing is a seal to retain liquid wax generated by the heat of the said flame, said liquid wax collecting in a portion of said space; and,
(4) the said aperture modified by means to vary the area of opening which admits air needed to support combustion for the intensity of flame required, said area of opening limited between a to of the sectional area of said candle.
2. The mock candle as in claim 1 said means is at least one orifice disk for individual mounting upon said end plate and said disk has less open area than that of said aperture.
3. The mock candle as in claim 1 said means to vary the area comprising:
(1) an oscillating throttle pivotally mounted to the underside of said end plate to decrease the area opening of said aperture;
(2) an elongated member positioned for immersion in said liquid wax and connected between said throttle and said upper end member;
(3) the generation of liquid wax by the heat of the flame induces thermal linear expansion of the immersed said elongated member to become the activating mechanism of said throttle; and,
(4) said mechanism arranged to decrease the aperture area opening when immersed in liquid wax and to restore full aperture opening before said member is embedded in the congealed wax following flame-out.
4. The mock candle as in claim 1 the improvement 0 further comprising:
(1) a single tube both conceals and laterally supports said candle and said spring;
(2) said upper end member secured to said tube solely relied on to retain said spring loaded candle in said tube;
(3) said spring proportioned for D/dg18 where: D=mean coil diameter; 'd=wire diameter; and symbol reads is equal to or greater than; and,
(4) candle pressure at said bearing to have a maximum to minimum working ratio equal to or less than 7 to 5, established by said spring.
5. The mock candle as in claim 4 the improvement further comprising:
( 1) said spring is restrained within said tube when said upper end member is removed by a tension means; and,
(2) said tension means made ineflective as the spring restrain upon reengagement of said upper end member with said tube.
6. The mock candle as in claim 5 said tension means to restrain is central within said tube and having ends; to be,
(1) connected at one end to the bottom of a vessel topping said spring;
(2) extending lengthwise down through a hole in a lower end member mounted to the lower end of said tube;
(3) fitted with an obstruction piece secured to the other end and said obstruction sized larger than said hole; and,
(4) assembled in length to become taut with said obstruction piece bearing at said hole when said upper end member is removed.
7. The mock candle as in claim 6 the improvement further comprising:
(1) said member extending through said hole is an exposed viewable lengh;
(2) said viewable length indicate in magnitude the effective length of candle contained in said tube; and,
(3) said exposed length diminishing in length corresponding to the consumption of said candle.
8. The mock candle as in claim 1 the improvement further comprising:
(1) a vessel fitted to the top of said spring reserves a storage space within; the walls of said vessel transferring the force of said spring to said candle;
(2) said candle at final consumption is solely liquid wax whereupon said seal of liquid wax is destroyed;
(3) said seal is replaced by said walls of the vessel abutting said conical section whereby said vessel contains the liquid wax as a reservoir until consumed by the flaming wick; and,
(4) said reservoir intercepts the gravitational flow of liquid wax to the said spring mechanism.
9. A mock candle comprising an erect outer tube and secured end members to said tube to conceal a candle ment of the remaining length of said concealed candle; said protruding member diminishing in length according to consumption of said candle; a means to sustain a mock candle vertically from the receptacle of a base structure by a grip of the inner sides of said receptacle, whereby:
(1) said grip comprises of 3 or more short fiat spring strips in an upright position with full length bearing contact to the said sides;
(2) the bearing surfaces of said short strips are coated with granules of abrasive material to increase frictional coefiicient at the said bearing contact;
(3) the lower end of each said short strip is joined by a U curved spring to a long flat spring strip extending upwards and joined to a common annular collar above said receptacle;
(4) said annular collar is fastened to the lower end of said mock candle;
(5) each said short-curved-long spring constructed as a single combination spring of material width permitting the cluster of said combination springs to be contracted at their free end by a retainer to an average diameter less than that of said annular collar;
(6) said retainer is a round spring wire ring with its inside diameter in engagement with alL said curved springs to close inwardly; said combination springs to said average diameter enabling the composite assembly to be forced into said receptacle; and,
(7) when the restricting size of said sides takes over to diminish said average diameter, said spring wire outside diameter bears outwardly against said curved spring, thereby contributing support for increased force at said bearing contact.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 179,547 7/1876 Folk 67-27 250,145 11/1881 Harper 67-27 470,816 3/1892 Bennett.
FOREIGN PATENTS 24,835 1898 Great Britain.
CHARLES J. MYHRE, Primaly Examiner.