US 3374635 A
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March 26, 1968 H. CJCRANDALL 3,374,635
BAGS FOR USE IN REVETMENT STRUCTURES Filed June 29. 1966 Plus. 1
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. HcQ cE C. CQANOALL BYMJM AT-r owuey March 26, 1968 H. c. CRANDALL BAGS FOR USE IN REVETMENT STRUCTURES 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 29, 1966 INVENTOR. HoQAcE C. CQANDALL BYMXM ATT RNEY United States Patent Ofiice 3,374,635 Patented Mar. 26, 1968 ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This invention relates to revetment structures, and particularly to a sandbag or cranion with an integral, longitudinal lip of unique construction utilized with cross lacing to form a flexible, erosion resistant covering therefor.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes without the payment to me of-any royalty thereon.
This invention pertains specifically to a bag for sand to be interlaced with other such bags to form a revetment structure.
Description of the prior art Sandbags have been used for many years in the restrengthening and repair of dikes, seawalls, and revetments. These bags when filled weigh about one hundred pounds each, about the maximum for one man to carry.
Summary By the use of the cranion of this invention, having a lengthwise protruding lip or edge in which large eyelets or grommets have been placed, larger bags may be used and transported on multi-man carriers. The grommets, adapted to receive carrier hooks, render the bags readily transportable for placement as facing material on slopes or revetments to protect shores from water and wave action. The edge and grommets are adapted also to receive special ropes whereby the bags may be lashed together to form a flexible blanket. Successive layers or blankets may also be interwoven to afford additional slope protection.
Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide sand bags of varying sizes to exceed that easily carried by one man, and having a lengthwise edge and carrierreceiving grommets for transportation.
It is also an object to provide a bag constructed of a water resistant synthetic yarn which may be used as a facing for dikes and other slopes.
It is another object to provide a method of constructing an apron for sea walls and like structures comprising sucv cessive layers of the bags of this invention lashed together.
It is another object to provide a flexible apron of sand bags capable of settling in response to base erosion thereby elimnating the need for sheet piling or gabions in the construction of sea walls.
It is a further object to provide a sand bag of woven synthetic yarn capable of allowing the seepage of water therethrough without a buildup of hydrostatic head, but fine enough to prevent the passage of sand particles therethrough, and having grommets for lashing and carrying.
Brief description of the drawings These and other objects will be apparent with reference to the drawings and following description wherein:
FIG. 1 is a side view of the bag of this invention;
FIG. 2 is a top view of two bags end to end;
FIG. 3 shows a method of rebuilding an existing sea Wall using interlaced sand bags;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 44 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 illustrates another method of rebuilding an existing sea wall using interlaced sand bags and concrete blocks;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 shows a third type of reconstructed sea Wall; and
FIG. 8 illustrates the employment of the bags of this invention to reinforce the top of an existing sea wall.
Description 0 the preferred embodiments The bag 1 is constructed to have an integral lengthwise protrusion 2, with eyelets or grommets 3. The bag is preferably constructed from woven sheets of synthetic yarn or a ventilated plastic membrane of sufficient mesh to prevent particles from passing therethrough, but porous enough to allow the passage of water without a buildup of hydrostatic head.
The bags of this invention could be of any size, but for common usage capacities of from one to six cubic feet, one hundred to six hundred pounds, would be most practical.
The bags may be filled according to any well known method with any suitable material such as sand, earth, gravel, stones, or concrete, but it is expected that sand would be the most commonly used. The method of filling the bags forms no part of this invention.
The bags should be of non-deteriorating material, rather than burlap. For use below the water level a porous material should be used such as acrylic or polypropylene monofilament yarn or a ventilated plastic membrane.
For use above the water level the bags may be nonporous and constructed preferably of plastic. However, burlap bags may properly be utilized, for instance, in four hundred pound units, loosely filled with concrete. The burlap units may then be utilized to seal openings in sheeting 16, or to protect the top of sheeting. After the bags are lashed together they protect against serious washing before the concrete sets and thereafter when the bags rot the concrete remains as a permanent structure.
Four grommets 3, in the edge 2, are sufiicient to illustrate the technique of lashing the bags together. A polypropylene rope 4, of a diameter of /;to inch is suitable for the lashing.
With reference to FIG. 4, the bags 1 may be used in layers wherein the bottom layer is cross laced 5, through the inside grommets 6, and anchored to an eye bolt 7, set in reinforced concrete 8, and an upper layer is then cross laced 9, through the same grommets and anchored to the same eye bolt. The end grommets 10 are utilized to lace the ends together 11 as shown in FIG. 2. With the bag of this invention and the basic lacing technique four hundred pound bags may be utilized in a variety of structures as follows.
As shown in FIG. 7 an existing sea wall 12 may be rebuilt by covering it with a sand fill 13 and a woven plastic sheet 14. The four cubic foot bags of this invention filled with concrete may be used to form an apron 14 and then covered with clay 15 to the average foreshore level.
FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate another type of structure wherein a polyethylene sheet 16 is used to cover an existing wall 12. The apron '17 comprises layers of the bags 1 filled with stand topped by a single layer of bags covered with sand 18 and a layer of precast concrete blocks 19 at the point above the extreme low tide level 30. FIG. 4 illustrates a cross section of the layers.
FIG. 3 illustrates yet another method of rehabilitating an existing sea wall 12. A polyethylene sheet 16 is again used and covered with successive layers of the laced sand bags as shown in FIGS. 2 and 4.
FIG. 8 illustrates yet another manner of utilizing the interlaced bags 1. In this manner an existing wall 12 may be heightened to prevent serious wave overtopping.
Structures using the laced bags of this invention provide a relatively cheap sea wall, which may be reused. The size of the bag depends on whether a crane or other mechanical mover is available for placement.
1. A facing for a sea Wall, dike, or other revetment structure comprising:
(a) a plurality of sand bags, each bag having an external protruding edge extending the length of a longitudinal surface thereof, each edge having a plurality of holes therethrough and reinforcing grommet means surrounding each of said holes, said bags being arranged end to end and side to side to form a first layer on the structure and a second layer of said bags placed end to end and side to side topping said first layer;
(b) a series of first lacing ropes fixedly secured at an end thereof to said structure and extending laterally through a grommet means in each bag in a first layer, said rope passing over and under adjacent bags in said first layer;
() a second series of lacing ropes secured to the first lacing ropes at an end thereof and extending successively through a grommet means in each bag of the second layer of bags, and through the grommet means in the adjacent bag of the first layer, said lacing rope interlacing and interconnecting each bag in a second layer with said first series of lacing ropes and said first layer of bags;
(d) 'a third series of lacing ropes extending longitudinally through a grommet means in each bag and securing said bag longitudinally to an adjacent bag in the same layer so that each bag is interconnected and interlaced laterally, vertically, and longitudinally.
2. A facing for a .sea wall, dike, or other revetment structure for preventing erosion comprising:
(a) a first layer of bags filled with granular material,
each bag having an external l-ip extending the length of said bag on a surface thereof, the lip having a a plurality of eyelets extending therethrongh;
(b) a second layer of bags filled with granular material, said second layer resting on top of said, first layer, each bag in said second layer having an external lip extending the length of said bag on a surface thereof, the lip having a plurality of eyelets extending therethrongh;
(c) a first lacing means for securing each bag in said first layer to each adjacent bag in said first layer to form an interlaced blanket of bags, said first means secured externally to the structure and interconnecting each bag through the eyelets;
(d) a second lacing means for securing each bag in said second layer to each adjacent bag in said second layer to form an interlaced blanket of bags, said second means interconnecting each bag through the eyelets; and (e) means for connecting said second layer to said first layer. 3. A method of constructing a facing for a sea Wall, dike, or other revetment structure comprising the steps of: (a) covering a preselected portion of the structure with a first layer of successive lateral rows, each row consisting 'of mutually spaced sand bags having adjacent longitudinal surfaces, and each sand bag having an external longitudinal lip on an upper surface, the lip having a plurality of mutually spaced grommets extending therethrough, and disposed the length of the li (b) fixing an end of a lacing rope external to said layer;
(0) advancing said rope in a row, successively, through a centrally disposed grommet in a first bag, under a second bag, and through a centrally disposed grommet in a third bag until said rope has been advanced laterally through a row;
(d) retracing said rope back through said row by successively alternating steps of passing said rope through a centrally disposed grommet in a bag and under an adjacent bag and through a grommet in a third bag until each bag in a row is interconnected at a grommet and interlaced;
(e) successively repeating said anchoring, advancing,
and retracting steps in each successive row;
(f) connecting adjacent rows by successively passing a lacing rope through a rear grommet in a first bag in a forward row, and through a forward grommet in a first bag in a rear row and tying said rope to lace said bags together; and V (g) successively repeating said connecting step until each bag and each row is interconnected to form a layer of interlaced sand bags.
'4. The method of claim 3 further comprising the steps of:
(a) covering said layer of sand bags with a second layer of said bags in successive lateral rows, each row resting on a corresponding lateral row in said first layer;
( b) securing an upper lacing rope to a lacing rope interconnecting said firs-t layer of bags at an end thereof;
(c) advancing said upper rope through a grommet in a first bag in an upper row;
(d) resecuring said upper rope to a lacing rope interconnecting said first layer of bags;
(e)' successively repeating the steps of securing, ad-
vancing, and resecuring until each bag in each row is connected to said first layer;
(f) interconnecting adjacent upper rows by successively passing a lacing rope through a rear grommet in a first bag in a forward upper row, and through a forward grommet in a first bag in a rear row and tying said rope to lace said bags together; and
(g) successively repeating said connecting step until each upper row is interconnected to form a second layer of interlaced sand bags.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 752,637 2/1904 Mankedick 6l38 2,669,272 2/ 1954 Permann --1 3,213,628 10/1965 Serota 6129 X FOREIGN PATENTS 183,615 8/ 1922 Great Britain.
OTHER REFERENCES Civil Engineering (periodical) of January 1963, pp. 31, 32, 33.
JACOB SHAPIRO, Primary Examiner;