US 3373568 A
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March 19, 1968 HQRNBOSTEIL, JR 3,373,568
SYSTEM FOR RECLAMATION OF LAND 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 13, 1965 I N VENTOR. LLOYD HOENBOSTEL J12.
5y 7 ATTORNEYS March 19, 1968 L. HORNBOSTEL, JR 3,373,568
SYSTEM FOR RECLAMATION OF LAND Filed Sept. 13, 1965 /Vl i P42 l 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 izififiL/ /f// I N VENTOR. LLOYD Honzwaosrn J2.
3,373,568 SYSTEM FHC'R REELAMATEQN F LAND Lloyd Hornhostei, J13, 1801 Chippewa Trail, Beioit, Wis. 53511 Filed Sept. 13, H65, 502. No. 486,706 Claims. (Ci. 61-5) ABS-TRACT OF THE DISCLGSURE System for the reclamation of land by placing spaced elongated flexible sealed bags filled with a mixture of aggregate and water along the shore line in overlapping elationship. The bags are made from a plastic material and may be covered by a nylon netting and have anchors at their opposite ends for the attachment of anchoring cables, anchoring the bags to the shore to extend with their longest dimensions parallel to the short line. The bags may be anchored in staggered relation with respect to each other with two advance bags lapped at the ends thereof by a trailing bag spaced from the two advanced bags to take care of an on-shore wash. The bags also may be angularly disposed with respect to the shore line and extending in spaced parallel staggered relationship with respect to each other in positions orthogonally with respect to the direction of the wash, where the wash is a long-shore wash.
This invention relates generally to a system for the reclamation of land and more particularly to a novel method and apparatus for protecting a shore line and removing suspended sediment in the water adjacent a shore line and depositing such sediment on the shore. The present invention accomplishes the several novel results by absorbing energy from a wave front and trapping the water of the wave front from the receding water of the remaining portion of the wave which allows suspended sediment therein to be deposited on the shore. The instant invention exemplified herein has particular application in those shore line areas where tidal action occurs. However, it is to be understood that the present invention may be employed in other shore line areas and is not dependent upon tidal action for satisfactory achievement of the several novel results thereof.
Damage to shore line areas and to beaches is commonly caused by the erosion effect of waves attacking the shore line and carrying away earth and sand. This problem is particularly acute in those areas which have been developed for commercial use. Such development is commonly practiced in those shore line areas which have very little or no sand available for forming suitable beaches for commercial use. When sand is deposited in such areas for improving the commercial use of the land, erosion effects of the Waves will eventually carry all of the deposited sand away from the area.
In addition, many or" the natural sand beaches are being constantly changed as the sand is shifted by the action of the water in the form of waves and tidal currents. Since the development of man made beaches is expensive, primarily due to the cost of transporting sand and other materials, and, since the maintenance of existing natural beaches is a serious problem, a need exists for structures which will eliminate damage to a shore line and which will further reclaim a portion of the sediment suspended in the water adjacent a shore line. Such structures, therefore, not only will protect existing beaches from the erosion effects of the water, but will provide a means for enlarging the beach area and maintaining a proper amount of sand on and adjacent the beach area.
In the past, shore lines have been protected by seawalls and pylons driven into the earth covered by water and Patented Mar. 19, 1968 spaced a short distance from the beach. The primary difficulty which such prior structures is that of the expense inuvolved in having such structures erected and maintained. Furthermore, sea walls, breakwater walls, and pylons being permanent type structures present a hazard to navigation and mar the beauty of a beach employed for commercial purposes. Furthermore, it is well known that pylons attract sharks and other dangerous fish which may present a safety hazard to swimmers in the beach area.
Although removable breakwater structures have been employed for protecting recreational areas adjacent a shore line from waves, such prior art structures are not Well suited for the protection of the beach nor for the reclamation of land in the form of sediment in the water. For instance, flexible buoyant materials have been placed in the water adjacent a shore line to dampen the effect of waves on a recreational area or the like immediately adjacent a beach. Also, flexible barriers have been employed in the water, usually below the surface thereof, for dampening the energy of the incoming waves. However, these latter prior art structures, although satisfactory for the intended purpose of protecting a recreational water area, are not intended for use and are not satisfactory for reclaiming land in the form of suspended sediment in the water. Furthermore, many of these prior art structures are not completely satisfactory as energy absorbers, since they are disposed below the surface of the water and the energy of the wave passing thereover is substantially not affected.
Summary and objects 0 the invention T erefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for protecting a shore line from the eifects of tidal currents and waves.
' It is another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for absorbing energy from water waves and tidal currents adjacent a shore line.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a method of and apparatus for removing suspended sediment in water adjacent a shore line and depositing such sediment on the shore or beach.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a system for the protection of a shore line and for re claiming land in the form of suspended sediment in water adjacent a shore line and depositing such land or sediment on the shore.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a method of and apparatus for protecting and developing a shore line which is less expensive than the heretofore known methods and apparatus.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide a method of and apparatus for protecting and developing a shore line which is easily removable and portable so as not to reduce the commercial use of the shore line nor mar the beauty thereof.
These and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be more fully realized and understood from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a side view in transverse section of the apparatus of the present invention illustrated in relation to the water level;
FIGURE 2 is a side elevational view of the apparatus of the present invention and illustrating its relative position during the passage of a water wave thereover;
FIGURE 3 is a side elevational view in transverse section of the apparatus of the present invention illustrating its relative position after a wave has passed thereover and is receding from the beach;
FIGURE 4 is a top view illustrating a system employing the apparatus of the present invention for an onshore wash; and
FIGURE 5 is a top view illustrating a system of the present invention for a longshore wash.
Like reference numerals throughout the various views of the drawings are intended to designate the same or similar structures.
As shown on the drawings:
With reference to the drawings and in particular to FIGURE 1, there is shown the preferred form of the present invention positioned along a shore line which includes a beach and a beachhead 12. The average or nominal level of the water is indicated by the line 14. The novel apparatus of the present invention includes a flexible bag 16 in the shape of a cylinder and of the type commonly used to barge liquids under water. The bag 16 is preferably formed of reinforced polypropylene which is self-sealing. In the preferred form of the present invention, the bag 16 was formed of a polypropylene dunnage bage in the shape of a cylinder eight feet in length and thirty-six inches in diameter. The bag 16 is covered with a nylon netting 18.
The bag 16 is filled with a clean grade of gravel 20 having a uniform stone-size diameter in the preferred form of the present invention of one-fourth inch. It is to be understood, however, that larger aggregate may be employed and the size of the aggregate will vary with the size of the bag 16. The bag 16 is filled from between to 90% by volume with the gravel 20. The amount of gravel or aggregate 20 employed in the bag 16 controls the ballast thereof. In the preferred form of the present invention, the bag 16 was 70% filled with the gravel 20.
Water, indicated with the reference numeral 22, is placed in the bag 16 over and through the gravel 20 to provide lubricating qualities to the gravel to allow the gravel to move as a semi-fluid mass. The remaining volume of the bag 16 which may vary from 10% to 50% is filled with air such that the bag 16 assumes the crosssectional shape illustrated in FIGURE 1. The water 22 may be added to the gravel 20 until it attains a level equal to that of the gravel 20, or it may be filled to provide a small layer of water over the gravel 20 as illustrated in FIGURE 1. An air pocket 24, which is the space remaining in the bag 16 after the gravel 20 and water 22 are added, allows the upper portion of the bag 16 to be relatively more pliable than the lower portion thereof surrounding the gravel 20. Therefore, the bag 16 and its contents including the gravel 20, the water 22, and the air define a resilient barrier having greater flexibility at the upper portions theerof and decreasing in flexibility toward the bottom portions thereof. It is to be understood, however, that the air pocket 24 is not sulficiently large to allow the bag 16 to float in water. Be-
cause of the relative distribution of the aggregate 20,
the water 22, and the air in the air pocket 24, a large surface area of the bag 16 remains in contact with the beach 10 to prevent channeling.
FIGURE 2 illustrates the bag 16 during maximum impact position thereof when the crest of a wave 26 is passing thereover. As shown, the bag 16 conforms to the energy profile of the wave 26, absorbing energy therefrom and allowing excess water to spill over the top of the bag 16. The bag 16 is provided with an anchor pin 28 centered at each end thereof which is secured by means of a cord 30 or other suitable means to a pylon 32. A centerline 34 of the pylon 32, as illustrated in FIGURES 1 and 2, provides an indication of the relative movement of the bag 16 during impact of a wave thereon. That is, when the wave 26 strikes the bag 16, the bag 16 rolls up the beach 10 toward the beachhead 12 as illustrated in FIGURE 2. However, the aggregate 20 remains in the bottom portion of the bag 16 to maintain the stability of the bag 16 and further to maintain a large surface area of the bag 16 in contact with the beach 10. As illustrated in FIGURE 2, the bag 16 is normally positioned such that the highest point at which the water will reach is lower than the top portion of the bag 16. Therefore, the crest of the wave 26 must iiow upwardly over the top of the bag 16 and spill over behind it. Because the bag 16 is allowed to move with impact of the wave 26 thereon, energy in the wave 26 is absorbed by the bag 16 and destructive effects of the wave 26 are substantially eliminated.
The pylons 32 may be supported in sockets 36 sunk into the beach 10 such that the pylons 32 and the bag 16 may be removed during their non-use. Caps may be provided for the sockets 36 during their non-use to eliminate sand and other sediment from accumulating therein.
That portion of the vater which passes over the bag 16 accumulates between the bag 16 and the beachhead 12, as indicated by the reference numeral 38 in FIGURE 3. The remaining portiot: of the wave recedes from the beach 10 as indicated by the reference numeral 40. The force of the ponded water 33 forces the bag 16 to roll down the beach 10, as illustrated in FIGURE 3. The large surface contact of the bag 16 with the beach 10 eliminates underwash of the water 38 thereunder. The ponded water 38 returns to the lower water 40 by sinking into the sand and by end wash around the ends of the bag 16. Any silt or sediment is retained behind the bag 16 and is deposited on the beach 10. This sediment which was retained in the water by movement and currents in the water settles behind the bag 16 when the water 38 is brought to substantially a standstill by the bag 16.
FIGURE 4 illustrates an arrangement of the bags 16 as energy absorbers for an onshore wash, as indicated by the arrows 42. The nominal or average water level at low tide is indicated on the beach 10 by the line 44 and the nominal level of the water during high tide is indicated by the line 46. The forwardly placed bags 16 are positioned the same distance from the low tide line 44 as the rearwardly placed bags 16 are positioned with respect to the high tide line 46. As illustrated in FIGURE 4, the bags 16 overlap with respect to one another to prevent end wash therearound.
FIGURE 5 illustrates an arrangement of the bags 16 for a longshore wash as indicated by the arrows 48. As illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5, the bags 16 are positioned orthogonally with respect to the direction of the wash, as indicated by the arrows 42, 48. The arrangement illustrated in FIGURE 5 also provides for a staggered relationship between the bags 16 in end-to-end overlapping relationship. The bags 16 in each of the arrangements illustrated in FIGURES 4 and 5 should move a total of their contact face Width along the beach 10. However, the bags 16 should not come into contact with one another.
The principles of the invention explained in connection with the specific exemplifications thereon will suggest many other applications and modifications of the same. It is accordingly desired that in construing the breadth of the appended claims they shall not be limited to the specific details shown and described in connection with the exemplifications thereof.
I claim as my invention:
1. A system for protection of a shore line and reclamation of suspended sediment in water adjacent a shore line comprising (a) a plurality of wave energy absorbers each including (1) a sealed bag of impervious flexible material,
(2) a mixture of aggregate and water in said bag for weighting said bag, said aggregate being solid independent shapes denser than said water and being supportingly disposed as a mass against the bottom and lower sides of said bag, said mass filling substantially no less than the lower half portion of the bag and having a free upper surface with the shapes capable of moving relative to each other when the bag flexes, said water filling the voids between said shapes to a depth substantially at the level of the free surface of said mass, and
(b) means for securing each of said absorbers to the shore line in parallel relation to a wave front, and in an overlapping relation with one another.
2. A system for protection of a shore line in accordance with claim 1, wherein the mixture of aggregate and water within the bags fills 50% to 90% of the volume of the bags.
3. A system for protection of a shore line in accordance with claim 1, wherein a mixture of aggregate and water fills 70% of the volume of the bags.
4. A system for protection of a shore line in accordance with claim 2, wherein the sealed bags are elongated and have anchoring means at their opposite ends, anchoring the bags to the shore line orthogonally with respect to the direction of wash of the waves.
5. A system for protection of a shore line in accordance with claim 4 wherein nylon nettings enclose the bags.
References Cited UNITED OTHER REFERENCES Civil Engineering, pp. 31, 32 and 33; January 1963.
EARL I WITMER, Primary Examiner.